How do microphones work?
A microphone is a device that converts sound as
acoustical pressure waves into electrical
voltage waves. All microphones have a diaphragm, membrane, or
other mechanical elements in them that vibrates sympathetically in
response to the arriving acoustic wave fronts. This mechanical
element acts on the electrical element to generate audio
The sensitivity of a microphone is shown in voltage per sound
pressure (mV / Pa) that show the proportionality of the audio waves
to the pressure waves.
To amplify sounds (make louder), the vibrations of the connected
speaker's surface must increase in amplitude.