"A PINT'S A POUND THE WHOLE WORLD 'ROUND"
CAVEAT -- THIS ANSWER IS NOT EXACT, BUT IT IS AN EASIER WAY TO DETERMINE THE APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF A GALLON, OR DIFFERENT AMOUNTS, OF WATER AND SIMILAR LIQUIDS SUCH AS VINEGAR, MILK, BROTH, COOKING OIL ET CETERA.
There is an old cooking phrase which addresses the weight of water and other similar liquids (and in some cases, solids) used in the preparation of foods:
"A pint's a pound the whole world 'round".
Actually, a pint of water weighs 1.04375 pounds. So, although this phrase does not provide the EXACT weight of each liquid, it does provide a very simple rule for determing approximately how much liquids weigh. In the case of water, there are eight (8) pints of water in a gallon. Using this rule, a gallon (eight pints) would weigh approximately eight (8) pounds, which is very, very close to a gallon of water's exact weight of 8.35 pounds which is found in the more detailed and scientifically correct answers to this question. Although pints of milk, gravies and sauces are more dense and actually weigh more than a pint of water, the cook can generally use his/her own judgement as to how much other liquids actually weigh. If you have an accurate weight scale, you can quite easily verify these figures.
So, if you're not building a rocket ship, making chemical compounds or medicines or any other things which would require EXACT measurements, remember the simply ditty:
"A pint's a pound the whole world 'round."
Elthron (who, incidently, weighs about the same as 30 gallons, or 240 pints, of water)
1 gallon of fresh water is about 8.36
According to the 21st edition of The Machinery's Handbook, 1 gallon of watter weighs 8.337 pounds.
To answer this question more appropriately you would have to know the temperature of the water. As water cools it becomes more dense until it reaches 39.2 degrees fahrenheit. Below this temperature the density decreases and the water molecules spread apart. 1 liter of water/ice at will actually weigh less than 1 liter of water at say 80 degress fahrenheit.
One cubic foot of water contains 7.48 gallons of water, weighing in at 62.31 pounds.
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics specifies the weight of 1 US gallon of water in air at 68 degrees F to be 8.32487 pounds or 3776.103 grams.
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