What is a 'three-point' shot in basketball?

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Outside of the "key", but in the same half of the court, there is another line, roughly in the shape of a half circle. Shots made from outside of this line are awarded 3 points. They are sometimes referred to as "field goals".
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Who invented the three-point shot in basketball?

Chronologically, Herman Sayger was the inventor. Depending on your perspective, the three-point line was developed/introduced several times in the course of basketball's histo