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Storm Season


A short explanation of causes:

Tsunami (pronounced su-nah'-me) are huge ocean waves caused by natural forces like underwater earthquakes. Tsunami are caused when the forces of these phenomena rapidly displace large amounts of water.

Most tsunami occur when there is an earthquake or volcanic eruption in the sea or ocean. This is caused when there are plate boundaries that are meeting in plate tectonics processes. This will cause shock waves to be radiated out of the epicenter. This natural event will cause a rise or fall of the seabed. This will create a wave deep in the ocean (or less frequently in other large body of water).

Tsunami can also be caused by landslides, such as a cliff-side of a mountain near shore that falls into a large body of water or ocean.

Powerful bombs, like nuclear bombs, are tested, dropped, or detonated in the sea or ocean and can cause shock waves to be radiated out that move the ocean waters in waves as described above.

They also occur when large asteroids fall into the water. This is extremely rare, and the asteroids must be very large to cause a large water displacement to form a tsunami wave. But they are known to have occurred. Meteorites will not cause high waves as they are usually much smaller than asteroids by the time they have been burned in the atmosphere on the way to the surface.

A longer, more in depth answer:

The huge waves called tsunami are caused by the abrupt vertical displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually from natural sources of kinetic energy (such as the force of large earthquakes near the shore or underwater). These forces produce a wave that shifts not just a few meters of surface water, but the entire column of water from the floor to the surface. They contain enormous amounts of energy. Earthquakes that cause tsunami often occur offshore at tectonic plate subduction zones. As the sea floor snaps up in response to the tectonic plate movement and subsequent earthquake, the tsunami wave is formed and moves out from the source of the displacement. The wave increases in height as it enters more shallow waters close to land.

They can occur in any large body of water, even in large lakes. An example is the mega-wave that formed when the volcano erupted at Mount St. Helens in the US in 1980. The eruption caused a massive landslide into Spirit Lake and that caused the mega-wave.

To better understand how a tsunami forms, try this experiment:

Get in a pool or the bath tub and put your hand a good ways down and then pull it up quickly but not out of the water, pull up strong but don't break the surface and watch the result. Not exactly a tsunami, but a simple version of the science.


Most tsunami occur when there are underwater seismic events such as an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption. This normally occurs along plate boundaries. Subduction in convergent boundaries accounts for most tsunami. Subduction occurs when one plate dives under another that is blocking its movement. This will cause shock waves to be radiated out of the epicenter. There will be a rise or fall of the seabed. This displacement of the sea floor will create a wave which cannot be clearly detected from shore at first. These waves can travel at speeds up to 700 mph (i.e. the speed of sound in water) deep in the ocean or other large body of water. As the wave gets nearer to the shore, the wave will compress and gain height in the shallower water. The waves can be up to 100 ft. (30 m) or more when they come ashore.

Tsunami can also occur because of landslides or when asteroids (or very large meteorites) fall into large bodies of water. This is extremely rare, and they must be very large to cause a large enough water displacement to form a massive tsunami wave.


Natural Causes

Besides earthquakes, these waves can also be caused by the forces of other natural phenomena and seismic events that move the tectonic plates, or that directly move the undersea water, or smash into the water surface from above in such a way as to rapidly displace the water.

When it happens in a sea, the sea floor may be deformed from below pushing the water up, or the water can be displaced from an impact coming down on the sea surface from above. Some of the natural causes, other than tectonic plate movements resulting in earthquakes, are huge landslides and other mass movements above or below the water. Sometimes a small underwater earthquake will trigger a landslide that causes a tsunami.

Volcano eruptions in or near the ocean can produce water displacement from underwater or from impacts from above by huge pieces of falling debris from explosions as a volcano erupts along a coastline or near a large lake.

Another cause from natural events is an ocean impact by rare large meteorites or asteroids. This is extremely rare, and they must be very large to cause a large water displacement to form a wave. Meteorites will not cause high waves as they are usually much smaller than asteroids.

Since these natural phenomena can be the causes, it means that tsunami have the potential to be formed anywhere in any large body of water at unpredictable times and without time for any warnings.

Unnatural Causes
An unnatural event with potential to cause tsunami is the detonation of underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices).


The name

The word tsunami is a Japanese term. Japan is one of the most common locations for tsunami. The literal translation in English is "wave harbor" meaning "harbor wave". This name came from the fact that they only become visible as huge waves after arriving in shallower waters near shores and harbors, and therefore, they were originally believed to have originated in the harbor. The word tsunami has been used long enough that it has been adopted into most languages rather than being translated.

The Japanese word does not have a plural form and tsunami is used both for singular and plural in English in many locations. However, it has become accepted over time to say "tsunamis" for the plural in English.

Many early geological, geographical, and oceanographic texts refer to tsunami as "seismic sea waves."

They are sometimes mistakenly called "tidal waves," but tsunami have no relationship to the tides other than looking similar but smaller and generating some similar effects on land with flooding and devastation.

Tsunami are also sometimes incorrectly called "storm surges", which are also different wave phenomena. Tsunami have no relationship to weather. They are not caused by storms, cyclones, hurricanes, or high winds.

Tectonic plate action
Tsunami are commonly caused by seismic activity of tectonic plates (most often earthquakes). As such, they are often found around the Pacific Rim, a region of high tectonic activity in the Pacific Ocean.

A Tsunami can be caused when a tectonic plate in the earth's crust is subducted by another plate, which releases a lot of tensive (potential) energy, in an earthquake. Movement of tectonic plates can cause an earthquake that sends out jolts of seismic activity. Large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. This will cause shock waves to be radiated out of the epicenter. These jolts then can push a tectonic plate under the sea floor, or over or under another plate. The earthquakes can form anywhere there is stress in a tectonic plate, but notably on plate boundaries. Plates interact along these boundaries called faults. Seismic activity is not, however, limited to boundaries of these plates. Tsunami can be formed if there is a very big earthquake any place in a plate that disrupts a water column in a large body of water.

Subduction in the convergent plate boundaries is said to account for most of the tsunami. This natural event will cause a rise or fall of the seabed. When large areas of the sea floor elevate or subside, a tsunami can be created.

This will create a wave deep in the ocean which cannot be clearly discerned from shore. This massive underwater wave transforms when it hits the shoreline and has nowhere else to go but up. This then pushes the water on the surface up, forming the massive wave.

The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunami to submarine earthquakes.

Subduction earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami. In the case of earthquake-generated tsunami, there is a major disturbance under water causing the water column to rise as the earthquake uplifts or causes subsidence of the sea floor.

When the sea bed is lifted as a result of an earthquake, the water is also lifted. The size of the wave depends on how high and over how big an area the seabed was lifted. Some say the earthquake size must be at least 6.0 on the Richter scale to create a tsunami.

Tsunami can be caused by very large landslides either falling into the water from above or by an underwater landslide pushing a column of water from below the surface. These mechanisms causing submarine slumps of material, or landslides of huge parts of a mountain or cliff side near shore, can occur without an earthquake, or at least without a significant one. Super marine landslides and cosmic-body impacts disturb the water from above as momentum from falling debris is transferred to the water into which the debris falls. Generally speaking, tsunami generated from these mechanisms, unlike the Pacific-wide tsunami caused by some earthquakes, dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines distant from the source area.

Submarine landslides, which often accompany large earthquakes, as well as resulting collapses of volcanic edifices, can also disturb the overlying water column as sediment and rock slump down-slope and are redistributed across the sea floor.

Another type of landslide that can produce tsunami involves the debris delta from a river system that eventually becomes unstable and slides off, thus displacing a large body of water. The rebound to this can cause a large enough surge to be a tsunami, and one with little warning.

Other similar causes in the colder oceans are huge avalanches or glacier calving.

Tsunami can be generated when a violent volcano eruption on land occurs near a large body of water. Sometimes huge chunks of solid rock burst out of a volcano and fall into the nearby ocean or lake making a tsunami. Similarly, volcano eruptions can cause tsunami when they explode undersea. A violent submarine volcanic eruption can create an impulsive force that uplifts the water column and generates a tsunami.

Tsunami can also occur when large asteroids fall into the water. This is extremely rare, and the asteroids must be huge to cause a large enough water displacement to form a tsunami wave. But they are known to have occurred. Some geologists believe as recently as the early 1700s an asteroid impact off the Pacific Northwest coast of North America may have created a tsunami that reached Japan.

These produce a wave that shifts not just a few meters of surface water, but the entire column of water from the floor to the surface. They contain enormous amounts of energy. Tsunami caused by an asteroid impact could be a much higher and more devastating wave, depending on the asteroid's size. Fortunately such occurrences don't happen as frequently as those caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and underwater landslides.

An even more rare cause is a meteorite hitting Earth. Meteorites will not cause waves as high as those caused by asteroids since they are usually much smaller bodies. There are estimates that the space rocks would have to have a diameter of between about 165 feet (50 meters) and 490 feet (150 meters). Any smaller and the rock would have exploded before hitting Earth or Earth's waters.

Underwater Explosions
Tsunami can also occur when powerful bombs, like nuclear bombs, are tested, dropped, or detonated in the sea or ocean or above the ocean waters. There have been tests done in various parts of the world. This was done with nuclear bombs in the area of the Bikini Atoll and resulted in tsunami. A top secret New Zealand program to experiment with tsunami caused by explosions was known as Project Seal, in the 1940's.

This wave is massive - nothing like what a surfer seeks. The waves can be as high as 100 ft. tall when they near shore. They initially will create a series of waves deep in the ocean, that are only a few feet tall. They cannot be clearly discerned from shore or ships until they get to the shallows close to shore and then can be identified too late to allow warning and people to escape.

The largest recorded tsunami was in Lituna Bay Alaska at 1720 feet (524.25600 meters).

Tsunamis move faster than a human being on shore and can not be "outrun". These waves can travel under water at great speeds, up to hundreds of mph. They can travel as shallow waves at 500 mph deep under the sea. Close to the shore, this speed reduces to 30 to 40 mph. Although the momentum slows upon reaching land, it still hits with a major force.

How the waves move
The waves travel in all directions from the area of disturbance, much like the ripples that happen after throwing a rock into water.

The crests of the tsunami waves can be as much as a hundred miles apart. They can cross the entire ocean in less than a day without losing much energy. Tsunami waves can be as long as 60 miles and be as far as an hour and 100 miles apart. They destroy vast cities and developments on land, but at the same time don't destroy ships as they travel beneath them on the way to shore. They can pass right under the ships unnoticed. That's because the height of a tsunami wave might be only a foot or two at those depths. Or they might be noticed but not given any special attention because they seem harmless as they travel under the ocean surface.

The situation changes dramatically when the waves come closer to shore. As they enter shallow waters, they begin to decelerate and gain height as the wave becomes compressed and the seafloor rises in height.

Tsunami travel through water, and therefore can reach areas not located near the epicenter of the earthquake. Reflection and diffraction can change the regions affected. This was seen in the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, whereby the wave front diffracted around the tip of India and Shri Lanka and hit the western coast of India, a section of coastline that was not in the direct line of the tsunami.

This wall of water travels underwater until it reaches the shore. Once a tsunami reaches the shallow water near the coast, it slows down. The top of the wave moves faster than the bottom, causing the sea to rise dramatically. It will uplift and form the huge wave and as the water gets more and more shallow, it rises and rises until it is at its maximum height.

Interestingly, a tsunami will cause the water along the shore to pull away from shore into the oncoming tsunami, adding more and more water to the "big wave" on its way in. This displacement pulls water back from the shore, causing the wave to build in size and intensity. Depending on whether the leading element of the tsunami is a trough or a crest (it can be either) there may be an eerie ebbing or pulling back of the water along the shore; it must appear to observers like an unnatural pulling back of the tide. This would happen if the leading element is a trough.

Many people get so mesmerized by the unusual sights at the shoreline that they don't recognize the impending danger. Tsunami kill a lot of people because of the fierce strength of the initial wave, subsequent waves, and the undertow created by gallons of rushing water.

Storm Surge vs Tsunami
Tsunami are not caused by storms or wind or other weather phenomena. Those would be storm surges which are different waves.

Some meteorological storm conditions, such as deep weather depressions that cause cyclones, hurricanes, strong winds and other similar occurrences, can generate a storm surge, which can be several meters above normal tide levels. This is due to the low atmospheric pressure within the center of the weather depression. As these storm surges come ashore, the surge can resemble a tsunami, inundating vast areas of land. But they are not one and the same.

Results and devastation of tsunami
As we have seen from the 2004 tsunami of Southeast Asia and the 2011 Japanese tsunami, the effects can be devastating. A tsunami has great energy, and can carry waves far inland. The power of the water can knock down buildings and crush vehicles. People usually die from being smashed against something, rather than drowning. Tsunami can push huge amounts of water over islands and coastal regions causing the deaths of hundreds of thousands or millions of people, and they can cause millions or even billions of dollars worth of damage.

They can move up the rivers and streams leading to the ocean. Flooding can reach land 1000 feet (300 meters) from the coastline and the dangerous waves have enough force to lift giant boulders, flip vehicles, and demolish houses. Tsunami kill a lot of people because of the fierce strength of the initial wave, subsequent waves, and the undertow created by gallons of rushing water.

Tsunami will definitely cause damage, casualties, and injuries. Fires can break out from gas line breaks that are ignited. Tsunami, as they reach closer to shore, will wash fishing boats and other boats, such as cruisers, onto shore, and onto streets, railroads, and buildings. Airports are destroyed, roads are impassable. The boats will be stuck on shore and usually wrecked from the force of the wave. Cars, trucks, airplanes and trains can be washed through the coastal areas damaging structures and people in their wake.

Entire coral reefs and the plants and animals that depend on them for habitat can be devastated. Once the reefs are destroyed, the protection they provided for the coastal areas from hurricanes, storms and other damage is lost along with the barrier reefs.

People and livestock can be caught in the wave and carried away inland and back into the sea with all the debris from the devastation. The waves will also cause fish to be washed onto the shore and stuck there to die. They flood the lands near the shore, causing entire buildings to be inundated. They are identified too late for most people in the coastal areas to escape and avoid death from them. They will damage the crops and cause nearby buildings to collapse. Some people might be trapped under the buildings and die. They uproot trees too, causing them to fall on houses and people.

Lastly, they cause economic decline as countries have to spend billions of dollars rebuilding and recovering from the damage. Millions of people can be homeless without food, clean water, and proper sewage disposal and without electricity. Hospitals that may be still operating are overwhelmed, injured people may not receive timely medical care. Access to medical supplies, pharmacy supplies, and maintenance medications may not be available for months or more. People cannot find loved ones and family members and there are little, if any, means of communication immediately following the tsunami. Factories and jobs are eliminated and many never rebuild in the area again. Tourist industries collapse for even years afterward.

Tsunami "Season" ?
There is no tsunami season, they are unrelated to weather, so they can occur at any time just like the things that cause them can happen any time of yearâ?¦ plate subduction, earthquake, volcano, etc.

Tsunamis can take place at any time; night or day.

Where they occur
Tsunami could occur anyplace there is a large body of water (even large lakes). They can move up the rivers and streams that connect with the body of water of the tsunami, causing further destruction and flooding.

They often hit along the coasts of the "Ring of Fire," around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. In the US: California, Washington, Oregon, and Hawaii and the Japanese coastlines are all potential areas where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates in the process mentioned above known as tectonic plate subduction. One in Chile sent tsunami warnings ino the pacific. Thailand is in a circle where tsunami hit a lot. There is a well known spot in Alaska where a Mega Tsunami hit, Lituna Bay. There was the tsunami in the Bay of Bengal in 2004.

There was one on October 7, 2009 , originating from an underwater earthquake near the Vanuatu Islands in the southwest Pacific. The wave affected other islands, including Hawaii and Fiji, as well as Alaska and California. This tsunami, however, was weak and insubstantial compared to a devastating tsunami on December 26, 2004, also known as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The wave itself was up to 100 feet (30 meters) high in places. At the time it was considered the fifth worst natural disaster in recorded history, and the deadliest tsunami ever, possibly more than four times worse than the next deadliest tsunami (in terms of death toll, rough estimates range from 229,866 to 443,929 people killed).

Mega Tsunami
Mega earthquakes (measuring 9.0 and above on the Richter Scale) are said to produce Megatsunami (also known as Iminami) which are much more destructive than normal tsunami. They can reach heights of up to 300-500+ meters, and reach about 25 km inland. They are said to be able to cross the Atlantic (Transatlantic).

As mentioned above, an example of a mega-tsunami happened on the 9th of July in 1958 in Lituna Bay in Alaska, generating the largest recorded tsunami. An earthquake measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale caused 90 million tons of rock to fall directly into the sea. It caused a wave 524 meters high (1720 feet).

The wave from the collision of the KT Event 65 million years ago (an asteroid) is believed to have been up to 1.5 kilometers high.

When Cumbre Vieja in La Palma eventually collapses into the Atlantic it could generate a 2000 foot high wave rushing across the Atlantic at 500 mph.

Predictions, warnings, and animal behavior
Scientists are not yet able to predict them just as volcano eruptions and earthquakes can't be predicted. Seismic activity could signal a warning, however, and this is under study.

Animals often recognize the danger and run inland. One explanation of this is that animals can sense the movement of the air and hear changes in the waves much faster than humans recognize these.
Hurricanes and tornadoes are both damaging windstorms, but they are very different phenomena. One is a large weather system and the other is an isolated weather event. A hurricane is a huge airmass that can be more than 1000 miles across, while a tornado is seldom more than 1 mile across, and often much less.

A hurricane (also known as a cyclone or typhoon) is a very large,swirling storm with strong winds and heavy rains. It consists of an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. These cyclonic circulations of wind and clouds can sometimes, but not always, lead to a storm characterized by a low pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and flooding rain. They can only form over warm water with minimal wind shear, but often make landfall at some point as they move across the ocean. While much of the damage caused by hurricanes is from high winds, equally dangerous is its tidal surge, which can flood entire cities, killing large numbers of people.

  • Are hundreds of miles wide.
  • Form only over warm ocean water.
  • Last for days and sometimes well over a week.
  • Produce rain and flooding in addition to powerful winds.
  • Are independent, self-sustaining storm systems.
  • Have winds ranging from 74 to about 200 mph

A tornado is a swirling column of wind that moves across the ground in a relatively narrow path. It consists of a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air which extends from a cloud to the ground. The most intense of all atmospheric phenomena, tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. They can demolish entire neighborhoods in a matter of a few seconds to a few minutes.
Tornadoes form from thunderstorms called supercells and reach toward the ground as they develop. Most tornadoes last a few minutes and never more than a few hours. Some last just a few seconds. Most tornado deaths are from flying debris.

  • Are rarely over a mile wide
  • Usually form over land
  • Usually last minutes, rarely a few hours
  • Cause damage via wind and debris
  • Are dependent on a large storm to develop and keep going
  • Have winds ranging from 65 to about 300 mph
  • Often have a condensation funnel.

In summary:
  1. Hurricanes form over warm ocean water as tropical depressions, and weaken rapidly over land. Tornadoes normally form over land from mesocyclones.
  2. Hurricanes are hundreds of miles wide while tornadoes are typically a few dozen yards wide, getting up to two-and-a-half miles wide at most.
  3. A hurricane usually lasts a few days while a tornado cannot last more than a few hours, and some last just a few seconds.
  4. Hurricanes can produce large waves and storm surge, tornadoes, waterspouts and flooding rains. A tornado can be accompanied by these but does not directly cause them.
  5. The strongest tornadoes have faster winds than the strongest hurricanes.

Home Improvement

When it comes to moss or mold on a roof, the culprit is actually ablue-green algae which is most commonly found in warmer, humidclimates. Although it does not damage the roofing the black stainsit leaves do not look good.

One solution if there are only a few shingles involved, would be toreplace the discolored ones with new shingles to match. This meansthat you would either have to have some extra shingles lying aroundor that you could find them at a local supplier. However, if youshingles are pretty old, this may not be possible.

Your options then would be to try to find the closest matchavailable or take shingles from another area of the home that wherethe shingles are less visible and use the old shingles in the spotsthat you want to replace the bad ones and then install the newshingles that don't match as well in the spots where you took theold shingles from. Please see my earlier response to the topic"Shingles" for more on this procedure.

Of course, this problem is going to show up more on lightershingles, so replacing them might be your best option. Howeverthere is a method of cleaning that might just do the trick.

One of the suggestions out there that has been used for years is toget a garden sprayer and mix a 50/50 solution of water and bleachand spray wash the roof to get rid of the algae. Keep in mind thata garden sprayer is not a pressure washer. Do not use a pressurewasher because you can blow the surface of the shingles right offthe roof and thus damage the shingles.

Due to the very delicate bond between the composition shingle andits protective layer of marble chip granules, the use of a pressurewasher is NOT RECOMMENDED AT ALL. If one insists on the use of apressure washer, the spray tip nozzle MUST BE KEPT far enough awayfrom the shingles so that the pressure does not exceed that of anordinary garden hose.

Once even a small percentage of the granules are gone from theshingles, the effect of direct sunlight will accelerate thedegradation of the underlying shingle and destruction of theshingle will occur long before the normal life expectancy of theshingle

A better solution would be to use one of the deck cleaners outthere that are safe for the environment. Products containing oxygenbleach clean well and will not harm the plants. Anytime you can usean product that is good for the environment, the better off youare.

Input from a roof cleaning professional:

There are a few schools of thought on how to properly clean a roof.Based upon my research, years in business and tried and truemethod, nothing is more effective than using sodium hypochlorite,more commonly known as bleach. With this chemical (applied atapproximately a 6% solution with other surfactants) you do not haveto rinse the roof at all. This mitigates all danger of damage fromthe use of pressure. Any pressure is too much. The difference willbe instantaneous. After the first good rain, dead lichen and anyremaining haze will be washed away leaving your roof looking nearlynew.

Here is a common sense thought to add. Hire a professional. I amall for DIY and saving money but sodium hypochlorite will burn yourskin and it can wreak havoc on lungs. It will also kill plant lifeand surrounding vegetation on contact. Professionals will useprotective gear (respirators, safety harnesses, roof protectors onladders, special climbing shoes, etc) as well as protect yourlandscaping from damage.

If the buckling isn't too bad you would detach the board or boardsbut leave in place, and add weight to flatten upward buckling, orturn the board or boards over for downward buckling and then applythe weight.

*If the buckling is due to cupping of the hardwood floor boards asa result of moisture changes, you will never permanently flattenthem with weight. If they are buckled at the joints because theycannot move (expand/contract with seasonal humidity changes) buttheir surfaces are still flat, you might be able to correct thebinding problem and re-lay them. However, if they were properlynailed down, you will not get them up without damaging them. Insuch cases, to fix the problem will require removing and layingdown new boards, being sure to eliminate the problem that causedthis in the first place.
e a spade bit attached to a drill to drill a hole in each end ofthe buckled plank. Set a circular saw to cut no deeper than thethickness of the wood flooring. Plunge cut along the length of theplank from one hole to the other. Make a second cut parallel to thefirst one. Repeat for all damaged planks.

Crafts for Children

Supplies: 2 Popsicle sticks, paper (as many pieces as necessary) , things to color with (all colors is best) (optional, googlie eyes (optional, 1 pair of scissors, and something sticky (glue, tape, or staples).
Directions: outline a face, outline a top hat separate, color (circle/oval like a face, top hat black), outline a body (optional), cut body (if chose a body), color body black like a suit (if chosen body), add tie (if chosen a body, optiona)l, cut through face at mouth line (if you want it to talk), glue top of head to one Popsicle stick (if talking puppet), glue bottom of head to a Popsicle stick (if talking puppet), lastly, glue body (if chosen) to bottom of face.

Corn Dolly!

Well, I can make a yarn dolly. They should be pretty similar.First, you take a long stalk of corn, and wind it around a piece ofcardboard an inch in width as many times as it will allow. Removethe cardboard. Next, tie another piece of straw in the place youwant the neck to be and one about a centimeter from the top of thehead. Cut the fold of straw at the top and bottom of the dolly.Take 3 strands of straw below the neck. Make a tight braid foreach. It should now look like a doll with a head, two arms, and aghost-like body. Tie a piece of straw where you want the legs tobegin. Braid all remaining straw into two legs below the new tie.Tada! You should now have a straw dolly!


Rather than give you a scientific botanical answer, here's asimple one related to human beings that helps to describe this kindof plant or flower.

In Australia, the Aboriginal people are indigenous, which meansthey come from Australia and nowhere else. They are unique to thatcontinent.

An indigenous plant is one that is unique to a particular place.For example, the California poppy is indigenous to the state ofCalifornia.

Both aborigines and poppies can live elsewhere if it is to theirliking, but their origins remain the same no matter how long theydwell in the new location.

However, unless you can prove a plant totally originates in theplace that you are, the chances are that they were brought back tothat country from another country, by the intrepid botanists of the16th century to present day. Also many seeds floated across oceansand landed on other shores and eventually became indigenous. It isan interesting subject..for many that we call plants in the Uk forinstance, are classed as weeds elsewhere

Stems do many things. They support the plant. They act like the plant's plumbing system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to other plant parts

The job of the plant stem is to transport the absorbed sunlight, along with the nutrients and water to produce minerals for the plant to grow and last a while.

It keeps the plant upright and lets liquid travel from the roots to the leaves and flowers

to support the plant and a passage way to carry minerals and water from the ground to the leaves to make glocose.

The job of the stem is that it sucks up the water from the roots and the water travels up the stem and the stem delivers the water to the leaves and the flower hope this helps sincerly Bethany-k xXx

Functions of the stem include:

1. Providing protection for the upper portions of the plant (those which normally carry the reproductive organs).

2. Protects the vascular system of the plant from environmental (weather), mechanical, insect or animal damage. In part the vascular system provides the stem with rigidity.

3. Contributes to the increase in surface area for photosynthesis, branches hold the leaves further away from the stem (where light levels can be lower), exposing more leaf area to the sun.

4. Stems also elevate the leaf canopy away from other plants which may be competing for the same sunlight (such as in dense jungles).

The stem is the part of the plant that supports the leaves and ,in flowering plants, the flowers.
The main job of the stem is to transfer water and nutrients collected by the roots, through the vessels of the wood to the leaves.

stability, structure and water and nutrient transfer

Hi there the job of the stem is to carry nutrients to the areas which need it from the roots the stem also gets rid of waste eg co2, the stem also lets the plant raise or raise alot to support its weight and to be ale to beat other plants to sunlight

It holds the plant toghter

the stem job is to stick up and and hold the flower up

Well I only know 2 jobs of the stems.

Stems let water minerals and nutrients travel between the roots and the leaves. Stems also hold the leaves upright so the leaves can receive sunlight and make nutrients.

the stems can support the leaves


Add one tsp. or vinegar and 15 green drops of food coloring and 5 drops of blue food coloring into 1/2 cup of boiling water. Dip hard, cooked eggs into water for 5 minutes or longer. Once the dye has dried, it won't come off. You can add a few more drops of blue to get a more turquoise color.
Generally, people in English and Dutch speaking countries, who are part of Christendom, call Friday of their spring Holy Week "Good Friday." In early modern English, the meaning of "good" had the sense of "Holy."

The Oxford dictionary puts the reference under "good" as:
a) Pious, devout; worthy of approbation from the religious point of view.
b) (of books, etc.) Tending to spiritual edification. the good book: spec. the Bible.
c) of a day or season observed as holy by an orthodox "Christian" church.

Good tide: (a) Christmas; (b) Shrove Tuesday.

Merriam-Webster says under the etymology of good: "from its special sanctity."

American-Heritage gives "[From good, pious, holy (obsolete).]" So, "good" as used here is an archaic form of "holy".

Other opinions:
  • One of the common answers to the above question is that it was the day (evening, actually) on which Christ Jesus died as a propitiatory covering for the sins of all mankind - by far the greatest "good" anyone has ever done (or could ever do) for anyone else. At that point, God's covenant was fulfilled. and people the whole world over could attain to repentance and have the hope of everlasting life if they would choose to accept Jesus' sacrifice, imitate his ways, and obey him continually.

  • There is no definite fact on the origin of the name, but I did find this: The name may be derived from 'God's Friday,' in the same way that good-bye is derived from 'God be with ye'.

Social Media

Facebook messenger is a program which makes a sidebar appear for chat even when on the desktop.
The mobile version lets you chat or make groups through your mobile phone contacts.
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Family Travel

Flying with Children


Here is advice from the community for air travel with kids:

  • Fly on red-eyes for long trips. Your child should sleep. Be sure there is someone else to care for him/her when s/he wakes the next day, because you will be beat.
  • Use car seats on planes. Safety aside, children are used to sitting still or sleeping in them, so that they will put up with the confinement better.
  • Board the plane at the last possible moment. You may choose to pre-board one person with the gear, but put the child on the plane at the last possible moment.
  • Bring lots of finger foods.
  • Have babies nurse/drink a bottle for takeoff and landing. Feed dry foods during the flight, so the child will be thirsty upon landing.
  • Bring one or two new toys for long flights.
  • Get the bulkhead. The extra leg room can be used for the child to play on the floor or sleep (infants only). The disadvantages come in that you don't have a tray--and if the child is on the floor, you have to curl your feet up in your lap or lean them against the wall in front of you. But by-and-large I have always preferred the bulkhead to seats further back.
  • Preboard. A lot of people will advise against this, because it means you are on the plane longer. However, on a busy flight, without preboarding you may not be able to put your baggage in the overhead directly above you, in which case getting at the diaper bag, etc., is much more difficult.
  • If possible, get a layover on long cross country flights. Two 2-hour flights with lots of time to run around and play in the airport (and, of course, buy a new toy for the next leg of the trip) are far easier than one 4-hour flight. You must balance this with the possibility of ear discomfort caused by ascent and descent, as discussed below.
  • Don't feed your child pickles for lunch before a flight (;-)
  • A lot of the fussiness and crying that children display on airplanes is the result of boredom, but some of it can be from the pain and discomfort from air pressure changes. Go to your pharmacy and get some children's earplugs and Sudafed (and Dramamine). I like to use Ear-planes when I travel, and it is available in a children's size. These are made just for preventing ear pain when flying, and I think they are a God-send. The Sudafed is used to thin and reduce mucus, and it can thus help your child's ears adjust faster; the Dramamine will not only prevent air sickness, but it also puts the child to sleep :). If you can manage it with you child (depending on age, activity level, time of flights. etc.), take a long flight rather than many short ones. The fewer times they go up and down, the easier on the ears. Balance this with the advantage of having the child run around between flights.


More Tips for Long Plane Trips with Infant:

  • Buy a ticket for your baby, and bring a car seat on board. Not only is does a car seat enhance safety (especially during rough turbulence), but it's almost impossible to deal with a squirming baby for long trips. Our trip was 13 hours flight time, and it wouldn't have been manageable without a car seat.
  • Put the car seat in the window position, so that you can use the other two seats to change diapers (assuming both parents are traveling together). This made things so much easier than trying to figure out how to change a dirty diaper in the cramped lavatory space.
  • Order special meals for each leg of the journey, in flights that provide meals. Not only will you get something of usually higher quality than most, but you will get your food first! That is a real plus when you have a hungry child on your hands.
  • Bring a bag full of new or seldom-seen toys or books for entertainment. We wrapped each toy and book so that there would be at least a few seconds of entertainment in unwrapping the toy. We doled out a new toy or book whenever Dylan seemed to get really restless.
  • Bring a thermometer and a full bottle of infant Tylenol (or whatever you use to reduce temperature) that has *not* expired. We found out the hard way that the bottle we normally keep in our diaper bag had already expired.


More advice:

We have traveled by plane with our son at ages six, nine, and 20 months. He did great on all three trips! The deal with babies on planes is that they are free under age two as long as you hold them in your lap. You have to pay for a seat that you want reserved for the car seat.

So here's what you do: When you make your reservation tell them that you are traveling with an infant. The bulkhead seats (up front in economy, behind the first class section) that babies usually wind up in are not assigned until the day of check-in on most airlines, but if you tell them early they will have it in their record on the computer. Bulkheads are really not necessary for an infant; they become important when your child gets to the age where smacking the head of the person in the seat ahead of them would be amusing. On the other hand, there is a little more floor space in that row and you can use it for a changing area. The other way to do a change is to flip up the arms on the seats--you will get more than enough room for an infant.

If you make your reservations directly with the airline, call them at off-peak hours. They will be under less pressure and will be able to spend lots of time answering your questions. They are usually staffed 24 hours a day.

Request a flight that has low traffic--don't get on a flight out of Cleveland at 5pm on a Friday; it will be packed. The reason to stay off a heavy flight will become apparent below.

If there are two adults and one child traveling, request a window seat and an aisle seat in the same row with an empty seat in between. Most airlines will do this for you. That middle seat will be about the last one to be filled, because nobody wants to sit next to a potentially screaming baby in a packed row.

Get to the airport good and early (an hour or so before takeoff), and ask the ticket agent how heavily the plane is loaded, and find out if anyone was placed in the middle seat. If the flight is lightly booked and no one is sitting in the middle seat, you should have no trouble wandering onto the plane and using your car seat. If someone does show up to claim the seat, you can pop the car seat in the overhead bin and hang on to junior.

I fly in and out of Boston a lot. The ticket counter people are always taking a lot of guff from the customers. If you approach them pleasantly and politely, and you present your requests with an attitude of being happy with whatever you get, they will generally do their best to help you out--you could be the best customer that they will see all day.
If breastfeeding, when you get on (preboard) have a stewardess get you a blanket. My wife nursed our son on the plane with a blanket over him and no one was the wiser. It might help at takeoff and landing.

Be friendly with the people sitting around you. Introduce yourself and introduce your child; most people like babies, but some just don't know it. If your child starts to cry and they have seen you to be a pleasant individual, they will tend to be sympathetic rather than annoyed.


Advice from a flight attendant:

The worst possible thing you could ever do is bring a "lap child" on an airplane. If you can't afford the extra seat for the car seat, don't fly. If you still choose to do so, bring your car seat along--we will always rearrange passengers if there is an extra seat on the airplane to accommodate (we cringe every time we see a child in a parent's lap).

Knowing what I know about lap children and air travel is absolutely maddening. They have ZERO chance of survival in even the most minor incident. It should be illegal!

As far as the car seat--it is Federal law that the car seat be placed in the window seat (so don't get angry when we tell you to do so). If we have to evacuate passengers, the seat must not block anyone's access or slow down the process. It also must not be placed in the emergency exit row, or in the rows forward or behind it.
No. There are no checkpoints as there are between countries so there is no way for the government to regulate that. It is perfectly legal for grandparents to travel in the US with their grandchildren without any documentation. Really no one need any documentation to travel with anyone inside the country. If you want to go to Canada, a notiraized letter that has the signatures of both parents is required.


It is marketed by Wal-Mart as an in-house brand, but themanufacturing goes on elsewhere outside of the USA. Look at the tagof the product. Most come out of China. I am sure if you comparedthe other tags on the other products you may see similarmanufacturing patterns going on. I am sure that several differentcompanies market the same goods under different "brand" names fromthe same manufacturing plant.

------Actually, it's manufactured by American Recreation Products,which manufactures Wenzel products... Since early August when Ibought an Ozark Trail airbed I've so far had to have them firstreplace the faulty air pump i got, and now the entirebed.....Beware though... if you have to have something replacedthat's big like that, YOU have to pay the shipping to send itback...Goodluck, their customer service # should be on a piece ofpaper in the items packaging...
Lucky you. I supervise the camping category and live in North Carolina.
It really depends on what type of camping you like, what type of outdoors you like and what you do while you camp.
North Carolina offers a very wide range of camping adventures. There are many commercial campgrounds throughout the state. At the beach on the Outer Banks there is a KOA and other resort type of campgrounds. There are also Campgrounds within the Cape Hatteras State Park that have sites with and without electric and water. You have the beautiful Atlantic ocean to play in and the Pamlico and other Sounds (very large bodies of water) to swim, fish, kayak, etc in. At the beach you had better like sand because it gets in everything. There are also mosquitoes there from spring to early winter that are vicious. If there is a good breeze then they won't bother you. There is no shade available at the campgrounds due to limited amount of trees. It is a giant sandbar. The northern beaches are very tourist oriented and crowded with houses but from Nags Head south it is 99 percent National Seashore, with a few villages scattered in.
In the middle part of the state there are many large reservoirs that have wonderful camping on them. Many of the campgrounds are owned by the Corps of Engineers who maintain the lakes and these are great. Lots of trees and trails and boating and fishing. Lake Jordan SW of Raleigh, Lake Kerr and Lake Gaston near Virginia and many others are available. The NC State Parks maintains many of the campgrounds on the lakes and throughout the state. These are all great places. Very well maintained and safe.
My favorite area to camp is in the mountains. There are many state parks scattered throughout the Blue Ridge Parkway area. Rivers, streams, hiking, fishing, etc.
North Carolina has a very diverse terrain ranging from the ocean to the highest point on the east coast. (Mount Mitchell) Lots of skiing in the winter and white water rafting in the summer.
It really depends on your level of camping. Tent vs motorhome, under the stars vs camper.
Have fun.

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The most popular dad-turned-nanny comedy to hit the big screen is returning for a second movie.
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