Why are the football championship games called Bowl games?
The college football postseason used to be one game. In 1923 it was moved to a new big stadium called the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. It wasn't until 1933 that another large scale postseason game was added in Miami. In order to capitalize on the popularity its counterpart was having in Pasadena, the game in Miami was called the Orange Bowl, and later the Orange Bowl Festival. As postseason college football popularity grew, other cities decided to follow suit and the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans, the Sun Bowl in El Paso and the Cotton Bowl in Dallas were created. Ever since, the name "Bowl" has stuck.
In the modern era of college football, the championship game is called the "BCS National Championship Game". Each year, the game is moved around between four locations: The Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, The Sugar Bowl in New Orleans, Louisiana, The Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida, and The Fiesta Bowl in Scottsdale, Arizona.
About 13 or 14 weeks. Not counting the post-season bowl games which span about six weeks, each NCAA football team plays 12 games and has 1 bye week within the season. Teams with the best rankings in their division may play in a conference championship game, and the bowl games will include a National Championship Game now operated under the BCS (Bowl Championship System).
FBS stands for Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly called Division I-A. This is in contrast to the FCS, or Football Championship Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-AA. The "Bowl" vs "Championship" refers to how the 2 divisions play their post-season, with the former Division I-A teams playing in bowl games and the former Division I-AA teams playing in a playoff series culminating with a true national championship game.