Secularism is the political philosophy of separating the institutions of government from those of religion. There are two main ways that secularism has been practiced: the "Uninvolved Model" as seen in the United States and Australia and the "Exclusivist Model" as seen in France and Turkey. In the former, the government takes no opinions on matters of religion and leaves each individual completely free to express his religion in the public forum. In the latter, religious institutions are progressively weakened by the state with the intent of allowing a non-religious pubic sphere to emerge.

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