Max weber's theoretical perspective?
His perspective is often called interpretive sociology.
One of his basic claims was that complex social action (like a
social movement or large-scale historical change) could be
understood in terms that make sense to an individual
This is not the same as claiming that all social action is just
the sum of individual actions; only that it is
understandable or can be interpreted more adequately
if the individual's perspective is taken into account.
This is also different from saying that the individual knows the
"truth" about the social circumstances. Weber realized that
individuals (including the sociologist) are embedded in their
particular cultures and social groups and did not necessarily think
about the ultimate conditions that make the movement possible. This
is one reason Weber preferred to use a comparative method of
surveying many cultures and historical periods to attempt to
describe the full range of variation and complex causal
circumstances possible rather than rely on simplistic theories like
crude historical materialism, which had a universal explanation
covering every time and place. With comparisons Weber attempted to
show what social and cultural conditions contributed to particular
kinds of change, especially the emergence of modern capitalism.