Goalie is the abbreviated word for goalkeeper. The goalkeeper is the player in any team sport, requiring the scoring of goals, who is allowed to handle the ball or puck when trying to stop the scoring of goals.
Yes..... I did it once from a goal kick and it was allowed..... There is nothing in the Laws of Association Football that prevents a goalkeeper from scoring a goal against his opponents. Likewise, if he were to score direct from a goal kick, that is perfectly reasonable.
There are 11 people in a full size football team on the field at any one time. Each team is allowed one goalkeeper and 10 out field players. Only the goalkeeper can touch the ball with their hands. So the answer is 11.
The purpose of the penalty arc is to ensure that, when a player takes a penalty kick, his teammates and opponents stay ten yards away from him at all times. While the goalkeeper has the ball in his possession, no player is allowed within the penalty arc until the keeper releases the ball.