the hard palate is made of the Maxilla (palatine process) and the Palatine bone (horizontal plate.) The anterior part is the Maxilla, which is towards your front teeth, where the Palatine bone would be more towards the back of your mouth.
Palatine tonsils and adenoids are NOT synonymous. Palatine tonsils, sometimes called faucial tonsils, are found at the back of the throat. Adenoids are the pharyngeal tonsils, located in the back of the nasal cavity.
Count Palatine of the Rhine was a Protestant prince. In 1618, Protestants were rebelling against their Catholic Hapsburg rulers. In Bohemia, Protestants elected the Count of Palatine as their king. This triggered the Thirty years' War.