The stomach and the duodneum are responsible for digestion and the small and large intestine are responsible for absorption. the small intestine absorbs more but the large intestine is where the critical absortion of water (small amounts), electrolytes and bile sates occur.
The small intestine is responsible for digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It also absorbs most nutrients. However, the large intestine is less active in it's processes. The large intestine only digests fiber and only absorbs water.
The large intestine is primarily for the absorption back of the water introduced into the food during digestion; there is also some minor nutrient digestion and absorption and some waste excretion into the large intestine lumen.