An obstetrician is a specialist dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period. A mid-wife is the equivalent of an obstetrician but doesn't have a doctorate degree, only a nursing degree and secondary education specializing in pre and postnatal care.

1,571 Questions

How can you tell if you lost a tampon inside you?

Hopefully you would remember when you last used a tampon and if you removed it or not, you can also check the bin to see if the last tampon is still wrapped-up on top. If unsure then you simply insert fingers vaginally to feel for the tampon, if you can feel it then you can remove it. If you struggle to reach the whole of your vaginal canal then try squatting and pushing down.

Acronyms & Abbreviations

What does mbbs mrcgp after a doctors name mean?

mbbs/ mbchb (UK) is a medical degree from the uk mrcgp (UK) is the advanced award through assessment and examination for excellence in General practice in the UK, mbbs can also be issued from a whole range of other countries but their quality really does vary


What is the salary of a court reporter?

The median salary for a court reporter in the USA is $51,254. However this is averaged over a whole career, so starting salaries will likely be much lower. There is also likely to be regional variation so without knowing where you are from I cannot be more specific.


Pregnancy and H1N1 (swine) flu?


During pregnancy, a woman's immune system does not respond as well to infections, making you more susceptible to diseases such as H1N1 (swine) flu.

You're more likely than women your age who are not pregnant to become very ill if you contract swine flu. Therefore, you need to take special precautions to ensure you stay healthy during the flu season. This article will provide you with information about swine flu and pregnancy.

This is not a substitute for medical advice from your doctor. If you think you have the swine flu, you should contact your doctor's office immediately.



The usual symptoms are the same for pregnant women as for others with the flu and include:

  • Cough, sore throat, runny nose and a fever of 100 F or above
  • Other symptoms may include body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting and diarrhea


For the same risks described above, if you are planning to become pregnant or are pregnant you should receive the swine flu vaccine. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers pregnant women to be at higher risk of contracting swine flu. They are therefore first in line when vaccine supplies are limited.

Pregnant women who get the flu shot get sick less often, and are very unlikely to get a severe case of the swine flu that can harm them or their baby.

While getting a "normal or mild" case of the flu is not necessarily harmful to mother or child, the true benefit or risk reduction is in preventing uncommon but severe cases that can harm mother and baby.

There are two types of swine flu vaccines. One is given as a shot; the other is a nasal spray.

  • The swine flu shot contains killed (inactive) viruses. It is given with a needle, most often in the arm. It is not possible to get the flu from this type of vaccine. This type of vaccine is recommended for pregnant women.
  • A nasal spray-type swine flu vaccine is not approved for pregnant women.
  • It is okay for a pregnant woman to be around somebody who has received the nasal flu vaccine.


A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is a common preservative in multidose vaccines. Despite concerns, thimerosal-containing vaccines have NOT been shown to cause autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nevertheless, if you have concerns about mercury, all of the routine vaccines are also available without added thimerosal. The CDC advises pregnant women to get flu shots either with or without thimerosal.


The most common side effects after flu shots are mild, such as the area where the shot is given being sore and tender or red and swollen. Some people might have headache, muscle aches, fever, and nausea or feel tired. If these problems happen, they usually begin soon after the shot and may last as long as 1 - 2 days. If you have side effects that last longer than 2 days you should contact your doctor.


If you have not had the regular flu shot, get that also. The regular flu shot is the one you hear about every year.

The shot to prevent the regular flu is different from the swine flu shot.


Check with your doctor or local pharmacist.


Research and many organizations (the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the CDC) recommend treating pregnant women with influenza-like illness as soon as possible after they develop symptoms.

  • Testing is not necessary for most people, and health care providers should not wait for results of testing before treating pregnant women.
  • It's best to start antiviral meds within the first 48 hours of developing symptoms, but they can also be used after this time period. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) 75-mg capsule twice per day for 5 days is the recommended first choice antiviral.


You may be hesitant to start antiviral medications because you may be worried about the medicines harming your baby. However, it's important to understand that there are severe risks if you do not get treatment:

  • In this and past flu outbreaks, pregnant women who were otherwise healthy were more likely than those who were not pregnant to become very sick or even die.
  • This does not mean that all pregnant women will have a severe infection. However, it is hard to predict who may have a severe infection, as women who become more ill with flu will have mild symptoms at first.
  • Pregnant women can become very sick very fast, even if the symptoms are not severe at first.
  • Women who develop high fevers or pneumonia can put their fetus at risk for premature delivery and other harm.


Many cold medicines you can buy without a prescription contain more than one drug. Some of these drugs may be safer than others, but none are proven 100% safe. In general, it is best to avoid these drugs if possible, especially during the first 3 - 4 months of pregnancy.

To be safe, talk to your doctor or nurse before taking any cold medications while you are pregnant.


Some pregnant women who become more ill with swine flu have had early labor and severe pneumonia. Some have died.


Close contact with someone who has, or likely has, swine flu increases your risk of the swine flu. Close contact means eating or drinking with the same utensils, caring for children, having intimate or sexual contact, or being exposed to nasal or oral droplets or secretions.

Because you are pregnant, there is a risk of having a more severe case if you do contract the flu. Because of this risk, you should talk to your doctor.


There are many things you can do to help protect yourself and your unborn child from swine flu. You should avoid sharing food, utensils, or cups with others. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and throat, and carry hand sanitizer with you and use it often during the day.


Cold knife cone biopsy?


A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is a procedure to get a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix for further examination.

See also: Colposcopy-directed biopsy

Alternative Names

Cone biopsy; Biopsy - cone; Cervical conization

How the test is performed

This is a surgical procedure. It is done in the hospital while you are either sedated through an IV or under general anesthesia.

You will lie on a table and place your feet in stirrups to position your pelvis for examination. The doctor will insert an instrument (speculum) into your vagina to open the vaginal walls and examine the cervix.

A small cone-shaped sample of tissue is removed from the cervix and examined under a microscope for any signs of cancer. This biopsy may also be the treatment if the doctor removes all of the diseased tissue.

How to prepare for the test

As with any procedure that is done under anesthesia, you will probably need to fast for 6 - 8 hours. You must sign an informed consent form. The procedure is done on the same day (outpatient) and a hospital stay is usually not needed.

How the test will feel

After the procedure, you may have some cramping or discomfort for a week or so. For about 4 - 6 weeks avoid:

  • Douching (you should never do this in any case)
  • Sexual intercourse
  • Using tampons

For 2 - 3 weeks after the procedure, you may have discharge that is:

  • Bloody
  • Heavy
  • Yellow-colored
Why the test is performed

Before colposcopy was commonly used, cold knife cone biopsy was the standard next step to diagnose the cause of worrisome Pap smear results. Now, colposcopy is almost always the first step.

A cold knife biopsy may be done if a cervical biopsy using colposcopy cannot find the cause of an abnormal Pap smear.

Conization may also be used to treat moderate to severe biopsy results (CIN II or III). Very early stage cervical cancer (stage 0 or IA1) may be treated with conization. Abnormal cells from the cervical canal, including adenocarcinoma in situ, may be diagnosed, and sometimes treated with cone biopsy.

Normal Values

There are no precancerous or cancerous cells in the cervix.

What abnormal results mean

Most often, abnormal results mean that there is an area of precancerous or cancerous cells.

What the risks are
  • Bleeding
  • Incompetent cervix (which may lead to premature delivery)
  • Infection
  • Scarring of the cervix (which may cause painful menstrual periods, make it more difficult for doctors to read an abnormal Pap smear, increase the chance for premature delivery, and make it harder to become pregnant)

Noller KL. Intraepithelial neoplasia of the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva): Etiology, screening, diagnostic techniques, management. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 28.

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 99: management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1419-1444.


Cervix treatment - cryosurgery?


Cervix cryosurgery is a surgical treatment to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue in the cervix.

Alternative Names

Cervix surgery; Cryosurgery - female


Cryotherapy is an office procedure done while you are awake. The vaginal canal is held open so that the doctor can see the cervix. The doctor inserts a device called a cryoprobe into the vagina, and places it firmly on the surface of the cervix, covering the abnormal tissue.

Freezing cold compressed nitrogen gas flows through the instrument, making the metal cold enough to freeze and destroy the tissue.

An "ice ball" forms on the cervix, killing the abnormal cells. For the treatment to be most effective, the freezing is done for 3 minutes, the cervix is allowed to thaw for 5 minutes, then the freezing is repeated for another 3 minutes.

Although you may have slight cramping and flushing in the face, cryosurgery is relatively painless.

Why the Procedure Is Performed

Uses of cryosurgery include:

Your doctor will help you to decide if cryosurgery is right for your condition.


Risks for any surgery are:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection

Other risks include:

  • Scarring (cervical stenosis), which may make it more difficult to get pregnant, or cause increased cramping with menstrual periods. However, cryosurgery causes very little scarring.
After the Procedure

The surgery is usually effective. Your health care provider should do a repeat Pap smear or biopsyat a follow-up visit to make sure that the operation successfully destroyed abnormal tissue.

Outlook (Prognosis)

You can resume almost all of your normal activities right after surgery. You may need to avoid sexual intercourse, as well as using tampons for several weeks. For 2 - 3 weeks after the surgery, you will have a lot of watery discharge caused by the shedding (sloughing) of the dead cervical tissue.

You should never douche, whether you have this condition or not, because douching can cause severe infections in the uterus and tubes.

You might feel light-headed right after the procedure. If this happens, lie down flat on the examination table so that you do not faint. This feeling should go away in a few minutes.


ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 99: management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1419-1444.


Folic acid and birth defect prevention?

Alternative Names

Prevention of birth defects with folic acid (folate)



Does folic acid use help prevent birth defects?


There is good evidence that you can reduce the risk of certain birth defects (spina bifida , anencephaly, and some heart defects) by taking a daily dose of 400 micrograms folic acid before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, if you would like to become pregnant in the near future, you should take a multivitamin with this amount of folic acid.

Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect will need a higher dose of folic acid. If you have had a baby with a neural tube defect, you should take 400 micrograms of folic acid every day, even when you are not planning to become pregnant. If you plan to become pregnant, you should talk to your doctor and increase your folic acid intake to 4 milligrams each day during the month before you become pregnant until at least the 12th week of pregnancy.


Johnson TRB, Gregory KD, Niebyl JR. Preconception and prenatal care: Part of the continuum. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 5.

Neural tube defects. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 44. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:203-213.


Tips For Finding a Good OBGYN?

If you’re pregnant or considering becoming pregnant, then now is a good time to start looking for a good obgyn. What is an OBGYN? This is an abbreviated word that means Obstetrician/Gynecologist. An obstetrician is a doctor who takes care of pregnancies, this is important for any mother-to-be or a woman who is wanting to become a mother. A gynecologist takes care of female health issues, especially related to reproductive health. Many doctors have combined both practices, which is where the term obgyn comes from.

When looking for an obgyn in your area, consider distance and location from your home to the office and then to the hospital you would deliver a baby at. Usually a drive of no more than 30 miles is ideal, especially if you are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Many hospitals and physicians partner up and actually offer physician services and clinics either near the hospital or inside the hospital itself, which can make seeking prenatal care easier in some cases.

Ask family or friends who have recently had babies for recommendations of a good obgyn. Many times, if your friend or family member is very happy with their prenatal care and delivery, they will volunteer the information to you. If this isn’t the case, it’s a good idea to ask for recommendations. Of course, anytime you get a recommendation, check the physician out with the local medical board and national health boards to make sure he or she has no complaints or malpractice suits.

A good obgyn will be willing to meet with you before you actually agree to use him or her for prenatal care and deliver, so it’s a good idea to meet with a few different doctors and interview them about their practice, and how they handle certain situations. Within a few interviews and some discussion with your significant other or a trusted friend or family member, you will certainly be able to find an obgyn that you are comfortable with and that you know you can trust.

Having a baby is a big deal, so it’s natural to be concerned or worried about potential problems or just simply coming events. A good obgyn will be willing to address your concerns and fears, without sugarcoating anything, and will also be honest and reassure you.

How To

How To Get the Most Out of Obstetrics?

In the famous childrens’ book _My Puppy is Born_, writer Joanna Cole and photographer Jerome Wexler captured the birth of a litter of puppies. Obstetrics, or the process of in the world of mammals is a process that inspires awe as well as exhaustion. If you are interested in obstetrics, here are some steps that will help you take advantage of what we as a society know about birth.

1. Develop a taste for literature. Although it may seem far afield, medical-school programs often look favorably upon students who had the stamina to read hundreds of pages of literature.

2. Attend a four-year university. Some universities have programs that are specially designated as pre-med. Avoid slacking. Avoid parties.

3. Network with obstetricians. If you do not have any doctors in your family, try volunteering at a service organization with a medical connection, such as a heart, lung, cancer or diabetes nonprofit. There will probably be physicians passing through the office, and you can ask them to introduce you to obstetricians.

4. Socialize with some obstetricians. Gain their trust. Ask them politely for an expert opinion on how to get the most out of obstetrics.

5. Attend a conference. Ask about fee waivers. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists had their annual meeting in Las Vegas this year, and the British counterpart met in Belfast, Northern Ireland. If more than one session runs in parallel, choose carefully. As soon as you get your hands on the submitted papers, read them.

6. By this point you will have gotten quite a bit out of obstetrics. You may want to stop here, but another way to get involved with obstetricians is to conceive and/or give birth. This is an optional step. Do not do this step simply for the information.

7. Pay attention to your breathing. This is important regardless of whether or not you decided to conceive and/or give birth. It’s important to have plenty of oxygen flowing to the brain as you read about obstetrics. To do that, you must breathe.

8. Select an obstetrics practitioner with care and when the day arrives, rush to the hospital in a taxi!

Job Training and Career Qualifications

Where would an obgyn work?


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