Physics
Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

# Does a heat engine of efficiency 100 percent necessarily violate the first and second law of thermodynamics?

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A heat engine of 100 percent efficiency violates the second law of thermodynamics and is impossible even in theory.

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## Related Questions

If you are suggesting a "perpetual motion" scenerio, it would violate the first or second laws of thermodynamics. Many inventors dream of perpetual motion machines, but they are an impossible dream according to the laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics says that an engine or process of any type must always have an efficiency of less than 100%. A perpetual motion machine that uses a generator to power the motor that runs the generator requires both the generator and motor to operate with 100% efficiency. This type of perpetual motion machine does not violate the first law of thermodynamics, but violates the second law of thermodynamics. It is a perpetual motion machine of the second kind because it violates the second law of thermodynamics. Not even the cleverest engineer or inventor can build a perpetual motion machine because it would violate either the first or second law of thermodynamics, which are fundamental laws of physics.

No. That would violate Conservation of Energy, so it follows that it isn't possible.

Since this would make it possible to violate either the First Law of Thermodynamics or the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the answer is clearly NO.

No biological entity violates any of the laws of thermodynamics.

Why? Simply because there is no way the Second Law can be violated!

No. The formation of living organisms occurs through processes that create more increase in entropy in the surroundings than the reduction of entropy inherent in the formation of the living organism, thus the formation of living organisms does not violate the second law of thermodynamics.

Yes. To live forever would violate the laws of thermodynamics. The only way not to would be to have no changes, which would not be living.

Quite simply, that would violate the First Law of Thermodynamics, or the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The pressure difference is caused by the weight of the water above it, and it is an equilibrium situation.

The second law of thermodynamics is known as a "law" because there are no known situations that would violate the second law of thermodynamics. If heat were to spontaneously move from a cold system to a warm system without any outside actions or if a gas were to spontaneously compress itself (like all the air in a room deciding to move to one corner, leaving the rest of the room as a vacuum) that would violate the second law. No one has ever observed either, nor have they ever observed any other violations of the law. A few con-artists and crackpots have claimed to have devices that violate the law, but none have actually demonstrated any real devices that work as claimed.

Yes. It has to be so, since it would otherwise be possible to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics!

You violate the faction rules, like assaulting a member. That will usually have you expelled, though not necessarily.

No The first law deals with conservation of energy The second law deals with what forms that (conserved) energy may take

It is the idea of a machine continuously producing energy, without energy input - or producing more energy than what is put into the machine. This would violate the First Law of Thermodynamics (conservation of energy), and in general, it is not believed to be possible. No process is known which violates the conservation of energy. (A "perpetual motion machine of the second kind" would violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics; this is generally believed to be impossible, too.)

You didn't specify what you mean with "the following".To the best of our knowledge, conservation of energy ALWAYS applies. There are no known cases when you can create energy out of nothing, or simply make it disappear.

No, an efficiency greater than one would not be possible, since that would violate a very fundamental law of physics: conservation of energy. The efficiency of an "ideal machine" would be one, in many cases; the efficiency of an ideal Carnot engine would be less than one.

Biological organisms do NOT violate the laws of thermodynamics. Some people mistakenly think that because they assemble into complex structures they must be in violation of the 2nd law. This is not true. The 2nd law does not preclude the assembly of complex structure, it says that any such process will produce more entropy in the universe - so the decrease in entropy of the plant, animal, bacteria, or biological organism is accompanied by an even greater INCREASE in the entropy of the universe.

As a consequence of growing, organisms create more disorder in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth

Heat can be transferred from one thing to another, and it can be changed into different kinds of energy, but it cannot disappear in the sense of ceasing to exist as that would violate the first law of thermodynamics.

That would significantly violate the second law of thermodynamics. For water to spontaneously freeze at room temperature, there would have to be something colder than the freezing point to absorb the energy coming out of the water. If the floor also became cooler, then it could not be absorbing energy. If you had ONLY the water and the floor, then this would also violate the 1st law - conservation of energy.

ViolateA sentence for the word violate is: It's smart not to violate the law.

There are no real processes that violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. You could describe a process where a block of steel at 0 &deg;C is placed on top of a block of steel of equal size at 400 &deg;C and the cold steel drops to -10 &deg;C while the hot block rises to 410 &deg;C. That would satisfy the 1st law and violate the 2nd law - but experience tells us it will never, ever, ever happen.

Quite simply, that would violate the law of conservation of energy - a.k.a. the First Law of Thermodynamics. No exception has been found so far for this law. This would be like trying to get something out of nothing; the total amount of energy has been found to be constant - no exceptions.Quite simply, that would violate the law of conservation of energy - a.k.a. the First Law of Thermodynamics. No exception has been found so far for this law. This would be like trying to get something out of nothing; the total amount of energy has been found to be constant - no exceptions.Quite simply, that would violate the law of conservation of energy - a.k.a. the First Law of Thermodynamics. No exception has been found so far for this law. This would be like trying to get something out of nothing; the total amount of energy has been found to be constant - no exceptions.Quite simply, that would violate the law of conservation of energy - a.k.a. the First Law of Thermodynamics. No exception has been found so far for this law. This would be like trying to get something out of nothing; the total amount of energy has been found to be constant - no exceptions.

No - living systems release heat to their surroundings as they undergo their organizing processes so although they may become more organized locally, the entropy of the universe is still increasing.

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