Istanbul and Constantinople
What effect did byzantine rule over constantinople as well as the Islamic defeat by Charles martel in 732 c.e have on the spread of Islam?
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What effect did the Byzantine rule over Constantinople as well as the Islamic defeat by Charles Martel in 732 CE have on the spread of Islam?
What effect did bazantine rule over constantinople as well as the islamic defeat by charles martel in 732 c e have?
These are events separated in time and geography. The Battle of Tours in 732 (just 100 years after Mohammed's death) checked the first great wave of Islamic conquest. Constantiople fell to Mehmet (aka Mohammed the Conqueror) in 1453. The effect of that was that many scholars fled West into Europe and helped to spark the Renaissance.
What new empire was created by the Arab armies to defeat Constantinople?
No empire was created specifically in order to conquer Constantinople. From 656-661 C.E. there was the Fitna al-Kubra or the First Islamic Civil War where the the Rightly-Guided Caliphate, the Khawarijites, and the Umayyad Caliphate all fought each other for dominance in Egypt, Levant, and Mesopotamia. The Umayyad Caliphate came out of that war as the single Islamic Empire and single Arab State. The Umayyads focused their attention northward and besieged Constantinople from 674-678 C.E.
What weapons did ottoman Turks use to defeat Constantinople?
What does Rome have to do with Constantinople?
Constantinople was in East Roman territory and was known as the city of Byzantium, and but was reinvigorated and reestablished by the Roman emperor Constantine, as his namesake in 306CE. The seat of Roman government was moved there briefly, and it soon became the head of the Eastern empire. After the collapse of the empire in c.476CE, and the following split, the eastern empire (now known as the Byzantine empire) was established, with its head at Constantinople. The city would remain a bastion of classical culture until her defeat at by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The city's name was changed in 1930 to Istanbul.
Asked in War and Military History
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What changes did the capture of Constantinople cause in Asia Minor and Southeastern Europe?
The capture of Constantinople fundamentally changed how Islam and Turkification would proceed in both Asia Minor and the Balkans. The complete defeat of the Byzantine Empire meant that the Orthodox Christians in Asia Minor (under Ottoman domination) no longer had their homeland. This increased the level of conversions to Islam and the ascription of Turkish identity. In Southeastern Europe, the loss of Hagia Sophia, the "Vatican" of Orthodox Christianity was a huge blow to Orthodox Greeks. Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians. Further, Constantinople had stood as bulwark against an Ottoman Islamic invasion of the Balkans, so, in a very real sense, the Orthodox Christians in the Balkans and the Catholic Empires further away (like the Austrian Empire) now had legitimate fear of an Ottoman conquest.