The Book of Esther places Esther during the reign of Xerxes, who was king of Persia from 486 to 465 BCE. However, scholars say there are good reasons to believe that the story is fictional and that there never was a Queen Esther of Persia. There is no historical record of either Vashti or Esther, and Queen Amestris is accepted by historians as Xerxes' only wife for the first several years of his reign.
(The Book of Esther makes it clear that this was not in the early part of Xerxes's reign.) *************** Esther was the heroine and central figure in the Biblical book of Esther. She was crowned about 60 years after the destruction of the First Temple, and ten years before the Second Temple was built. The Jews were in the Babylonian exile. A few of them, such as Nehemiah, Mordecai and Daniel, rose to positions of prominence under the Babylonian kings.
The last of the Prophets of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) were still living.
King Cyrus had recently made his famous proclamation (2 Chronicles 36:22-23) allowing the Jews to resettle Judea (Israel), and some had gone up with Zerubavel, but the enemies of the Jews had then slandered them (Ezra ch.4), causing the Babylonian king to put a stop to the rebuilding and resettlement of Judea. This last event was around the same time that Esther became Queen.
According to tradition, the book of Esther was written in the mid-4th century BCE, and was made part of the canon which was sealed a couple of decades after.
The name of Mordecai is the Judaised pronunciation of Marduka, which is attested in the Persepolis Texts as the name of officials in the Persian court during the period of Xerxes I. One of these officials was the biblical Mordecai.
The grave of Mordecai and Esther still stands in Hamadan; and the Jews of Iran, to this day, are referred to as "the children of Esther."
How reliable is the Hebrew record?
"Although critics contended that the Hebrew Bible is unhistorical and untrustworthy, time and time again, the archaeological record supports places, times, and events mentioned in Scripture. We now have archaeological information about a number of patriarchal towns mention in Scripture, including Bethel, Shechem, Jerusalem, Mamre, Gerar, Beer-sheba, and Dothan" (Professor John Arthur Thompson, The Bible and Archaeology). The personal names Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are names of the time and area mentioned in the Bible (ibid).
"One city after another, one civilization after another, one culture after another, whose memories were enshrined only in the Bible, have been restored to their proper places in ancient history by the studies of archaeologists" (Prof. Gleason Archer, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction).
No parchment, scroll, or inscription has ever been found that would support the Bible-critics' JEPD (different sources) hypothesis, which remains a set of postulates. And those ancient writers who mention, describe, summarize or translate the Torah (Josephus, Samaritans, Targum, Septuagint etc.), describe it in its complete form.
Archaeological finds, such as the Ugarit documents and those of Nuzu, Mari, Susa, Ebla, and Tel el-Amarna, have repeatedly caused the critics to retract specific claims. The entire social milieu portrayed in the Torah, once criticized as anachronistic, has been shown to be historically accurate, including customs of marriage, adoption, contracts, inheritance, purchases, utensils, modes of travel, people's names and titles, etc. Professor Gleason Archer states: "In case after case where historical inaccuracy was alleged as proof of late and spurious authorship of the biblical documents, the Hebrew record has been vindicated by the results of excavations, and the condemnatory judgment of the Documentary theorists have been proved to be without foundation."
IRAN is the country that lies between Iraq & Afghanistan. Iran's historical name was Persia, though it did not have today's borders as those were defined in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Actually most were happy to leave the swamp of trying to force peace onto the ever-warring Greeks.
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The Delian League was defensive, and protected the Greek city-states, not to take over Anatolia, which remained under Persian control except for the Greek cities. The 180 cities of the Delian League paid for the navies of Athens, Samos, Chios and Lesbos which were able to keep the Persian navy away and provide ground support for threatened cities. After 30 years the Persians gave up trying to regain control of the cities and left them to their own devices, agreeing in the Peace of Callias not to go beyond specific lines by sea, and accept the independence of the Greek city-states in Asia Minor.
Athens the Persian threat subsided, Athens converted the Delian League into an empire of its own and used its war contributions for its own benefit, and used the League resources to try to dominate Greece, leading to the Peloponnesian War against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. After losing this war by 404 BCE, Athens was stripped of its empire, and became a second rate power. A short time later Persia took the opportunity to reabsorb these cities in Asia Minor and impose the 'King's Peace' on the still-warring Greek city-states in mainland Greece, whose fighting was spilling over into the Persian Empire.
During ancient times almost every foreigner referred to the entire country as PERSIA until March 21, 1935, when Reza Shah Pahlavi asked the international community to call the country Iran - a name that the people of Persia, themselves, used to refer to their country since the Sassanian period. "Iran" means "Land of Aryans". The name Persia is still widely used by many Iranians (pronounced: Eeh-raa-niaan) worldwide as well as in many books, documentaries, movies, etc..
The Greeks had determined that, due to the threat of the Persian fleet and its amphibious capacity to attack and defeat the independent cities one by one, and as it also protected the Persian sea supply lines, that they had to defeat that fleet. As it was superior in size and numbers, they had to catch it in narrow waters to neutralise its superiority, so they set up a small blocking force in the narrow pass at Thermopylai to hold up the Persian army plus its accompanying fleet in the narrow strait nearby. The blocking force had to hold on long enough for the Greek fleet to defeat the Persian fleet. After three days of naval engagements, the Greek fleet came off worst and withdrew to Salamis near Athens.
The 7,000 Greek force at Thermopylai held on for two days against the 180,000 strong Persian army, while the naval battle went on, and then had to hang on for a third day for the deciding naval battle. Meanwhile the Persians had sent an outflanking force to attack the pass from the rear. Warned that this was happening the Greek commander Leonidas sent off most of his force to seek protection in the walls of friendly cities, and so that the Persian cavalry could not rush through and catch them in the open, held the pass with his force of 2400 Spartans (300 hoplite infantry and 2,100 helot light infantry), 700 Thespians who demanded to stay, and 400 Thebans he forced to stay because Thebes was suspected of secretly going over to the Persians. After the main body had got away, the outflanking Persian force joined in the fight, and the attack from both sides overwhelmed the remaining defenders.
With the failure of the naval battle, this sacrifice at Thermopylai was unfortunately without any military effect. It did however provide a morale boost and a lesson that reinforced the Marathon experience - the Persian infantry could not stand up to armoured warriors without their cavalry.
The Greek fleet subsequently defeated the Persian fleet at Salamis. The Persian supply fleet was now open to interdiction, and faced with winter in a poor countryside, Xerxes had to take half his army home, and the following year, the other half, with its Greek allies, had to face the full forces of the southern Greek states, as without the threat of amphibious invasion they could leave their cities and concentrate at Plataia. The depleted Persian ground forces were defeated at Plataia and the remaining rump of their naval forces at Mykale.
A coalition of Greek city states blocked the pass to force the Persians to try to bypass it by sea, with the Greek fleet waiting to pounce on the Persian one. The Greeks lost the sea battle, as as the blocking force at Thermopylae no longer had a use, it was withdrawn. The Spartan and Thespian contingents remained to cover the withdrawal, and were annihilated.
it took him tenyears not couting the three years to walk to Persia
It's in Southwestern Asia, in between Iraq and Afghanistan. However, there is a long story behind Persia. Now the country is called Iran (pronounced ee-ron). There is a province (similar to Canadian provinces or US states) named Fars. A long time ago it was Pars. A tribe moved into Pars about 4,500 years ago from the area between the Caspian and Black Seas. They were 1 of 3 new groups: the 2 others went to Europe and spread to become Europeans. The other one went to Northern India and its descendants can be found there. Those who migrated to Pars had to pay homage to many different empires throughout time. 2,000 years after their migration, here is what happened: around the year 560 BCE, Cyrus the Great, the Persians' leader, united the Medians and Persians. One enemy kingdom after another fell to Cyrus. In the West they made it to the Western edge of Turkey before stopping at the Ocean; in the Southeast they made it to Egypt before the Nubians stopped them in the South; In the South they made it to Northern Saudi Arabia before the tribes stopped them there; in the East they made it to India and China before their campaign resources ran dry. The empire began around 550 BCE and lasted until around 330 BCE when Alexander the Great of Macedonia(Northern Greece, basically) conquered the Persians because the Persian government was weaker than in the old days. That was the 1st Persian Empire. Later, the Greeks started the Seleucid Empire which lasted until around 220 BCE, then the Persians regained control around 220 BCE until 220 CE. Then the Sassanians took over from 220 CE to around 650 CE and then the Muslim Arabs took over until around 1000 CE. After that a bunch of little empires ruled over Iran for maybe 100 or more years at a time, but it never again regained the glory of being the only country in the world. Today, Persians are a very smart people and are oftentimes doctors and engineers in countries that they immigrate to. Many can be found in the US, and they speak Farsi.
Persia originated in central Asia. Eventually it included a huge empire stretching from Western India to Greece in the north and Egypt in the south, including the entire area of Mesopotamia.
Persian means Iranian, and Iran is located at almost center of the middle east
Dariush the Great (522-486) ruled the Persian Empire of the Achamenids. He was NOT the son of Cyrus, he was in fact, from the junior line of the Achamenid clan, and came to power after Kambyz, son of Cyrus.
Darisuh (Darayavaush) actually wrested control from Bardya, nicknamed "the Magian" with the help of several conspirators from powerful influential Persian famillies, including Gavaruba (Gobryas). Whether he really was Cyrus' son or an imposteur is still in dispute.
Darius expanded the borders of the empire, which reached the Indus river and brought the rich provinces of modern day Pakistan into the Persian Empire. Before he embarked on any external conquests however, he had to quell uprisings and rebellions that threatened to death whole provinces of the empire, with the help of his old Spearbearer elite Imperial guard (2 regiments of 1,000 men) and the Immortal division (10,000 men). To commemorate their deeds and allegiance, he carved their portraits at his palaces of Susa and Persepolis. His object was to impose peace within his empire, and he extended its borders to establish defensible frontiers.
Dariush then faced a revolt by the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, which was put down in some dozen battles such as Ephesos, Chios, Pedasus, Labraunda, Miletos, Naxos, Malene, Lade etc. His object was to impose peace within his empire, and he extended its borders to establish defensible frontiers, however Eretria and Athens had intervened in the Ionian Revolt and he sent a punitive expedition against them in 490 BC. Eretria was betrayed and captured, but Athens, with the help of Plataia, turned this expedition back at Marathon.
Dariush' strength accomplished the submission of Macedon, Thrace and some northern Greek cities, and after the debacle at Marathon he realised that the only way to keep the Greeks quiet was to bring all the mainland cities within his empire. However he died before achieving this and the mission was taken up by his son Xerxes.
Dariush was known as a great admnistrator and skillful politician who held the empire together in spite of the early threats of separatism from Babylonians, Medes, Carians, Greeks and Egyptians.
Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Isreal, Jordan, Lebanon and many other countries control land that used to be the Persian Empire.
The location of ancient Persian is in Iran
The Persian Empire was an absolute monarchy. It was divided into 20 provinces (satrapies) each with a governor responsible to the king and his council for local and external security and tax collection. The tribal, city and petty kingdoms in the provinces continued to rule themselves according to their traditional ways.
On the contrary he united the Hellenes under his rule and planned an invasion of Persia as retribution for the Persian wars and to stop Persia who was oppressing Greek colonies in Asia Minor. He died however before this happened, and after his son Alexander III the Great reasserted his leadership of the Hellenes, he continued his fathers plan and conquered most of the then known world.
Slaves sold in Mediterranean countries were generally from West Africa, while those sold in Persia were generally from East Africa.
Alexander the great
After 50 years of warfare trying to enforce peace amongst the Greek city-states, the Persians agreed in 449 BCE to peace and left the Greek cities to go back to destroying each other, and turned their full attention to maintaining peace and prosperity within their empire. They intervened 60 years later, imposing the 'King's Peace' to stop these disruptions spilling over into their empire.
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