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Local Government Unit.

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โˆ™ 2009-01-14 11:21:12
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Q: What is LGU?
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What is LGU'S?

Local Government Unit.

What is the airport code for Logan-Cache Airport?

The airport code for Logan-Cache Airport is LGU.

What is the meaning of lgu?

Is a political submission of a nation or state which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs.

What are the functions of the local government units in the Philippines?

in this way the national government share its power to lgu, for a better delivery of their services to the people

Does a congressman have more power than a governor?

the congressman are the one making laws...while the governor is the chieft executive of the province....the congressman are national while governor are LGU...

What is the abbreviation for Logan UT airport?

Logan-cache Airport Logan, Utah Lata Code LGU Faa Code‎: LGU‎ ‎Icao Code‎: KLGU‎ Elevation‎: 4454‎

What government agency in the Philippines takes care of animals?

the agencies in the phillipines take care of animals are PAWB ,DENR ,DOST ,GFA AND LGU'S.......THANK U!!!!!!!!AND PLZZ ADD ME IN FACEBOOK

Can you used the police Entrance test administered by National police commission to as Police Officer One to enter into Local Government Unit?

no you cannot use your eligibility as PO1 to enter into LGU because PO 1 is for uniformed personnel only. and if you noticed during the exemination day there is no representative by CSC to supervise the said test.

Why Quezon City is the most richest City in the Philippines?

Makati City remains the richest local government unit (LGU) in the country after it posted a P9-billion revenue collection from January to September of this year. During this period, Makati City collected a total of P9.38 billion in revenue, which is 5 percent higher than its collection for the same period in 2011.

What are some nine letter words with 3rd letter L and 4th letter G and 5th letter U and 7th letter A?

According to SOWPODS (the combination of Scrabble dictionaries used around the world) there are 2 words with the pattern --LGU-A--. That is, nine letter words with 3rd letter L and 4th letter G and 5th letter U and 7th letter A. In alphabetical order, they are: fulgurant fulgurate

What are some seven letter words with 1st letter B and 3rd letter L and 4th letter G and 5th letter U?

According to SOWPODS (the combination of Scrabble dictionaries used around the world) there are 1 words with the pattern B-LGU--. That is, seven letter words with 1st letter B and 3rd letter L and 4th letter G and 5th letter U. In alphabetical order, they are: bulgurs

What are some eight letter words with 1st letter F and 3rd letter L and 4th letter G and 5th letter U and 8th letter L?

According to SOWPODS (the combination of Scrabble dictionaries used around the world) there are 1 words with the pattern F-LGU--L. That is, eight letter words with 1st letter F and 3rd letter L and 4th letter G and 5th letter U and 8th letter L. In alphabetical order, they are: fulgural

What is firm 24k all about?

FIRM-24K is a non-government organization that is composed of marginalized sectors of the society. Members are from deppresed areas of NCR like Baseco, Isla Puting Bato, Sawata, Dagat-dagatan, Smokey Mountain. It was originally formed in 1999 as FIRM-24k MARCOS LOYALIST LUNETA GROUP, and was registered in the SEC. The thrust of the organization is to empower the people at the grassroot level to cooperate and help each LGU. Each member is inspired to love of God, country and people. The group supports all elected officials, because they are elected by the people and voice of the people is the voice of God. The group supports the Clean and and Green Projects of LGU's. The goup secures Accreditation from each city and municipality for them to have a juridical personality so they can participate in town fiestas & activities. Since then, FIRM-24K has evolved and include areas in Ilocos Norte,Cagayan, Isabela, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, ALbay,Bataan, Oriental and Occidental Mindoro, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Iloilo, Guimaras island, Cebu, Bantayan Island, Zamboanga Zibugay, Bukidnon, Surigao. etc. Because of the nationwide constituency, there was a clamor from the provinces to change its name from FIRM-24K Luneta Group to FIRM-24K Association Inc.

What is the effectivity of a law or Ordinances?

Effectivity of Ordinances in PangasinanProvince of the Republic of the Philippines:1) pursuant to the first clause of Section 59a, RA 7160- "unless otherwise stated in the ordinance":- It depends on the will of the enacting Sanggunian, viz:a) Effectivity clause- This ordinance shall take effect upon its approval by the local chief executive"b)Effectivity clause- This ordinance shall take effect upon its declaration of validity by the Reviewing Sanggunian within the prescribed 30-day period from the date of receipt thereof"c) Effectivity clause- This ordinance shall take effect upon the expiration of the prescribed 30-day period as provided for under Section 57b, RA 7160.2)pursuant to the second clause of Section 59a, RA 7160- after 10-day postingEffectivity clause- "This ordinance shall take effect after 10-day posting its copies at the bulletin bulletin board and in at least 3 conspicuous places of this LGU."3)combined effectivity-"This ordinance shall take effect upon declaration of validity by the reviewing authority within the prescribed 30-day period, or upon the expiration of the mandatory 30day period, provided, copies hereof are posted in at least 3 conspicuous places of this LGU".

What is the function or what is bantay bayan?

The function of the Bantay Bayan as a Non-Government organization is as Partners of the LGU's, the AFP & PNP in their peace and order development efforts, the DSWD and opther government line agencies as force multipliers in the varioud exposures in the different areas where chapters and offices of the Bantay Bayan Foundation Inc. under the able and strong leadership of Dr. Ben B. Caralde with is office or the Natioonal Secretariat at CGEA, QC. The organization has grown from its core group in 1983 to what it is now. Many local Bantay Bayan organizations has copied the theme and logo of the said organization but one tructh and fact remains. The BANTAY BAYAN FOUNDATION INC. has never wavered its partnership and participation in the varied Non-Government efforts for Peace and Development of the various community needs .

What are the Problems encountered of the Philippine National Police?

PNP admits logistics problems Seeks LGU backing for transformation program By Abigail Kwok First Posted 19:35:00 03/11/2009 Filed Under: Police, Local authorities MANILA, Philippines -- The Philippine National Police (PNP) on Wednesday admitted facing logistical problems and called on local government units (LGUs) to support the agency?s integrated transformation program. In his presentation during a multi-sectoral forum with stakeholders at Camp Crame, Chief Superintendent Lani-o Nerez, deputy chief for logistics, said one of the problems is the ?deteriorating and dismal? state of police stations nationwide. Of the 1,741 police stations across the country, only 691, or 40 percent, are owned by the PNP while the remaining 1,050, or 60 percent, are in LGU-owned buildings and lots. Nerez said the agency wants all police stations to be PNP-owned, but he also pointed out that before this, they must fix or improve deteriorating police stations, which ?make [policemen] vulnerable to the enemies.? To respond to this problem, the PNP has launched the ?Adopt a Police Station Project? in Region 7 and the ?Model Police Station Project,? which has been funded by local government officials, and has benefited, among others, Cebu City police stations 3, 4, and 6. Nerez also reported that the PNP is short 66,886 long firearms, including 48,456 M16 rifles, for its 125,000 personnel. ?Ideally, each policeman should have one issued short firearm. [But] due to inadequate funds to procure firearms, the PNP prioritized issuance of firearms to PNP units and personnel in high risk areas,? Nerez said. He revealed that the yearly procurement of firearms was not enough to fill the shortage in 10 years. In 2008, the PNP procured only 1,000 9-millimeter Berretta pistols, compared to almost 7,000 guns purchased in 2007. Nerez said policemen in areas where the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) is not present need rifles and other long firearms. Although some local government units have donated firearms to policemen in the past, this has not been enough. Aside from this, the PNP also lacks 12,714 vehicles, Nerez said. The police is also 74 percent short of the 109 watercraft it is required to have, and 80 percent short of its required aircraft.

What are the Sample of survey questions about jueteng?

Motion: Resolve, This house believes that Jueteng Should be legalized To the chief adjudicator, members of the house, ladies and gentlemen, a pleasant afternoon. As a member of this house favored to the government side, I strongly agree that Jueteng should be legalized be strongly implemented because of the following reasons: 1) Jueteng is not illegal to the people already it is just illegal on its operation. 2) Many Filipino and almost all Filipino are already betting for Jueteng and base on survey 8 out of ten Filipino people bet for Jueteng. 3) The corrupt political official will be minimizes. But before we go to the arguments, let us first define what Jueteng are. What is Jueteng? Jueteng (pronounced hwe-teng) is an illegal numbers game played in the Philippines. Jueteng originated from China and means "flower" (jue) and "bet" (teng). Although illegal, it is a widely popular game with participation that crosses most, if not all social and economic boundaries, played by rich and poor alike. With long odds and no limits on minimum or maximum bets, the lure of quick riches through a lucrative payout is by far its strongest appeal. The game relies heavily on having a large number of wagers, and there is no limit to the amount of the bet(s). Usually the gambler selects two numbers from 1 through 37, and the winning number is determined by selecting a pair of numbers from two sets of 37 numbered balls. Thus the theoretical odds of winning on any one play are one in 37 X 37 or 1/1369 with payout of 1:800. This is unlike the numbers games in the U.S. during the early part of the 20th century, where the last digit of the winning pay out or the number of the winning horse for three consecutive races determined the winning combination. Although much has been done to curtail or eradicate this form of unregulated gambling by government and community leaders, it appears that such efforts have fallen by the wayside due to its vast popularity, and the poverty which cripples the country. Ironically, in the 80s, the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO) once sanctioned and operated a similar game, called "Small Town Lottery," which spawned the popularity of the game, even if it was discontinued. Now, let's go to my argument. My first argument is Jueteng is not illegal to the people already it is just illegal on its operation. Jueteng is operating in the Philippines many years ago and the Filipino people already consider Jueteng as a legal gambling and as a part of their everyday life. Jueteng is should be legalized because if it is legalized the government can implement tax for the better of or economic stability, put rules and regulations for the protection of the people who bet in Jueteng, and the government will be the one who will manage it for more improvements like the PCSO or the Lotto. At the same time that a legalized Jueteng is incorporated into the PCSO lotto, wage a media campaign to bad-mouth the illegal Jueteng. Several years ago, someone did a comparative study of lotto and the illegal Jueteng. He or she found out that only seven percent of the take in Jueteng returns to the players in the form of winnings.. Jueteng had cobrador's, while STL had collectors with I.D. of PCSO. What is the different between Jueteng and small lottery, Jueteng had 37 balls to draw while STL had 40……. Jueteng are illegal while STL are legal, but did you notice that they are both gambling. Did you ask yourself, how much was the total you invest on the small town lottery this few weeks? A Jueteng collector on the past was apprehended because it was illegal, and now it was legal they are free on everywhere to collect bet on us…. But where does the tax goes, or who get it? Somebody tells that part of the Tax goes to the LGU within the area of concern, but did you notice that before a LGU can collect taxes, there must be a existing ordinance imposing to collect tax for STL. My second argument is that many Filipino and almost all Filipino are already betting for Jueteng and base on survey 8 out of ten Filipino people bet for Jueteng. Jueteng is already unstoppable in or country that's why we need to legalized Jueteng if the majority is already for it. There is no problem in Jueteng the only problem is the operation of it that why we need to legalized it for the improvement of our country and to stop the issues in Jueteng and to give work to the Filipino people to be employ in Jueteng as manager, staff, facilitator, cobrador's, and many position that is available in Jueteng. My last argument is that the corrupt political official will be minimizes because if it is legalized already the government will be the one who will manage Jueteng not the corrupt political officials and not the Richs people who is using Jueteng as their business. Indeed, the legalization of Jueteng will bring about added revenue for the government. Its legalization will also cut or minimize graft and corruption emanating from Jueteng underground operation. Jueteng is already legal now if there is no corrupt official who is the one against in Jueteng because they do not want that the money they receive in Jueteng will go to the government for the additional budget of the government. If the Jueteng is already legalized this corrupt official will be minimize because the government is already the one who is managing Jueteng. Ladies and gentlemen, before I end this speech may I reiterate again my premises why Jueteng should be legalized. Jueteng can give additional money to the government. Jueteng can solve the poverty in our country. The more I think about Jueteng, the more I am convinced that the best "all-out war" against it is to legalize it. And with that ladies and gentlemen I beg to propose. by:Dr. Jefferson Callangan

Conclusion of non-biodegradable materials?

Title of the ProjectLEARN, ACT AND LEAD@PROJECT WWW (Why Worry Waste).2011:A NON-BIODEGREDABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECTShort Description:This PBL activity is designed to provide Third Year students an opportunity to demonstrate understanding of concepts in the conduct of investigation of what are the non-biodegradable wastes in the school, identifying the composition and effects of non-biodegradable waste that undergoes chemical change,evaluate evidences of chemical changes(Science), collection, analysis and interpretation of data (Mathematics), organize and outline information for graphical presentation (English), create innovative presentations of data gathered for a webpage publication(CP-TLE), and generate a reflection in a rap song composition on the importance and benefits of waste management in the school (VALED). The students are expected to formulate an action plan on non-biodegradable waste management that could be a basis for an austere implementation.Subjects and Concepts:English: Demonstrate the ability to use varied ways of organizing information such outlining and graphic representation.Science: Identify the composition and effects of non-biodegradable waste that undergoes chemical change andevaluate evidences of chemical changes.Values Education: Generate a reflection in a rap song composition on the importance and benefits of waste management in the school.Technology & Livelihood Education: Demonstrate the understanding of the process and delivery in the operations of creating a tabular presentation of data, use of formula and functions in the calculation of numerical representation and formulation of business proposal.Mathematics: Collect, analyze and interpret data of the survey conducted of the non-biodegradable waste.General Activities FlowStudent Activities:§ Investigate what are the non-biodegradable wastes in the school and determine how seriously affects the school as a learning environment-Students will use the teacher- made checklist-Collect, analyze and interpret data of the survey conducted of the non-biodegradable waste.-Identify the composition and effects of non-biodegradable waste§ Make and implement an action plan for the non-biodegradable waste§ Publish on a free web host site best practices during the implementationFor Administrators:§ Convene the School Governing Council: Principal, Teacher Association Representative, School Federated Parent Representative, SGG Representative formulate scheme/policy non biodegradable waste management.§ Invite the Chairman of Waste Management Committee of the LGU to conduct a seminar workshop on waste management with the studentsv Simultaneous PBL Classroom Introduction Activityv Interschool Workshopv Face to face Students' Workshop@Tomas Cabili National High School Mindanao Building to be conducted by the Chairman of the Waste Managementv Presentation of Data using the MS Excel in the consolidationv 1st Classroom Video conferencingv Simultaneous Classroom discussionv 2nd Classroom Video Conferencev Springnotes.comTechnology Used:Software:MS Office Application such as: MS Word, Excel,Hardware: Personal Computers, Laptop, Digital Camera, Web CamProgram Application: Skype, Springnote, FreewebsExperts Needed :Hon. Chonilo Ruiz, Chairman on Waste Management Committee of Iligan City conduct a workshop on the of non-biodegradable waste managementBobby Timonera- PhotographyLearning Outcomes:At the end of the project, Students are expected to make an action plan on non-biodegradable waste management to be implemented in the school.

What is 7 8/17 rounded to the nearest whole number?

Unified Handicap System) just use the allocated handicap rounded to the nearest whole number. Contrary to popular opinion, a player's handicap is intended to reflect a player's potential or "average best", not a player's overall average score. Statistically, low handicappers will play to their handicap more often because they are likely to be more consistent than higher handicappers. The total number of strokes taken for a hole (or round) before accounting for a golfer's handicap is called the gross score for that hole (or round), and the number of strokes taken after subtracting any handicap allowance is called the net score.In handicap stroke play competitions, a golfer's playing handicap is subtracted from the total number of strokes taken to produce a net score, which is then used to determine the final results. In handicap Stableford competitions, a player's handicap is distributed according to predetermined hole ratings (stroke index) and strokes deducted accordingly from each hole score before calculating the points for that hole. In match play, the handicap difference between players (or teams) is used to determine the number of strokes the high handicap player should receive from the low handicapper during the playing of their round; each of these strokes are received on the lowest numbered stroke index holes. Stroke allowances may sometimes be reduced by a set percentage in order to maintain the level playing field; this is especially common in pairs and team competitions. Course Rating, (Standard) Scratch Score, Scratch Rating, and Standard Rating are largely equivalent ratings that are used to indicate the average "good score" by a scratch golfer for a set of tees on a golf course. For a par 72 course, the course rating is generally between 67 and 77. There are different methods of calculating the Course Rating, with the length of the course and its obstacles being the biggest factors. Some systems use only these two, or even length alone, but most modern handicapping systems now use the USGA Course Rating system which assesses the difficulty of all aspects of the course, e.g. altitude, wide or narrow fairways, length of any rough, the size and contours of the greens, etc.Some handicapping systems provide for an adjustment to the course rating to account for variations in playing conditions on any given day, e.g. course setup and weather, and it is against this adjusted rating that handicaps are assessed and maintained. Examples of adjusted ratings are Playing Conditions Calculation (World Handicap System), Competition Scratch Score (CONGU Unified Handicapping System), Daily Scratch Rating (Golf Australia Handicap System), and Calculated Rating (South African Handicap System). Analogous to course rating is the bogey rating, which is a measure of the playing difficulty of a course for a bogey golfer. Devised by the USGA, the Slope Rating of a golf course describes the relative difficulty of a course for a bogey golfer compared to a scratch golfer. Slope Ratings are in the range 55 to 155, with a course of standard relative difficulty having a rating of 113; the higher the number, the more relatively difficult the course is. In most major handicapping systems, a golfer does not use their exact handicap (or handicap index) directly, but use it to produce their playing or course handicap. For some systems, this means simply rounding the exact handicap to the nearest whole number; however, systems that use slope ratings require a more complex calculation to produce a course handicap with some also factoring in the course rating: Course handicap = ( handicap index ร— slope rating ) 113 {\displaystyle {\mbox{Course handicap}}={\frac {({\mbox{handicap index}}\times {\mbox{slope rating}})}{\mbox{113}}}} or Course handicap = ( handicap index ร— slope rating ) 113 + ( course rating โˆ’ par ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{Course handicap}}={\frac {({\mbox{handicap index}}\times {\mbox{slope rating}})}{\mbox{113}}}+({\mbox{course rating}}-{\mbox{par}})} The USGA and Golf Australia systems use the first calculation; the WHS, EGA, and Golf RSA systems use the second. Under CONGU's Unified Handicapping System the exact handicap is rounded to the nearest whole number to produce the playing handicap, and in the Argentinian system the exact handicap is used directly. A playing handicap may also refer to the stroke allowance for a given competition dependent on playing format, and is generally calculated as a percentage of the course handicap. The Stroke Index is a number that has been assigned to each hole on a golf course, and usually printed on the scorecard, to indicate on which holes handicap strokes should be applied. On an 18-hole course, each hole is assigned a different number from 1 to 18 (1 to 9 on a 9-hole course). The lowest numbers are usually given to the holes where a higher handicapper is most likely to benefit, and the highest numbers to the holes they are least likely to benefit. Odd numbers will be allocated to either the first or second 9-holes (and even numbers to the other) to ensure a balanced distribution of handicap strokes, and guidelines generally recommend avoiding having the lowest numbers at the start or end of each nine in order to prevent early stroke allowances in playoffs between golfers with similar handicaps or strokes going unused if they are at the end. Most of the commonly used handicap systems seek to reduce the impact of very high scores on one or more individual holes on the calculation and updating of handicaps. This is achieved by setting a maximum score on each hole, which is only used for handicapping purposes; i.e. it is not used for determining results of competitions or matches. This maximum hole score is either a fixed number or a net score relative to par. Equitable Stroke Control (ESC) and net double bogey (also called Stableford Points Adjustments) are the two most common mechanisms for defining a maximum hole score. Handicap (or score) differentials are a feature of many handicapping systems. They are a standardized measure of a golfers performance, adjusted to take account of the course being played. Normally the overall score will be adjusted prior to the calculation, e.g. by means of ESC or net double bogey. The course rating may also be adjusted to take account of conditions on the day. For handicapping systems that use course and slope ratings, a typical calculation is as follows: Handicap differential = ( adjusted score โˆ’ course rating ) ร— 113 slope rating {\displaystyle {\mbox{Handicap differential}}={\frac {({\mbox{adjusted score}}-{\mbox{course rating}})\times {\mbox{113}}}{\mbox{slope rating}}}} The differentials are used both to calculate initial handicaps and maintain existing ones, by taking a mean average of a set number of the best recent differentials (e.g. the USGA system uses the best 10 differentials from the last 20 scores). For other handicapping systems, the differentials are simply the difference between the (adjusted) gross or net scores and a specified standard rating (e.g. course rating, standard scratch score, etc.), and they are used in different ways to maintain handicaps. In golf clubs, peer review is usually managed by an elected Handicap Secretary who, supported by a small committee, conducts an Annual Review of the handicaps of all members and assesses ad hoc requests from individual members (usually when age or medium to long-term infirmity affects their playing ability). This gives uniformity to handicapping across their club for the setting and maintenance of handicaps with the objective of establishing fair competition between golfers of all abilities. At the regional level, peer review is extended to include rigorous validation of the handicap returns of low handicap golfers. This ensures that only golfers of an appropriate standard gain entry to their elite tournaments. Occasionally, golfers are excluded from the elite game as a consequence of being found to abuse the system. To a degree, these regional bodies also monitor the performance of and provide training for Handicap Secretaries at the club level. Nationally, the peer review is extended further to assessing golfers from external jurisdictions for their suitability for entry into their elite international events. They also play a large part in periodic reviews of the handicapping system itself to improve it for the future. Due to the many different handicapping systems in use around the world, and the many inconsistencies within them, which makes it difficult to compete on an equal footing where another handicap system is in use, the sports major governing bodies, in 2011 The R&A and the USGA began work on creation of a single uniform handicapping system to be used everywhere. In February 2018, they announced that the World Handicap System (WHS) would be launched in 2020. Once introduced, the World Handicap System will continue to be governed by The R&A and the USGA with the six existing major handicapping authorities (the USGA, the Council of National Golf Unions (CONGU) in Great Britain and Ireland, the European Golf Association (EGA), Golf Australia, the South African Golf Association (SAGA), and the Argentine Golf Association (AAG)) administering the system at a local level.The WHS is based on the USGA Course and Slope Rating system, and largely follows the USGA Handicap System while also incorporating features from the six major existing handicap systems. For example, 8 differentials (like the Golf Australia system) are used after net double bogey adjustments (like the CONGU and EGA systems) for handicap calculations, and the WHS course/playing handicap includes a course rating adjustment (like the EGA system). For players with current handicaps, their handicap records in the old systems will be used to produce WHS handicaps; the expectation is that most players will at most see a difference of one or two strokes, if any. A new WHS handicap requires several scores to be submitted; the recommendation is a minimum of 54 holes made up of any number of 9 or 18-hole rounds in order to achieve a reasonable fair and accurate result, although handicaps may be issued from a smaller sample. Handicap adjustments will be made upon submission of any 9 or 18-hole scores with updates published daily; unlike some other systems both competitive and recreational rounds may be submitted by all players (e.g. CONGU's Unified Handicapping System only allows submission of non-qualifying scores by golfers in Category 2 or above). Ongoing handicaps are based on the average of the best 8 differentials, but with an "anchor" to prevent rapid increases that would not necessarily reflect the players true potential. There is also a hole limit of "net double bogey" for handicapping purposes in order to prevent one or two bad holes from having a disproportionate effect. World Handicap System overview A WHS handicap is calculated with a specific arithmetic formula that approximates how many strokes above or below par a player might be able to play, based on the eight best scores of their last twenty rounds. The calculation has several variables: the player's scores from their most recent rounds, and the course and slope ratings from those rounds. A score differential is calculated from each of the scores after any net double bogey adjustments (an adjustment which allows for a maximum number of strokes per hole based on the player's course handicap) have been applied, using the following formula: 18-hole score differential = 113 slope rating ร— ( adjusted score โˆ’ course rating โˆ’ PCC adjustment ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{18-hole score differential}}={\frac {\mbox{113}}{\mbox{slope rating}}}\times ({\mbox{adjusted score}}-{\mbox{course rating}}-{\mbox{PCC adjustment}})} 9-hole score differential = 113 slope rating ร— ( adjusted score โˆ’ course rating โˆ’ ( 0.5 ร— PCC adjustment ) ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{9-hole score differential}}={\frac {\mbox{113}}{\mbox{slope rating}}}\times ({\mbox{adjusted score}}-{\mbox{course rating}}-({\mbox{0.5}}\times {\mbox{PCC adjustment}}))} Only 18-hole differentials are used for the calculation of a handicap index. As such, 9-hole differentials need to be combined before being used, subject to remaining one of the 20 most recent differentials. The system also allows for situations where less than 18 (or 9) hole have been played, subject to a minimum of 14 (or 7) holes having been completed, by "scaling up" with net pars for any missing holes. The score differentials are rounded to one decimal place, and the best 8 from the last 20 submitted scores are then averaged and rounded to one decimal place to produce the handicap index. Initial handicaps are calculated from a minimum of five scores using adjustments that limit each hole score to a maximum of ( par + 5 ) {\displaystyle ({\mbox{par}}+{\mbox{5}})} . If there are at least 5 but fewer than 20 qualifying scores available, the handicap index is calculated using a set number or differentials according to how many scores are available, with an additional adjustment made to that average in some circumstances. The basic formula for calculating the handicap index is as follows (where n {\displaystyle n} is the number of differentials to use), with the result rounded to one decimal place: Handicap index = 1 n โˆ‘ x = 1 n Differential x + adjustment {\displaystyle {\mbox{Handicap index}}={\frac {1}{n}}\sum {x=1}^{n}{\mbox{Differential}}{x}+{\mbox{adjustment}}} The handicap index is not used directly for playing purposes, but used to calculate a course handicap according to the slope rating of the set of tees being used with an adjustment based on the difference between the course rating and par. The result is rounded to the nearest whole number. For competitions, the unrounded course handicap is converted to a playing handicap by applying a handicap allowance, dependent on the format of play. Course Handicap = ( Handicap index ร— Slope Rating ) 113 + ( course rating โˆ’ par ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{Course Handicap}}={\frac {({\mbox{Handicap index}}\times {\mbox{Slope Rating}})}{113}}+({\mbox{course rating}}-{\mbox{par}})} The WHS contains measures reduce a handicap index more quickly in the case of exceptional scoring, and also to prevent a handicap index from rising too quickly. This is done by means of "soft" and "hard" caps based on the lowest index during the previous 365 days; the soft cap reduces increases above 3.0 to 50%, and the hard cap limits increases to 5.0. Updates to a golfer's handicap index are issued daily. Many elements of WHS have flexibility which allows for local authorities to determine their own settings, but the basic handicap index calculation remains the same. Examples include: 9-hole scores may be scaled-up rather than combined; ( course rating โˆ’ par ) {\displaystyle ({\mbox{course rating}}-{\mbox{par}})} may be omitted from the course handicap calculation; and the rounded course handicap may be used in the playing handicap calculation. The first handicap system to be introduced by the USGA was largely the work of Leighton Calkins, who based it on the British "three score average" system where the handicap was calculated as the average of the best three scores to par in the last year. The key difference was the introduction of a par rating (later known as course rating), which was based on the ability of leading amateur Jerome Travers, to account for variances in the playing difficulty of different courses. After initially allowing clubs to determine their own ratings, at the behest of Calkins the USGA quickly began assigning ratings centrally. Course ratings were rounded to the nearest whole number until 1967, when they started being given to one decimal place.In 1947, the number of scores used to calculate handicaps was increased to the best 10 from all scores ever recorded subject to a minimum of 50. However this was not uniformly implemented, with regional associations disagreeing on the total number of rounds to be considered. In 1958, the USGA specified that the best 10 from 25 scores would be used. This was reduced to 10 from 20 in 1967, which remains to this day although a further adjustment was made with the introduction of a "Bonus of Excellence" multiplier to equalize handicaps and give better players a marginal advantage. Originally 85%, the multiplier was changed to 96% after being seen to favor better players too heavily. In 1974, Equitable Stroke Control was adopted in order to eliminate the effect of very high individual hole scores on handicap calculations.With the system still not accounting for variances in playing difficulty for golfers of different abilities, in 1979 the USGA set to work on how to address the issue with the creation of the Handicap Research Team. The result of their work was the creation of what is now the Slope system. Slope was gradually introduced, firstly in Colorado in 1982, before being implemented nationally from 1987. The USGA then set about making further refinements to the course rating system, which at the time was still largely dependent on length, to take account of many other factors affecting scoring ability for a scratch golfer. The USGA Course and Slope Rating system is now used by most of the world's major handicapping systems.The USGA Handicap System is used throughout the jurisdiction of the USGA (i.e. the United States and Mexico), and is also licensed for use in many other countries around the world, e.g. Canada. The USGA has often resorted to the courts to protect the integrity of its handicap system. In one such case, the California Court of Appeal (First District) summarized the system's history: The USGA was founded in 1894. One of its chief contributions to the game of golf in the United States has been its development and maintenance since 1911 of the USGA handicap system ... designed to enable individual golf players of different abilities to compete fairly with one another. Because permitting individual golfers to issue their handicaps to themselves would inevitably lead to inequities and abuse, the peer review provided by authorized golf clubs and associations has always been an essential part of the [system]. Therefore, to protect the integrity and credibility of its [handicap system], the USGA has consistently followed a policy of only permitting authorized golf associations and clubs to issue USGA handicaps ... In 1979, USGA assembled a handicap research team to investigate widespread criticisms of USGA's then-existing handicap formula. The research team invested approximately a decade and up to $2 million conducting intensive analysis and evaluation of the various factors involved in developing a more accurate and satisfactory [system]. As a result, the research team developed new handicap formulas ... designed to measure the overall difficulty of golf courses, compare individual golfers with other golfers of all abilities, take account of differences between tournament and casual play, and adjust aberrant scores on individual holes. USGA subsequently adopted and implemented these new [f]ormulas between 1987 and 1993. USGA Handicap System overview A USGA handicap is calculated with a specific arithmetic formula that approximates how many strokes above or below par a player might be able to play, based on the ten best scores of their last twenty rounds. The calculation has several variables: the player's scores from their most recent rounds, and the course and slope ratings from those rounds. A handicap differential is calculated from each of the scores after Equitable Stroke Control (ESC), an adjustment which allows for a maximum number of strokes per hole based on the player's course handicap, has been applied using the following formula: Handicap differential = ( ESC adjusted score โˆ’ course rating ) ร— 113 slope rating {\displaystyle {\mbox{Handicap differential}}={\frac {({\mbox{ESC adjusted score}}-{\mbox{course rating}})\times {\mbox{113}}}{\mbox{slope rating}}}} The handicap differentials are rounded to one decimal place, and the best 10 from the last 20 submitted scores are then averaged, before being multiplied by 0.96 (the "bonus of excellence") and truncated to one decimal place to produce the handicap index. Initial handicaps are calculated from a minimum of five scores using ESC adjustments based on the course handicap corresponding to a handicap index of 36.4 for men or 40.4 for women. If there are at least 5 but fewer than 20 qualifying scores available, the handicap index is calculated using a set number or differentials according to how many scores are available. The basic formula for calculating the handicap index is as follows (where n {\displaystyle n} is the number of differentials to use), with the result truncated to one decimal place: Handicap index = 0.96 n โˆ‘ x = 1 n Differential x {\displaystyle {\mbox{Handicap index}}={\frac {0.96}{n}}\sum {x=1}^{n}{\mbox{Differential}}{x}} The handicap index is not used directly for playing purposes, but used to calculate a course handicap according to the slope rating of the set of tees being used. The result is rounded to the nearest whole number. Course Handicap = ( Handicap index ร— Slope Rating ) 113 {\displaystyle {\mbox{Course Handicap}}={\frac {({\mbox{Handicap index}}\times {\mbox{Slope Rating}})}{113}}} Updates to a golfer's handicap index are issued periodically, generally once or twice per month depending on the local state and regional golf associations. Following a meeting of the four men's golf unions of Great Britain and Ireland in York arranged by The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in 1924, the British Golf Unions Joint Advisory Committee (later Council of National Golf Unions) was formed. The organization was tasked with creating a handicapping system that would be equitable to golfers of varying ability, and as a result the Standard Scratch Score and Handicapping Scheme was devised. The system was introduced in 1926, and used a "scratch score" system to rate courses, taking account that courses may play easier or more difficult than par.A new system was introduced in 1983, which incorporated features of the Australian system. This was further revised in 1989 with the introduction of the Competition Scratch Score (CSS), an adjustment to the Standard Scratch Score (SSS), to take account of variances in course conditions (setup, weather, etc.) on a given day. Further significant changes came in 1993 (buffer zones) and 1997 (Stableford Points Adjustment). In 2002, the Council of National Golf Unions (CONGU) and the Ladies' Golf Union (LGU) began working together (the LGU had adopted a system similar to that of CONGU in 1998) and in February 2004 the Unified Handicapping System (UHS) came into force.The Unified Handicapping System is used to manage handicaps for both men and women who are members of affiliated golf clubs in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The system is published by CONGU and administered by each of the individual unions on behalf of their members, with handicaps being managed locally by someone at each club; this person normally holds the position of competitions or handicap secretary. Unified Handicapping System overview Under the Unified Handicapping System, initial handicaps are allocated based on returned scores from 54 holes, usually three 18-hole rounds. The number of strokes taken on each hole is adjusted to maximum of double the par of the hole before adding up the scores; adjustments were previously 2 over par for men and 3 over par for women. The best of the "adjusted gross differentials" (AGD) between the adjusted score and the Standard Scratch Score (SSS) is taken to calculate the initial handicap using the following formula, with the result truncated to give a whole number: Initial handicap = ( Lowest AGD + ( Lowest AGD ร— 0.13 ) ) 1.237 {\displaystyle {\mbox{Initial handicap}}={\frac {({\mbox{Lowest AGD}}+({\mbox{Lowest AGD}}\times {\mbox{0.13}}))}{\mbox{1.237}}}} Adjustments may be made to the initial handicap should it be deemed necessary to ensure it is reasonably fair. Handicaps are given to one decimal place and divided into categories with the lowest handicaps being in Category 1. Prior to 2018, the highest handicaps were in Category 4 for men, with a maximum of 28.0, and Category 5 for women, with a maximum of 36.0, with provision for higher "club" or "disability" handicaps up to a limit of 54.0 for those who cannot play to these lower limits. In 2018, handicap limits were standardized at 54.0 and a Category 5 was introduced for men, and a new Category 6 for all, replacing the club and disability category (see table below). The exact handicap is rounded to the nearest whole number to give the playing handicap. Many handicap competitions still have maximum limits of 28 for men and 36 for women. For all qualifying scores that are returned, adjustments are made to a players exact handicap based on the Competition Scratch Score (CSS). All hole scores are first adjusted to a maximum of net 2-over par with handicap strokes being used per the stroke index published on the scorecard; this is called Stableford or net double-bogey adjustment. Every stroke the adjusted net score is below the CSS triggers a reduction dependent on the players handicap category; for Category 1 this is 0.1 per stroke, for Category 2 it is 0.2, etc. Should the adjusted net score exceed the CSS , there is a buffer zone equivalent to the handicap category before a 0.1 increase is applied, which is the same for all categories; for Category 1 there is 1 stroke buffer, for Category 2 it is 2 strokes, etc. The Competition Scratch Score is an adjustment to the Standard Scratch Score computed from all scores returned and is in the range ( S S S โˆ’ 1 ) {\displaystyle (SSS-1)} to ( S S S + 3 ) {\displaystyle (SSS+3)} with provision for "reduction only" when scoring conditions have proved especially difficult. In addition to playing in qualifying competitions, golfers in Category 2 and above may also submit a number of supplementary scores in order to maintain their handicap; primarily a feature to accommodate golfers who play in few competitions and allow them to maintain current handicaps, it is also used by people who wish to try and get their handicap down while they are playing well. There are other mechanisms in the system to reduce or increase handicaps more quickly. Every year all handicaps are reviewed and adjusted if necessary to ensure they remain fair and accurate. In addition, any very good scores are monitored throughout the year and an exceptional scoring reduction may be applied if certain triggers are reached. Historically calculating the CSS and any handicap adjustments was done manually by means of published tables, but this is now computerized with handicaps being published to a Centralised Database of Handicaps (CDH). The EGA Handicap System is the European Golf Association's method of evaluating golf abilities so that players of different standards can compete in handicap events on equal terms. It is based on Stableford scoring and has some similarities to both the CONGU system, with regards to handicap categories and adjustments, and to the USGA system, with regards to the use of course and slope ratings and calculating playing handicaps. The first version of the system was introduced in 2000. EGA Handicap System overview Under the EGA Handicap System, initial handicaps require just a single 9 or 18-hole score recorded using the maximum handicap of 54. The handicap is then calculated from the number of Stableford points scored. Initial handicap = 54 โˆ’ ( Stableford points โˆ’ 36 ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{Initial handicap}}={\mbox{54}}-({\mbox{Stableford points}}-{\mbox{36}})} EGA handicaps are given to one decimal place and divided into categories, with the lowest handicaps being in Category 1 and the highest in Category 6 (see table below). The handicap is not used directly for playing purposes and a calculation must be done to determine a "playing handicap" specific to the course being played and set of tees being used. For handicaps in categories 1 to 5, the formula is as follows with the result rounded to the nearest whole number: Playing handicap = ( handicap index โˆ’ slope rating ) 113 + ( course rating โˆ’ par ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{Playing handicap}}={\frac {({\mbox{handicap index}}-{\mbox{slope rating}})}{\mbox{113}}}+({\mbox{course rating}}-{\mbox{par}})} And for category 6 a "playing handicap differential" is used, which is equal to the playing handicap for a handicap index of 36.0: Playing handicap = ( handicap index + playing handicap differential ) {\displaystyle {\mbox{Playing handicap}}=({\mbox{handicap index}}+{\mbox{playing handicap differential}})} For all qualifying scores that are returned, adjustments are made to a players handicap index. All scores are first converted into Stableford points if necessary (i.e. rounds played using another scoring method, e.g. stroke play), effectively applying a net double bogey adjustment, and then for every point scored above the buffer zone there is a reduction applied to the players handicap index according to their handicap category; for Category 1 this is 0.1 per point, for Category 2 it is 0.2, etc. Should the number of points scored be below the buffer zone, a fixed increase of 0.1 is applied to the handicap index regardless of category. The EGA system also takes account of variations in playing difficulty on any given competition day by means of a Computed Buffer Adjustment (CBA) which adjusts the buffer zones by between โˆ’1 and +2 with provision for "reductions only" when scoring is especially difficult. The CBA replaced the previous Competition Stableford Adjustment method, which adjusted player's Stableford scores directly, in 2013. In addition to playing in qualifying competitions, golfers in Category 2 and above may also submit a number of extra day scores in order to maintain their handicap. Handicaps are also reviewed annually and any necessary adjustments made. The Golf Australia Handicap System is maintained on GOLF Link, which was a world-first computerized handicapping system developed by Golf Australia's predecessor, the Australian Golf Union (AGU) in the 1990s. When GOLF Link was first introduced it contained two key characteristics that set it apart from other world handicapping systems at the time: It used a Calculated Course Rating (CCR) to determine how difficult the course was on the day, and upon which handicap adjustment was made. It utilized a 'swipe' card that enabled a player to access his handicap from any GOLF Link terminal in Australia.In April 2010 GA adopted the USGA calculation method using the average of the best 10 differentials of the player's past 20 total rounds, multiplied by 0.96. In September 2011 this was altered to the best 8 out of 20 rounds, multiplied by 0.93. The reasons for these changes were cited to restore equity between high and low handicaps. An โ€˜anchorโ€™ so that handicaps could not increase by more than 5 in a rolling 12-month period, slope ratings, and a more sophisticated version of CCR called the Daily Scratch Rating (DSR) were implemented on January 23, 2014. GA Handicap System overview The GA Handicap System is based on the Stableford scoring system, and uses slope and course rating (called "Scratch Rating"). For handicapping purposes, the scratch rating is adjusted to reflect scoring conditions ("Daily Scratch Rating"), and all scores are converted into Stableford points, called the Stableford Handicap Adjustment (SHA) and inherently applying net double bogey adjustments, regardless of the scoring system being used while playing.Handicaps are calculated from the best 8 adjusted differentials, called "sloped played to" results, from the most recent 20 scores. Should there be 3 or more but fewer than 20 scores available, a specified number of "sloped played to" results are used, per the table below. New handicaps require 3 18-hole scores to be submitted (or any combination of 9 and 18-hole scores totaling 54 holes played) using a "Temporary Daily Handicap" of 36 for men or 45 for women in order to calculate the necessary "sloped played to" results. "Sloped played to" results are calculated using the following formula and rounded to one decimal place: Sloped played to = ( Par + Daily handicap โˆ’ ( Stableford points โˆ’ 36 ) โˆ’ Daily scratch rating ) ร— 113 Slope Rating {\displaystyle {\mbox{Sloped played to}}=({\mbox{Par}}+{\mbox{Daily handicap}}-({\mbox{Stableford points}}-{\mbox{36}})-{\mbox{Daily scratch rating}})\times {\frac {\mbox{113}}{\mbox{Slope Rating}}}} To calculate the GA handicap, the "sloped played to" results are averaged and multiplied by a factor of 0.93, which is intended to equalize the handicap in favor of better players. The formula for calculating a GA handicap is as follows (where n {\displaystyle n} is the number of differentials to use), with the result truncated to one decimal place: GA handicap = 0.93 n โˆ‘ x = 1 n Sloped played to x {\displaystyle {\mbox{GA handicap}}={\frac {0.93}{n}}\sum {x=1}^{n}{\mbox{Sloped played to}}{x}} The GA handicap is used to create a "daily handicap", specific to the course and set of tees being used, using the following formula with the result rounded to the nearest whole number: Daily handicap = GA handicap ร— Slope Rating 113 {\displaystyle {\mbox{Daily handicap}}={\frac {{\mbox{GA handicap}}\times {\mbox{Slope Rating}}}{\mbox{113}}}} Before 2018, the South African Handicap System used a propriety course rating system without slope, called Standard Rating, which included specific calculations for length and altitude. Handicaps were calculated using the best 10 from the last 20 differentials, with differentials derived by means of a simple (Standard Rating โˆ’ Adjusted Gross) formula. The system previously calculated handicaps against an adjusted Standard Rating (called Calculated Rating) but this was suspended in 2012. Playing handicaps were simply the exact handicap, rounded to the nearest whole number.In September 2018, the renamed GolfRSA Handicap System adopted the USGA Course and Slope Rating system. This necessitated a few additional changes (e.g. playing handicap and differential calculations), but the system retained all other features (e.g. Adjusted Gross and no daily course rating adjustment). The playing handicap under the GolfRSA system includes the difference between the Course Rating and Par.In October 2019, further changes were made which brought the GolfRSA Handicap System further into line with the upcoming World Handicap System. The changes introduced included reducing the number of differentials used in handicap calculations from 10 down to 8, net double bogey as the maximum score per hole, reducing the minimum number of valid 18-hole scores required for handicapping to three, and exceptional scoring reductions. The Argentine Golf Association (AAG) handicapping system is a relatively simple one, using only a course rating, without slope. New handicaps require the submission of scorecards from five 18-hole rounds (or ten 9-hole rounds). An initial handicap of 25 is normally used as a starting point, which is then adjusted based on the submitted scores. Handicaps are updated once every month, with current handicaps generated from a lookup table using the average of the best eight differentials from the last 16 rounds. Golfers simply use their exact handicap for playing purposes. For the handicapping of golfers who are ineligible for an official handicap, some system options are available: Peoria System The Peoria System was designed for the handicapping of all players competing in an event such as a charity or corporate golf day. Before play commences, the organisers secretly select 6 holes (in readiness for handicapping purposes later) from the course to be played. When players have completed their rounds, they apply the Peoria algorithm to their scores on the selected holes to determine their handicap for that round. They then subtract that handicap from their gross score to give their net score - and the winner is determined in the usual way. Callaway System The Callaway System was designed with the same objective as Peoria. The Callaway handicapping algorithm works by totaling a variable number of "worst" scores achieved (subject to a double-par limit) according to a simple table. A couple of adjustments are then made to this total to give the player's handicap, which is then applied to their gross score as normal. Scheid System The Scheid System is similar to the Callaway System, except a different version of the table is used. System 36 System 36 is a same-day handicapping system similar in function to Callaway System and Peoria System. Throughout the round, the golfer accrues points based on the following formula: Double bogey or worse: 0 points Bogey: 1 point Par or better: 2 pointsAt the end of the round, points earned are tallied. The total is subtracted from 36, and the resulting number is the golfer's handicap allowance. His net score can then be computed using his System 36 handicap allowance. World Handicap System World Handicap System โ€“ Rules of Handicapping USGA Handicap System (used in the United States and Mexico) CONGU Unified Handicapping System (used in Great Britain and Ireland) EGA Handicap System (used in continental Europe) Golf Australia Handicap System (used in Australia) South African Golf Association Handicap System (used in South Africa)This table provides a list of scientific, nationwide public opinion polls that were conducted from the 2019 Canadian federal election leading up to the 44th Canadian federal election, scheduled to take place on or before October 16, 2023. Aside from conducting the usual opinion surveys on general party preferences, polling firms also survey public opinion on who would make the best Prime Minister: A harmonic series (also overtone series) is the sequence of frequencies, musical tones, or pure tones in which each frequency is an integer multiple of a fundamental. Pitched musical instruments are often based on an acoustic resonator such as a string or a column of air, which oscillates at numerous modes simultaneously. At the frequencies of each vibrating mode, waves travel in both directions along the string or air column, reinforcing and canceling each other to form standing waves. Interaction with the surrounding air causes audible sound waves, which travel away from the instrument. Because of the typical spacing of the resonances, these frequencies are mostly limited to integer multiples, or harmonics, of the lowest frequency, and such multiples form the harmonic series (see harmonic series (mathematics)). The musical pitch of a note is usually perceived as the lowest partial present (the fundamental frequency), which may be the one created by vibration over the full length of the string or air column, or a higher harmonic chosen by the player. The musical timbre of a steady tone from such an instrument is strongly affected by the relative strength of each harmonic. A "complex tone" (the sound of a note with a timbre particular to the instrument playing the note) "can be described as a combination of many simple periodic waves (i.e., sine waves) or partials, each with its own frequency of vibration, amplitude, and phase." (See also, Fourier analysis.) A partial is any of the sine waves (or "simple tones", as Ellis calls them when translating Helmholtz) of which a complex tone is composed, not necessarily with an integer multiple of the lowest harmonic. A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, an ideal set of frequencies that are positive integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency. The fundamental is obviously a harmonic because it is 1 times itself. A harmonic partial is any real partial component of a complex tone that matches (or nearly matches) an ideal harmonic.An inharmonic partial is any partial that does not match an ideal harmonic. Inharmonicity is a measure of the deviation of a partial from the closest ideal harmonic, typically measured in cents for each partial.Many pitched acoustic instruments are designed to have partials that are close to being whole-number ratios with very low inharmonicity; therefore, in music theory, and in instrument design, it is convenient, although not strictly accurate, to speak of the partials in those instruments' sounds as "harmonics", even though they may have some degree of inharmonicity. The piano, one of the most important instruments of western tradition, contains a certain degree of inharmonicity among the frequencies generated by each string. Other pitched instruments, especially certain percussion instruments, such as marimba, vibraphone, tubular bells, timpani, and singing bowls contain mostly inharmonic partials, yet may give the ear a good sense of pitch because of a few strong partials that resemble harmonics. Unpitched, or indefinite-pitched instruments, such as cymbals and tam-tams make sounds (produce spectra) that are rich in inharmonic partials and may give no impression of implying any particular pitch. An overtone is any partial above the lowest partial. The term overtone does not imply harmonicity or inharmonicity and has no other special meaning other than to exclude the fundamental. It is mostly the relative strength of the different overtones that give an instrument its particular timbre, tone color, or character. When writing or speaking of overtones and partials numerically, care must be taken to designate each correctly to avoid any confusion of one for the other, so the second overtone may not be the third partial, because it is the second sound in a series.Some electronic instruments, such as synthesizers, can play a pure frequency with no overtones (a sine wave). Synthesizers can also combine pure frequencies into more complex tones, such as to simulate other instruments. Certain flutes and ocarinas are very nearly without overtones. One of the simplest cases to visualise is a vibrating string, as in the illustration; the string has fixed points at each end, and each harmonic mode divides it into 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., equal-sized sections resonating at increasingly higher frequencies. Similar arguments apply to vibrating air columns in wind instruments (for example, "the French horn was originally a valveless instrument that could play only the notes of the harmonic series"), although these are complicated by having the possibility of anti-nodes (that is, the air column is closed at one end and open at the other), conical as opposed to cylindrical bores, or end-openings that run the gamut from no flare, cone flare, or exponentially shaped flares (such as in various bells). In most pitched musical instruments, the fundamental (first harmonic) is accompanied by other, higher-frequency harmonics. Thus shorter-wavelength, higher-frequency waves occur with varying prominence and give each instrument its characteristic tone quality. The fact that a string is fixed at each end means that the longest allowed wavelength on the string (which gives the fundamental frequency) is twice the length of the string (one round trip, with a half cycle fitting between the nodes at the two ends). Other allowed wavelengths are โ€‹1โ„2, โ€‹1โ„3, โ€‹1โ„4, โ€‹1โ„5, โ€‹1โ„6, etc. times that of the fundamental. Theoretically, these shorter wavelengths correspond to vibrations at frequencies that are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc., times the fundamental frequency. Physical characteristics of the vibrating medium and/or the resonator it vibrates against often alter these frequencies. (See inharmonicity and stretched tuning for alterations specific to wire-stringed instruments and certain electric pianos.) However, those alterations are small, and except for precise, highly specialized tuning, it is reasonable to think of the frequencies of the harmonic series as integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. The harmonic series is an arithmetic progression (1ร—f, 2ร—f, 3ร—f, 4ร—f, 5ร—f, ...). In terms of frequency (measured in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz) where f is the fundamental frequency), the difference between consecutive harmonics is therefore constant and equal to the fundamental. But because human ears respond to sound nonlinearly, higher harmonics are perceived as "closer together" than lower ones. On the other hand, the octave series is a geometric progression (2ร—f, 4ร—f, 8ร—f, 16ร—f, ...), and people perceive these distances as "the same" in the sense of musical interval. In terms of what one hears, each octave in the harmonic series is divided into increasingly "smaller" and more numerous intervals. The second harmonic, whose frequency is twice the fundamental, sounds an octave higher; the third harmonic, three times the frequency of the fundamental, sounds a perfect fifth above the second harmonic. The fourth harmonic vibrates at four times the frequency of the fundamental and sounds a perfect fourth above the third harmonic (two octaves above the fundamental). Double the harmonic number means double the frequency (which sounds an octave higher). As Mersenne writes, "the order of the Consonances is natural, and ... the way we count them, starting from unity up to the number six and beyond is founded in nature." However, to quote Carl Dahlhaus, "the interval-distance of the natural-tone-row [overtones] [...], counting up to 20, includes everything from the octave to the quarter tone, (and) useful and useless musical tones. The natural-tone-row [harmonic series] justifies everything, that means, nothing." If the harmonics are octave displaced and compressed into the span of one octave, some of them are approximated by the notes of what the West has adopted as the chromatic scale based on the fundamental tone. The Western chromatic scale has been modified into twelve equal semitones, which is slightly out of tune with many of the harmonics, especially the 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonics. In the late 1930s, composer Paul Hindemith ranked musical intervals according to their relative dissonance based on these and similar harmonic relationships.Below is a comparison between the first 31 harmonics and the intervals of 12-tone equal temperament (12TET), octave displaced and compressed into the span of one octave. Tinted fields highlight differences greater than 5 cents (โ€‹1โ„20th of a semitone), which is the human ear's "just noticeable difference" for notes played one after the other (smaller differences are noticeable with notes played simultaneously). The frequencies of the harmonic series, being integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, are naturally related to each other by whole-numbered ratios and small whole-numbered ratios are likely the basis of the consonance of musical intervals (see just intonation). This objective structure is augmented by psychoacoustic phenomena. For example, a perfect fifth, say 200 and 300 Hz (cycles per second), causes a listener to perceive a combination tone of 100 Hz (the difference between 300 Hz and 200 Hz); that is, an octave below the lower (actual sounding) note. This 100 Hz first-order combination tone then interacts with both notes of the interval to produce second-order combination tones of 200 (300 โ€“ 100) and 100 (200 โ€“ 100) Hz and all further nth-order combination tones are all the same, being formed from various subtraction of 100, 200, and 300. When one contrasts this with a dissonant interval such as a tritone (not tempered) with a frequency ratio of 7:5 one gets, for example, 700 โ€“ 500 = 200 (1st order combination tone) and 500 โ€“ 200 = 300 (2nd order). The rest of the combination tones are octaves of 100 Hz so the 7:5 interval actually contains 4 notes: 100 Hz (and its octaves), 300 Hz, 500 Hz and 700 Hz. Note that the lowest combination tone (100 Hz) is a 17th (2 octaves and a major third) below the lower (actual sounding) note of the tritone. All the intervals succumb to similar analysis as has been demonstrated by Paul Hindemith in his book The Craft of Musical Composition, although he rejected the use of harmonics from the 7th and beyond.The mixolydian mode is consonant with the first 10 harmonics of the harmonic series (the 11th harmonic, a tritone, is not in the mixolydian mode). The ionian mode is consonant with only the first 6 harmonics of the series (the 7th harmonic, a minor seventh, is not in the ionian mode). The relative amplitudes (strengths) of the various harmonics primarily determine the timbre of different instruments and sounds, though onset transients, formants, noises, and inharmonicities also play a role. For example, the clarinet and saxophone have similar mouthpieces and reeds, and both produce sound through resonance of air inside a chamber whose mouthpiece end is considered closed. Because the clarinet's resonator is cylindrical, the even-numbered harmonics are less present. The saxophone's resonator is conical, which allows the even-numbered harmonics to sound more strongly and thus produces a more complex tone. The inharmonic ringing of the instrument's metal resonator is even more prominent in the sounds of brass instruments. Human ears tend to group phase-coherent, harmonically-related frequency components into a single sensation. Rather than perceiving the individual partialsโ€“harmonic and inharmonic, of a musical tone, humans perceive them together as a tone color or timbre, and the overall pitch is heard as the fundamental of the harmonic series being experienced. If a sound is heard that is made up of even just a few simultaneous sine tones, and if the intervals among those tones form part of a harmonic series, the brain tends to group this input into a sensation of the pitch of the fundamental of that series, even if the fundamental is not present. Variations in the frequency of harmonics can also affect the perceived fundamental pitch. These variations, most clearly documented in the piano and other stringed instruments but also apparent in brass instruments, are caused by a combination of metal stiffness and the interaction of the vibrating air or string with the resonating body of the instrument. David Cope (1997) suggests the concept of interval strength, in which an interval's strength, consonance, or stability (see consonance and dissonance) is determined by its approximation to a lower and stronger, or higher and weaker, position in the harmonic series. See also: Lippsโ€“Meyer law. Thus, an equal-tempered perfect fifth (play ) is stronger than an equal-tempered minor third (play ), since they approximate a just perfect fifth (play ) and just minor third (play ), respectively. The just minor third appears between harmonics 5 and 6 while the just fifth appears lower, between harmonics 2 and 3. A divisibility rule is a shorthand way of determining whether a given integer is divisible by a fixed divisor without performing the division, usually by examining its digits. Although there are divisibility tests for numbers in any radix, or base, and they are all different, this article presents rules and examples only for decimal, or base 10, numbers. Martin Gardner explained and popularized these rules in his September 1962 "Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American. The rules given below transform a given number into a generally smaller number, while preserving divisibility by the divisor of interest. Therefore, unless otherwise noted, the resulting number should be evaluated for divisibility by the same divisor. In some cases the process can be iterated until the divisibility is obvious; for others (such as examining the last n digits) the result must be examined by other means. For divisors with multiple rules, the rules are generally ordered first for those appropriate for numbers with many digits, then those useful for numbers with fewer digits. Note: To test divisibility by any number that can be expressed as 2n or 5n, in which n is a positive integer, just examine the last n digits. Note: To test divisibility by any number expressed as the product of prime factors p 1 n p 2 m p 3 q {\displaystyle p_{1}^{n}p_{2}^{m}p_{3}^{q}} , we can separately test for divisibility by each prime to its appropriate power. For example, testing divisibility by 24 (24 = 83 = 233) is equivalent to testing divisibility by 8 (23) and 3 simultaneously, thus we need only show divisibility by 8 and by 3 to prove divisibility by 24. First, take any number (for this example it will be 376) and note the last digit in the number, discarding the other digits. Then take that digit (6) while ignoring the rest of the number and determine if it is divisible by 2. If it is divisible by 2, then the original number is divisible by 2. Example 376 (The original number) 37 6 (Take the last digit) 6 รท 2 = 3 (Check to see if the last digit is divisible by 2) 376 รท 2 = 188 (If the last digit is divisible by 2, then the whole number is divisible by 2) First, take any number (for this example it will be 492) and add together each digit in the number (4 + 9 + 2 = 15). Then take that sum (15) and determine if it is divisible by 3. The original number is divisible by 3 (or 9) if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 (or 9). Adding the digits of a number up, and then repeating the process with the result until only one digit remains, will give the remainder of the original number if it were divided by nine (unless that single digit is nine itself, in which case the number is divisible by nine and the remainder is zero). This can be generalized to any standard positional system, in which the divisor in question then becomes one less than the radix; thus, in base-twelve, the digits will add up to the remainder of the original number if divided by eleven, and numbers are divisible by eleven only if the digit sum is divisible by eleven. If a number is a multiplication of 3 identical consecutive digits in any order, then that number is always divisible by 3. This is useful for when the number takes the form of (n ร— (n โˆ’ 1) ร— (n + 1)) Example. 492 (The original number) 4 + 9 + 2 = 15 (Add each individual digit together) 15 is divisible by 3 at which point we can stop. Alternatively we can continue using the same method if the number is still too large: 1 + 5 = 6 (Add each individual digit together) 6 รท 3 = 2 (Check to see if the number received is divisible by 3) 492 รท 3 = 164 (If the number obtained by using the rule is divisible by 3, then the whole number is divisible by 3)Example. 336 (The original number) 6 ร— 7 ร— 8 = 336 336 รท 3 = 112 The basic rule for divisibility by 4 is that if the number formed by the last two digits in a number is divisible by 4, the original number is divisible by 4; this is because 100 is divisible by 4 and so adding hundreds, thousands, etc. is simply adding another number that is divisible by 4. If any number ends in a two digit number that you know is divisible by 4 (e.g. 24, 04, 08, etc.), then the whole number will be divisible by 4 regardless of what is before the last two digits. Alternatively, one can simply divide the number by 2, and then check the result to find if it is divisible by 2. If it is, the original number is divisible by 4. In addition, the result of this test is the same as the original number divided by 4. Example.General rule 2092 (The original number) 20 92 (Take the last two digits of the number, discarding any other digits) 92 รท 4 = 23 (Check to see if the number is divisible by 4) 2092 รท 4 = 523 (If the number that is obtained is divisible by 4, then the original number is divisible by 4)Alternative example 1720 (The original number) 1720 รท 2 = 860 (Divide the original number by 2) 860 รท 2 = 430 (Check to see if the result is divisible by 2) 1720 รท 4 = 430 (If the result is divisible by 2, then the original number is divisible by 4) Divisibility by 5 is easily determined by checking the last digit in the number (475), and seeing if it is either 0 or 5. If the last number is either 0 or 5, the entire number is divisible by 5.If the last digit in the number is 0, then the result will be the remaining digits multiplied by 2. For example, the number 40 ends in a zero (0), so take the remaining digits (4) and multiply that by two (4 ร— 2 = 8). The result is the same as the result of 40 divided by 5(40/5 = 8). If the last digit in the number is 5, then the result will be the remaining digits multiplied by two (2), plus one (1). For example, the number 125 ends in a 5, so take the remaining digits (12), multiply them by two (12 ร— 2 = 24), then add one (24 + 1 = 25). The result is the same as the result of 125 divided by 5 (125/5=25). Example. If the last digit is 0 110 (The original number) 11 0 (Take the last digit of the numb

Can I have the whole copy of the SONA 2008?

Thank you, Speaker Nograles. Senate President Villar. Senators and Representatives. Vice President de Castro, President Ramos, Chief Justice Puno, members of the diplomatic corps, ladies and gentlemen:I address you today at a crucial moment in world history.Just a few months ago, we ended 2007 with the strongest economic growth in a generation. Inflation was low, the peso strong and a million new jobs were created. We were all looking to a better, brighter future.Because tough choices were made, kumikilos na ang bayan sa wakas. Malapit na sana tayo sa pagbalanse ng budget. We were retiring debts in great amounts, reducing the drag on our country's development, habang namumuhunan sa taong bayan.Biglang-bigla, nabaligtad ang ekonomiya ng mundo. Ang pagtalon ng presyo ng langis at pagkain ay nagbunsod ng pandaigdigan krisis, the worst since the Great Depression and the end of World War II. Some blame speculators moving billions of dollars from subprime mortgages to commodities like fuel and food. Others point of the very real surge in demand as millions of Chinese and Indians move up to the middle class.Whatever the reasons, we are on a roller coaster ride of oil price hikes, high food prices and looming economic recession in the US and other markets. Uncertainty has moved like a terrible tsunami around the globe, wiping away gains, erasing progress.This is a complex time that defies simple and easy solutions. For starters, it is hard to identify villains, unlike in the 1997 financial crisis. Everyone seems to be a victim, rich countries and poor, though certainly some can take more punishment than others.To address these global challenges, we must go on building and buttressing bridges to allies around the world: to bring in the rice to feed our people, investments to create jobs; and to keep the peace and maintain stability in our country and the rest of the world. Yet even as we reach out to those who need, and who may need us, we strive for greater self-reliance.Because tough choices were made, the global crisis did not catch us helpless and unprepared. Through foresight, grit and political will, we built a shield around our country that has slowed down and somewhat softened the worst effects of the global crisis. We have the money to care for our people and pay for food when there are shortages; for fuel despite price spikes.Neither we nor anyone else in the world expected this day to come so soon but we prepared for it. For the guts not to flinch in the face of tough choices, I thank God. For the wisdom to recognize how needed you are, I thank, you Congress. For footing the bill, I thank the taxpayers.The result has been, on the one hand, ito ang nakasalba sa bayan; and, on the other, more unpopularity for myself in the opinion polls. Yet, even unfriendly polls show self-rated poverty down to its 20-year low in 2007.My responsibility as President is to take care to solve the problems we are facing now and to provide a vision and direction for how our nation should advance in the future.Many in this great hall live privileged lives and exert great influence in public affairs. I am accessible to you, but I spend time every day with the underprivileged and under represented who cannot get a grip on their lives in the daily, all-consuming struggle to make ends meet.Nag-aalala ako para sa naka-aawang maybahay na pasan ang pananagutan para sa buong pamilya. Nag-aalala ako para sa magsasakang nasa unang hanay ng pambansang produksyon ng pagkain ngunit nagsisikap pakanin ang pamilya. I care for hardworking students soon to graduate and wanting to see hope of good job and a career prospect here at home.Nag-aalala ako para sa 41-year old na padre de pamilya na di araw-araw ang trabaho, at nag-aabala sa asawa at tatlong anak, at dapat bigyan ng higit pang pagkakakitaan at dangal. I care for our teachers who gave the greatest gift we ever received - a good education - still trying to pass on the same gift to succeeding generations. I care for our OFWs, famed for their skill, integrity and untiring labor, who send home their pay as the only way to touch loved ones so far away. Nagpupugay ako ngayon sa kanilang mga karaniwang Pilipino.My critics say this is fiction, along with other facts and figures I cite today. I call it heroism though they don't need our praise. Each is already a hero to those who matter most, their families.I said this is a global crisis where everyone is a victim. But only few can afford to avoid, or pay to delay, the worst effects.Many more have nothing to protect them from the immediate blunt force trauma of the global crisis. Tulad ninyo, nag-aalala ako para sa kanila. Ito ang mga taong bayan na dapat samahan natin. Not only because of their sacrifices for our country but because they are our countrymen.How do we solve these many complex challenges?Sa kanilang kalagayan, the answer must be special care and attention in this great hour of need.First, we must have a targeted strategy with set of precise prescriptions to ease the price challenges we are facing.Second, food self-sufficiency; less energy dependence; greater self-reliance in our attitude as a people and in our posture as a nation.Third, short-term relief cannot be at the expense of long term reforms. These reforms will benefit not just the next generation of Filipinos, but the next President as well.Napakahalaga ang Value Added Tax sa pagharap sa mga hamong ito.Itong programa ang sagot sa mga problemang namana natin.Una, mabawasan ang ating mga utang and shore up our fiscal independence.Pangalawa, higit na pamumuhunan para mamamayan at imprastraktura.Pangatlo, sapat na pondo para sa mga programang pangmasa.Thus, the infrastructure links programmed for the our poorest provinces like Northern Samar: Lao-ang-Lapinig-Arteche, right now ay maputik, San Isidro-Lope de Vega; the rehabilitation of Maharlika in Samar.Take VAT away and you and I abdicate our responsibility as leaders and pull the rug from under our present and future progress, which may be compromised by the global crisis.Lalong lumakas ang tiwala ng mga investor dahil sa VAT. Mula P56.50 kada dolyar, lumakas ang piso hanggang P40.20 bago bumalik sa P44 dahil sa mga pabigat ng pangdaigdigang ekonomiya. Kung alisin ang VAT, hihina ang kumpiyansa ng negosyo, lalong tataas ang interes, lalong bababa ang piso, lalong mamahal ang bilihin.Kapag ibinasura ang VAT sa langis at kuryente, ang mas makikinabang ay ang mga may kaya na kumukonsumo ng 84% ng langis at 90% ng kuryente habang mas masasaktan ang mahihirap na mawawalan ng P80 billion para sa mga programang pinopondohan ngayon ng VAT. Take away VAT and we strip our people of the means to ride out the world food and energy crisis.We have come too far and made too many sacrifices to turn back now on fiscal reforms. Leadership is not about doing the first easy thing that comes to mind; it is about doing what is necessary, however hard.The government has persevered, without flip-flops, in its much-criticized but irreplaceable policies, including oil and power VAT and oil deregulation.Patuloy na gagamitin ng pamahalaan ang lumalago nating yaman upang tulungan ang mga pamilyang naghihirap sa taas ng bilihin at hampas ng bagyo, habang nagpupundar upang sanggahan ang bayan sa mga krisis sa hinaharap.Para sa mga namamasada at namamasahe sa dyip, sinusugpo natin ang kotong at colorum upang mapataas ang kita ng mga tsuper. Si Federico Alvarez kumikita ng P200 a day sa kaniyang rutang Cubao-Rosario. Tinaas ito ng anti-kotong, anti-colorum ngayon P500 na ang kita niya. Iyan ang paraan kung paano napananatili ang dagdag-pasahe sa piso lamang. Halaga lang ng isang text.Texting is a way of life. I asked the telecoms to cut the cost of messages between networks. They responded. It is now down to 50 centavos.Noong Hunyo, nagpalabas tayo ng apat na bilyong piso mula sa VAT sa langis-dalawang bilyong pambayad ng koryente ng apat na milyong mahihirap, isang bilyon para college scholarship o pautang sa 70,000 na estudyanteng maralita; kalahating bilyong pautang upang palitan ng mas matipid na LPG, CNG o biofuel ang motor ng libu-libong jeepney; at kalahating bilyong pampalit sa fluorescent sa mga pampublikong lugar.Kung mapapalitan ng fluorescent ang lahat ng bumbilya, makatitipid tayo ng lampas P2 billion.Sa sunod na katas ng VAT, may P1 billion na pambayad ng kuryente ng mahihirap; kalahating bilyon para sa matatandang di sakop ng SSS o GSIS; kalahating bilyong kapital para sa pamilya ng mga namamasada; kalahating bilyon upang mapataas ang kakayahan at equipment ng mga munting ospital sa mga lalawigan. At para sa mga kalamidad, angkop na halaga.We released P1 billion for the victims of typhoon Frank. We support a supplemental Western Visayas calamity budget from VAT proceeds, as a tribute to the likes of Rodney Berdin, age 13, of Barangay Rombang, Belison, Antique, who saved his mother, brother and sister from the raging waters of Sibalom River.Mula sa buwang ito, wala nang income tax ang sumusweldo ng P200,000 o mas mababa sa isang taon - P12 billion na bawas-buwis para sa maralita at middle class. Maraming salamat, Congress.Ngayong may P32 na commercial rice, natugunan na natin ang problema sa pagkain sa kasalukuyan. Nagtagumpay tayo dahil sa pagtutulungan ng buong bayan sa pagsasaka, bantay-presyo at paghihigpit sa price manipulation, sa masipag na pamumuno ni Artie Yap.Sa mga LGU at religious groups na tumutulong dalhin ang NFA rice sa mahihirap, maraming salamat sa inyo.Dahil sa subsidy, NFA rice is among the region's cheapest. While we can take some comfort that our situation is better than many other nations, there is no substitute for solving the problem of rice and fuel here at home. In doing so, let us be honest and clear eyed - there has been a fundamental shift in global economics. The price of food and fuel will likely remain high. Nothing will be easy; the government cannot solve these problems over night. But, we can work to ease the near-term pain while investing in long-term solutions.Since 2001, new irrigation systems for 146,000 hectares, including Malmar in Maguindanao and North Cotabato, Lower Agusan, Casecnan and Aulo in Nueva Ecija, Abulog-Apayao in Cagayan and Apayao, Addalam in Quirino and Isabela, among others, and the restoration of old systems on another 980,000 hectares have increased our nation's irrigated land to a historic 1.5 million hectares.Edwin Bandila, 48 years old, of Ugalingan, Carmen, North Cotabato, cultivated one hectare and harvested 35 cavans. Thirteen years na ginawa iyong Malmar. In my first State of the Nation Address, sabi ko kung Hindi matapos iyon sa Setyembre ay kakanselahin ko ang kontrata, papapasukin ko ang engineering brigade, natapos nila. With Malamar, now he cultivates five hectares and produces 97 cavans per hectare. Mabuhay, Edwin! VAT will complete the San Roque-Agno River project.The Land Bank has quadrupled loans for farmers and fisherfolk. That is fact not fiction. Check it. For more effective credit utilization, I instructed DA to revitalize farmers cooperatives.We are providing seeds at subsidized prices to help our farmers.Incremental Malampaya national revenues of P4 billion will go to our rice self-sufficiency program.Rice production since 2000 increased an average of 4.07% a year, twice the population growth rate. By promoting natural planning and female education, we have curbed population growth to 2.04% during our administration, down from the 2.36 in the 1990's, when artificial birth control was pushed. Our campaign spreads awareness of responsible parenthood regarding birth spacing. Long years of pushing contraceptives made it synonymous to family planning. Therefore informed choice should mean letting more couples, who are mostly Catholics, know about natural family planning.From 1978 to 1981, nag-export tayo ng bigas. Hindi tumagal. But let's not be too hard on ourselves. Panahon pa ng Kastila bumibili na tayo ng bigas sa labas. While we may know how to grow rice well, topography doesn't always cooperate.Nature did not gift us with a mighty Mekong like Thailand and Vietnam, with their vast and naturally fertile plains. Nature instead put our islands ahead of our neighbours in the path of typhoons from the Pacific. So, we import 10% of the rice we consume.To meet the challenge of today, we will feed our people now, not later, and help them get through these hard times. To meet the challenges of tomorrow, we must become more self-reliant, self-sufficient and independent, relying on ourselves more than on the world.Now we come to the future of agrarian reform.There are those who say it is a failure, that our rice importations prove it. There are those who say it is a success-if only because anything is better than nothing. Indeed, people are happier owning the land they work, no matter what the difficulties.Sa SONA noong 2001, sinabi ko, bawat taon, mamamahagi tayo ng dalawang daang libong ektarya sa reporma sa lupa: 100,000 hectares of private farmland and 100,000 of public farmland, including ancestral domains. Di hamak mahigit sa target ang naipamahagi natin sa nakaraang pitong taon: 854,000 hectares of private farmland, 797,000 of public farmland, and Certificates of Ancestral Domain for 525,000 hectares. Including, over a 100,000 hectares for Bugkalots in Quirino, Aurora, and Nueva Vizcaya. After the release of their CADT, Rosario Camma, Bugkalot chieftain, and now mayor of Nagtipunan, helped his 15,000-member tribe develop irrigation, plant vegetables and corn and achieve food sufficiency. Mabuhay, Chief!Agrarian reform should not merely subdivide misery, it must raise living standards. Ownership raises the farmer from his but productivity will keep him on his feet.Sinimula ng aking ama ang land reform noong 1963. Upang mabuo ito, the extension of CARP with reforms is top priority. I will continue to do all I can for the rural as well as urban poor. Ayaw natin na paglaya ng tenant sa landlord, mapapasa-ilalim naman sa usurero. Former tenants must be empowered to become agribusinessmen by allowing their land to be used as collateral.Dapat mapalaya ng reporma sa lupa ang magsasaka sa pagiging alipin sa iba. Dapat bigyan ang magsasaka ng dangal bilang taong malaya at di hawak ninuman. We must curb the recklessness that gives land without the means to make it productive and bites off more than beneficiaries can chew.At the same time, I want the rackets out of agrarian reform: the threats to take and therefore undervalue land, the conspiracies to overvalue it.Be with me on this. There must be a path where justice and progress converge. Let us find it before Christmas. Dapat nating linisin ang landas para sa mga ibig magpursige sa pagsasaka, taglay ang pananalig na ang lupa ay sasagip sa atin sa huli kung gamitin natin ito nang maayos.Along with massive rice production, we are cutting costs through more efficient transport. For our farm-to-market roads, we released P6 billion in 2007.On our nautical highways. RORO boats carried 33 million metric tons of cargo and 31 million passengers in 2007. We have built 39 RORO ports during our administration, 12 more are slated to start within the next two years. In 2003, we inaugurated the Western Nautical Highway from Batangas through Mindoro, Panay and Negros to Mindanao. This year we launched the Central Nautical Highway from Bicol mainland, through Masbate, Cebu, Bohol and Camiguin to Mindanao mainland. These developments strengthen our competitiveness.Leading multinational company Nestle cut transport costs and offset higher milk prices abroad. Salamat, RORO. Transport costs have become so reasonable for bakeries like Gardenia, a loaf of its bread in Iloilo is priced the same as in Laguna and Manila. Salamat muli sa RORO.To the many LGUs who have stopped collecting fees from cargo vehicles, maraming, maraming salamat.We are repaving airports that are useful for agriculture, like Zamboanga City Airport.Producing rice and moving it cheaper addresses the supply side of our rice needs. On the demand side, we are boosting the people's buying power.Ginagawa nating labor-intensive ang paggawa at pag-ayos ng kalsada at patubig. Noong SONA ng 2001, naglunsad tayo sa NCR ng patrabaho para sa 20,000 na out of school youth, na tinawag OYSTER. Ngayon, mahigit 20,000 ang ineempleyo ng OYSTER sa buong bansa. In disaster-stricken areas, we have a cash-for-work program.In training, 7.74 million took technical and vocational courses over the last seven years, double the number in the previous 14 years. In 2007 alone, 1.7 million graduated. Among them are Jessica Barlomento now in Hanjin as supply officer, Shenve Catana, Marie Grace Comendador, and Marlyn Tusi, lady welders, congratulations.In microfinance, loans have reached P102 billion or 30 times more than the P3 billion we started with in 2001, with a 98% repayment record, congratulations! Major lenders include the Land Bank with P69 billion, the Peoples' Credit and Finance Corporation P8 billion, the National Livelihood Support Fund P3 billion, DBP P1 billion and the DSWD's SEA-K P800 million. For partnering with us to unleash the entrepreneurial spirit, thank you, Go Negosyo and Joey Concepcion.Upland development benefits farmers through agro-forestry initiatives. Rubber is especially strong in Zamboanga Sibugay and North Cotabato. Victoria Mindoro, 56 years old, used to earn P5,000 a month as farmer and factory worker. Now she owns 10 hectares in the Goodyear Agrarian Reform Community in Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay, she earns P10,000 a week. With one hectare, Pedro and Concordia Faviolas of Makilala, North Cotabato, they sent their six children to college, bought two more hectares, and earn P15,000 a month. Congratulations!Jatropha estates are starting in 900 hectares in and around Tamlang Valley in Negros Oriental; 200 in CamSur; 300 in GenSan, 500 in Fort Magsaysay near the Cordero Dam and 700 in Samar, among others.In our 2006 SONA, our food baskets were identified as North Luzon and Mindanao.The sad irony of Mindanao as food basket is that it has some of the highest hunger in our nation. It has large fields of high productivity, yet also six of our ten poorest provinces.The prime reason is the endless Mindanao conflict. A comprehensive peace has eluded us for half a century. But last night, differences on the tough issue of ancestral domain were resolved. Yes, there are political dynamics among the people of Mindanao. Let us sort them out with the utmost sobriety, patience and restraint. I ask Congress to act on the legislative and political reforms that will lead to a just and lasting peace during our term of office.The demands of decency and compassion urge dialogue. Better talk than fight, if nothing of sovereign value is anyway lost. Dialogue has achieved more than confrontation in many parts of the world. This was the message of the recent World Conference in Madrid organized by the King of Saudi Arabia, and the universal message of the Pope in Sydney.Pope Benedict's encyclical Deus Caritas Est reminds us: "There will always be situations of material need where help in the form of concrete love for neighbour is indispensable."Pinagsasama-sama natin ang mga programa ng DSWD, DOH, GSIS, SSS at iba pang lumalaban sa kahirapan sa isang National Social Welfare Program para proteksyonan ang pinaka-mahihirap mula sa pandaigdigang krisis, and to help those whose earnings are limited by illness, disability, loss of job, age and so on-through livelihood projects, microfinance, skills and technology transfer, emergency and temporary employment, pension funds, food aid and cash subsidies, child nutrition and adult health care, medical missions, salary loans, insurance, housing programs, educational and other savings schemes, and now cheaper medicine-Thanks to Congress.The World Bank says that in Brazil, the income of the poorest 10% has grown 9% per year versus the 3% for the higher income levels due in large part to their family stipend program linking welfare checks to school attendance. We have introduced a similar program, Pantawid Pamilya.Employers have funded the two increases in SSS benefits since 2005. Thank you, employers for paying the premiums.GSIS pensions have been indexed to inflation and have increased every year since 2001. Its salary loan availments have increased from two months equivalent to 10 months, the highest of any system public or private-while repayments have been stretched out.Pag-Ibig housing loans increased from P3.82 billion in 2001 to P22.6 billion in 2007. This year it experienced an 84% increase in the first four months alone. Super heating na. Dapat dagdagan ng GSIS at buksan muli ng SSS ang pautang sa pabahay. I ask Congress to pass a bill allowing SSS to do housing loans beyond the present 10% limitation.Bago ako naging Pangulo, isa't kalahating milyong maralita lamang ang may health insurance. Noong 2001, sabi natin, dadagdagan pa ng kalahating milyon. Sa taong iyon, mahigit isang milyon ang nabigyan natin. Ngayon, 65 milyong Pilipino na ang may health insurance, mahigit doble ng 2000, kasama ang labinlimang milyong maralita. Philhealth has paid P100 billion for hospitalization. The indigent beneficiaries largely come from West and Central Visayas, Central Luzon, and Ilocos. Patuloy nating palalawakin itong napaka-importanted programa, lalo na sa Tawi-Tawi, Zambo Norte, Maguindanao, Apayao, Dinagat, Lanao Sur, Northern Samar, Masbate, Abra and Misamis Occidental. Lalo na sa kanilang mga magsasaka at mangingisda.In these provinces and in Agusan Sur, Kalinga, Surigao Sur and calamity-stricken areas, we will launch a massive school feeding program at P10 per child every school day.Bukod sa libreng edukasyon sa elementarya at high school, nadoble ang pondo para sa mga college scholarships, while private high school scholarship funds from the government have quadrupled.I have started reforming and clustering the programs of the DepEd, CHED and TESDA.As with fiscal and food challenges, the global energy crunch demands better and more focused resource mobilization, conservation and management.Government agencies are reducing their energy and fuel bills by 10%, emulating Texas Instruments and Philippine Stock Exchange who did it last year. Congratulations, Justice Vitug and Francis Lim.To reduce power system losses, we count on government regulators and also on EPIRA amendments.We are successful in increasing energy self-sufficiency-56%, the highest in our history. We promote natural gas and biofuel; geothermal fields, among the world's largest; windmills like those in Ilocos and Batanes; and the solar cells lighting many communities in Mindanao. The new Galoc oil field can produce 17,000-22,000 barrels per day, 1/12 of our crude consumption.The Renewable Energy Bill has passed the House. Thank you, Congressmen.Our costly commodity imports like oil and rice should be offset by hard commodities exports like primary products, and soft ones like tourism and cyberservices, at which only India beats us.Our P 350 million training partnership with the private sector should qualify 60,000 for call centers, medical transcription, animation and software development, which have a projected demand of one million workers generating $13 billion by 2010.International finance agrees with our progress. Credit rating agencies have kept their positive or stable outlook on the country. Our world competitiveness ranking rose five notches. Congratulations to us.We are sticking to, and widening, the fiscal reforms that have earned us their respect.To our investors, thank you for your valuable role in our development. I invite you to invest not only in factories and services, but in profitable infrastructure, following the formula for the Tarlac-Pangasinan-La Union Expressway.I ask business and civil society to continue to work for a socially equitable, economically viable balance of interests. Mining companies should ensure that host communities benefit substantively from their investments, and with no environmental damage from operations.Our administration enacted the Solid Waste Management Act, Wildlife Act, Protection of Plant Varieties, Clean Water Act, Biofuels Act and various laws declaring protected areas.For reforestation, for next year we have budgeted P2 billion. Not only do forests enhance the beauty of the land, they mitigate climate change, a key factor in increasing the frequency and intensity of typhoons and costing the country 0.5% of the GDP.We have set up over 100 marine and fish sanctuaries since 2001. In the whaleshark sanctuary of Donsol, Sorsogon, Alan Amanse, 40-year-old college undergraduate and father of two, was earning P100 a day from fishing and driving a tricycle. Now as whaleshark-watching officer, he is earns P1,000 a day, ten times his former income.For clean water, so important to health, there is P500 million this year and P1.5 billion for next year.From just one sanitary landfill in 2001, we now have 21, with another 18 in the works.We launched the Zero Basura Olympics to clear our communities of trash. Rather than more money, all that is needed is for each citizen to keep home and workplace clean, and for garbage officials to stop squabbling.Our investments also include essential ways to strengthen our institutions of governance in order to fight the decades-old scourge of corruption. I will continue to fight this battle every single day. While others are happy with headlines through accusation without evidence and privilege speeches without accountability, we have allocated more than P3 billion - the largest anti-graft fund in our history - for real evidence gathering and vigorous prosecution.From its dismal past record, the Ombudsman's conviction rate has increased 500%. Lifestyle checks, never seriously implemented before our time, have led to the dismissal and/or criminal prosecution of dozens of corrupt officials.I recently met with the Millennium Challenge Corporation, a US agency that provides grants to countries based on governance. They have commended our gains, contributed P1 billion to our fight against graft, and declared us eligible for more grants. Thank you!Last September, we created the Procurement Transparency Group in the DBM and linked it with business, academe, and the Church, to deter or catch anomalies in government contracts.On my instruction, the BIR and Customs established similar government-civil society tie-ups for information gathering and tax evasion and smuggling monitoring.More advanced corruption practices require a commensurate advances in legislative responses. Colleagues in Congress, we need a more stringent Anti-Graft Act.Sa pagmahal ng bilihin, hirap na ang mamimili - tapos, dadayain pa. Dapat itong mahinto. Hinihiling ko sa Kongreso na magpasa ng Consumer Bill of Rights laban sa price gouging, false advertising at iba pang gawain kontra sa mamimili.I call on all our government workers at the national and local levels to be more responsive and accountable to the people. Panahon ito ng pagsubok. Kung saan kayang tumulong at dapat tumulong ang pamahalaan, we must be there with a helping hand. Where government can contribute nothing useful, stay away. Let's be more helpful, more courteous, more quick.Kaakibat ng ating mga adhikain ang tuloy na pagkalinga sa kapakanan ng bawat Pilipino. Iisa ang ating pangarap - maunlad at mapayapang lipunan, kung saan ang magandang kinabukasan ay Hindi pangarap lamang, bagkus natutupad.Sama-sama tayo sa tungkuling ito. May papel na gagampanan ang bawat mamamayan, negosyante, pinunong bayan at simbahan, sampu ng mga nasa lalawigan.We are three branches but one government. We have our disagreements; we each have hopes, and ambitions that drive and divide us, be they personal, ethnic, religious and cultural. But we are one nation with one fate.As your President, I care too much about this nation to let anyone stand in the way of our people's wellbeing. Hindi ko papayagang humadlang ang sinuman sa pag-unlad at pagsagana ng taong bayan. I will let no one - and no one's political plans - threaten our nation's survival.Our country and our people have never failed to be there for us. We must be there for them now.Maraming salamat. Magandang hapon sa inyong lahat.Edit this page (if you have permission) |Google Docs -- Web word processing, presentations and spreadsheets.

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