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What are the hand signals in soccer that a referee has to do?

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The IFAB Laws of the Game, which are the rules by which the world plays the game of Association Football (also called Soccer), has an addendum that describes the mandatory signals that a referee must use to control the game.
When the ball goes out of bounds over the touch line (sideline), the referee will point his arm upward at a forty-five degree angle in the direction of the goal that the team getting possession is attacking. If an infraction causes the direction of the throw-in to change, some referees will tumble their hands similar to a "false start" signal in the NFL, but this signal is non-standard and not required; whether or not this "change" signal is given, the throw-in signal is then given in the new direction.
When a free kick is awarded, the referee will blow the whistle and make the same signal as a throw-in. If it is unclear to the players that the signal is for a free kick, or if the players are not placing the ball in the correct spot, the referee will point to the spot on the ground where the ball should be placed. If the free kick is an indirect one, then the referee will also raise his other hand over his head, and maintain that hand until the ball is kicked and moves and then touches another player or goes out of play. Some referees will also indicate the nature of the infraction using a gesture from the list of gestures that are not mandatory or standardized, below.
The referee can indicate that a restart is ceremonial (players must wait for the whistle) by conspicuously pointing to his whistle so that all players near the ball are aware of it. Note that all kick-off starts and restarts are automatically ceremonial, and so this gesture is not needed.

A goal kick is signaled by pointing laterally (not raised) at the goal defended by the team taking the kick. A corner kick is signaled by pointing upward toward the corner from which the kick shall be taken.

A penalty kick is indicated by the referee running to the penalty mark and pointing down at it. A kickoff is indicated by pointing in the direction of the center circle, such as after a goal is scored; this gesture is usually make with the palm up. The end of the game can also be signaled this way, but is often also called for by waving one or both arms above the head.

A referee will give permission for a player or team official to enter the field by waving them near or giving a thumbs-up to the assistant referee or fourth official in the vicinity.

A referee can signal applied advantage by extending both arms in the direction of play, as if to say "play on". The referee may still call the original foul if the anticipated advantage does not materialize within a few seconds.

At the end of the 45th minute of each half, the referee will use his fingers to indicate the number of additional minutes of play he has allotted. The referee may extend this time without further signals, but cannot end the period sooner without abandoning the match. 
The referee may use other gestures to help control the game, though these are not mandatory or standardized, such as indicating the reason for a foul or backing up a wall forming in front of a free kick. Some such signals are listed below. 
  • Striking: Referee imitates en elbow to an imaginary opponent's head.
  • Tripping: Referee's hand makes a chopping motion at his own leg.
  • Pushing: Referee extends both hands in front, like he's pushing a giant box.
  • Kicking: Referee extends one foot forward about 45 degrees.
  • Holding: Referee tugs on the sleeve of his own jersey.
  • Handling: Referee extends one hand as in "pushing", then grasps his wrist with the other hand. Alternately, the referee might tap his own arm or outer shoulder indicating where the handling occurred.
  • Spitting: Referee wipes his mouth with his hand, then flings the imaginary spit toward the ground.
  • Impeding Opponent's Progress (sometimes called Obstruction): Referee forms an X with his forearms in front of his chest.
  • Charging: Referee pushes his shoulder forward as if shoulder tackling an opponent.
  • Jumping: Referee goes on one or both tippy-toes while doing a signal similar to charging.
  • Tackling: Similar to charging. These two signals may vary to better reflect the nature of the foul.
  • Six-Second Rule: Referee holds up six fingers above his head.
  • Preventing GK from Releasing Ball: Referee holds hands in front as if holding an imaginary ball. This is also used to indicate that the 'keeper had possession and an attacker played it out.
  • Play-On: When the referee wants to indicate that players should play on without invoking the advantage clause, he will do a one-armed version of the advantage signal. This is commonly used when players think a ball has gone out of bounds or scored a goal, but it has not.
  • Setting the Wall: The referee may use a soft pushing motion, repeated until the correct distance is observed, or may simply go out to the required distance and hold his arm laterally, like a toll gate, until players comply.
  • No-No: The referee will raise one finger and wave it left and right to indicate that a certain play had no foul, that a player may not yet enter the field, or just to indicate "no" to someone asking a question during play or during a stoppage in play.

The referee may use other signals or variations of these to communicate fouls and other information. He may also develop secret signals for his assistant referees and fourth official to make things more efficient. Some leagues and competitions may also mandate other signals that the referee may or must give.
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