If the rifle is chambered for the .308 Winchester cartridge, then long or short action can safely fire it. Long or short refers to how far the bolt travels when opened. The .308 is typically a short action- the 30-06 and longer cartridges cannot cycle thru a short action, and must be used in a long action rifle.
Ruger American Rifle short action calibers (.243 Win, .308 Win, 7mm .08 Rem, 22-250)
No, it cannot.
A lever action rifle made by Savage in 308 Winchester.
It can shoot about 3 miles. It can shoot accurately to about 1100 meters in the hands of a highly skilled marksman, depending on which rifle is firing the cartridge.
A lever action rifle chambered in .308 Winchester.
Long or short refers to the length of the cartridge the action will handle. .308 (parent case of the .243) is a short action.
ALL other things being equal (caliber, type of action, etc) a lighter rifle will have more recoil (kick) than a heavier one. It is a matter of action and reaction. I have a heavy (11 lbs) benchrest target rifle in .308- it is a pleasure to shoot. I have another .308- a lightweight hunting rifle (6lbs). With the same cartridge, it will put tears in your eyes!
If its a .308 its a short action.