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Just swapping the hot and neutral connections on a plain and simple single phase ac motor (one which was not designed to be reversible) is usually a waste of time as the voltage is alternating and the motor sees this as the same either way and it will still run in the same direction.

For a DC motor which uses a permanent magnet to provide its magnetic field, simply switch the two power leads to make them run in the reverse direction.

For a DC motor which has a wound field winding instead of a permanent magnet you have to reverse the connections either to the field winding or to the armature. (If you reverse the connections to both the field winding and the armature the direction won't change!)

For a three phase motor simply switch any two of the three power leads to make it reverse.

Another opinion

To change the direction in a single phase ac electric motor you must find a way to reverse the connections to the field magnet (outer windings) or to the armature or rotor (which is the center part that spins). Some motors are reversible and the run direction can be changed simply by swapping the 2 plugs sticking out of them that are connected to the field windings.

All single phase ac motors can be reversed by physically reversing the field magnet or rotor ( front of motor is now the back) although this can be more difficult in motors with brushes because of the brush holder which is mounted at the front and usually has to stay in the front.

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Changing motor rotation

A split phase induction motor has two sets of coils and a centrifugal start switch. The start winding is in series with the start switch. The start winding provides a rotating magnetic field in one direction enabling the motor to start. The motor can be reversed by reversing the connections of either the start winding or the run winding but not both.

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Q: How do you reverse the running direction of a single phase ac electric motor?
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