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Q: When did Adrian Dix admit he forged the memo to file?
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What did John Yoo argue for in his memo?

The right of the government to use warrantless surveillance against terrorism


What did john yoo claim in his memo on warrantless surveillance?

John Yoo claimed that the government's need to fight terrorism made warrant-less surveillance necessary.


How did the Amendment XVI to the US Constitution pass?

It was NOT legally ratified, although the government and the Federal courts have refused to properly review and acknowledge the clear evidence presented by Bill Benson in "the Law That Never Was". The Democrats pushed for the 16th amendment and were accused of protecting the wealthy elite. That was true then, and it's more true now... Sec'y of State Philander Knox was told in a memo by Solicitor J. Reuben Clark that the states were not acting legally in re-wording the amendment, etc.But Knox was a tool of the wealthy bankers and ignored Constitutional law, just as the Bilderbergers control the Fascist Democrats in Congress as well as the entire illegal Obama administration. In similar fashion, Obama considers himself above the law and is in the process of making this the Union of Soviet States of America!


Is US income tax invalid because Ohio wasnt legally a state when the 16th amendment was ratified?

No, when a state becomes a part of the United States, they accepted the laws that applied.The question is normally more along the lines of the amendment itself wasn't properly ratified. That is addressed here. See the link for much more on all of these tax protestor and frivolous arguments.And just consider....how long does anyone think it would take if there was a technical problem with the right to collect taxes, for a law to be passed to correct it....under 5 minutes I'd bet. No big deal...whatever is wrong...say it isn't wrong anymore. bet you'd even get bipartisan support! This argument is based on the premise that all federal income tax laws are unconstitutional because the Sixteenth Amendment was not officially ratified, or because the State of Ohio was not properly a state at the time of ratification. This argument has survived over time because proponents mistakenly believe that the courts have refused to address this issue. The Law: The Sixteenth Amendment provides that Congress shall have the power to lay and collect taxes on income, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. U.S. Const. amend. XVI. The Sixteenth Amendment was ratified by forty states, including Ohio (which became a state in 1803; see Bowman v. United States, 920 F. Supp. 623 n.1 (E.D. Pa. 1995) (discussing the 1953 joint Congressional resolution that confirmed Ohio's status as a state retroactive to 1803), and issued by proclamation in 1913. Shortly thereafter, two other states also ratified the Amendment. Under Article V of the Constitution, only three-fourths of the states are needed to ratify an Amendment. There were enough states ratifying the Sixteenth Amendment even without Ohio to complete the number needed for ratification. Furthermore, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the income tax laws enacted subsequent to ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment in Brushaber v. Union Pacific R.R., 240 U.S. 1 (1916). Since that time, the courts have consistently upheld the constitutionality of the federal income tax. In November 2004, the Justice Department filed a civil injunction complaint against William Benson, asking the court to bar Mr. Benson from selling a fraudulent tax scheme and from unlawfully interfering with the Internal Revenue Service. Mr. Benson's tax scheme relies on the frivolous position that the Sixteenth Amendment was never ratified. See http://www.usdoj.gov/tax/txdv04752.htm; see also 2004 TNT 223-20 (Nov. 16, 2004). The IRS issued Revenue Ruling 2005-19, 2005-1 C.B. 819, which discusses this frivolous argument in more detail, warning taxpayers of the consequences of attempting to pursue a claim on these grounds. Relevant Case Law: Miller v. United States, 868 F.2d 236, 241 (7th Cir. 1989) (per curiam) - the court stated, "We find it hard to understand why the long and unbroken line of cases upholding the constitutionality of the sixteenth amendment generally, Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company . . . and those specifically rejecting the argument advanced in The Law That Never Was, have not persuaded Miller and his compatriots to seek a more effective forum for airing their attack on the federal income tax structure." The court imposed sanctions on them for having advanced a "patently frivolous" position. United States v. Stahl, 792 F.2d 1438, 1441 (9th Cir. 1986), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 1036 (1987) - stating that "the Secretary of State's certification under authority of Congress that the sixteenth amendment has been ratified by the requisite number of states and has become part of the Constitution is conclusive upon the courts," the court upheld Stahl's conviction for failure to file returns and for making a false statement. United States v. Foster, 789 F.2d 457 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 883 (1986) - the court affirmed Foster's conviction for tax evasion, failing to file a return, and filing a false W-4 statement, rejecting his claim that the Sixteenth Amendment was never properly ratified. Socia v. Commissioner, 23 F.3d 941 (5th Cir. 1994) - the court held that defendant's appeals which challenged Sixteenth Amendment income tax legislation were frivolous and warranted sanctions. Knoblauch v. Commissioner, 749 F.2d 200, 201 (5th Cir. 1984), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 830 (1986) - the court rejected the contention that the Sixteenth Amendment was not constitutionally adopted as "totally without merit" and imposed monetary sanctions against Knoblauch based on the frivolousness of his appeal. "Every court that has considered this argument has rejected it," the court observed. Stearman v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2005-39, 89 T.C.M. (CCH) 823 (2005), aff'd, 436 F.3d 533 (5th Cir. 2006). - the court imposed sanctions totaling $25,000 against the taxpayer for advancing arguments characteristic of tax-protester rhetoric that have been universally rejected by the courts, including arguments regarding the Sixteenth Amendment. In affirming the Tax Court's holding, the Fifth Circuit granted the government's request for further sanctions of $6,000 against the taxpayer for maintaining frivolous arguments on appeal, and the Fifth Circuit imposed an additional $6,000 sanctions on its own, for total additional sanctions of $12,000.


Related questions

What are different between email fax and memo?

Email fax is a document or data contains information, while memo is a file or data that contains a reminder, a letter or schedules.


What is the name Memo short for?

MEMO is short form of Memorandum. Memo is a File Format, Engineers and scientists use memos to make requests, to give announcements, and sometimes to communicate reports. Memo is an Entertainment TV like Website for movies and videos. Memo is a Graphic Design Firm of New York. MEMO also stands for Multiple Entertainment Movies Organization


What are the people on your save file in Gregory horror show?

if you mean the boy/girl it represents your player and if you mean the guests they are figurines that you collect by filling in the memo at the book desk and press x to red the memo. the figurines are on the desk with the vase. give x a punch (meaning press) to see them. to fill in the memo you have to listen to the guest's dialogue thoroughly and it will be in your memo


How do you use memo in a sentence?

he gave me a memo. police filed a memo on me.


Why use memo?

why use memo?


When was The Memo created?

The Memo was created in 2012.


Plural of memo?

The plural of memo is memorandii


What are the Supplies needed for a front office?

Name card holder, memo pads, pens, magazine/file holder, desk organizer, binders and folders etc,


How reprimand memo is different from proper memo?

there is no need


Importance of memo?

memo can remaind people about something


How do you get inter memo?

you can get your marks memo by contacting your headmaster


How do you get duplicate intermediate memo?

my inter memo duplicte