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Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface, it is said to have evaporated. Each individual water molecule which transitions between a more associated (liquid) and a less associated (vapor/gas) state does so through the absorption or release of kinetic energy. The aggregate measurement of this kinetic energy transfer is defined as thermal energy and occurs only when there is differential in the temperature of the water molecules. Liquid water that becomes water vapor takes a parcel of heat


In physics and thermodynamics, heat is any transfer of energy from one body or thermodynamic system to another due to a difference in temperature....
with it, in a process called evaporative cooling. The amount of water vapor in the air determines how fast each molecule will return back to the surface. When a net evaporation occurs, the body of water will under go a net cooling directly related to the loss of water.

In the US, the National Weather Service measures the actual rate of evaporation from a standardized "pan" open water surface outdoors, at various locations nationwide. Others do likewise around the world. The US data is collected and compiled into an annual evaporation map. DisplayLink("", "(*)") (*) The measurements range from under 30 to over 120 inches per year. Formulas for calculating the rate of evaporation from a water surface such as a swimming pool of can be found here DisplayLink("", "(*)") (*) and here DisplayLink("", "(*)") (*)

Evaporative cooling is restricted by atmospheric conditions

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

In physical sciences, standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements, to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data....
. Humidity


Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean relative humidity. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in a Air parcel of air to the saturated vapor pressure of water vapor at a prescribed temperature....
is the amount of water vapor in the air. The vapor content of air is measured with devices known as hygrometer


Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring relative humidity. A simple form of a hygrometer is specifically known as a psychrometer and consists of two thermometers, one of which includes a dry bulb and the other of which includes a bulb that is kept wet to measure wet-bulb temperature....
s. The measurements are usually expressed as specific humidity or percent relative humidity

Relative humidity

Relative humidity is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor that exists in a gaseous mixture of air and water....
. The temperatures of the atmosphere and the water surface determine the equilibrium vapor pressure; 100% relative humidity occurs when the partial pressure of water vapor is equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure. This condition is often referred to as complete saturation. Humidity ranges from 0 gram per cubic metre in dry air to 30 grams per cubic metre (0.03 ounce per cubic foot) when the vapor is saturated at 30 °C. DisplayLink("", "(*)") (*) (See also DisplayLink("", "Absolute Humidity table") Absolute Humidity table)

Another form of evaporation is sublimation, by which water molecules become gaseous directly from ice without first becoming liquid water. Sublimation accounts for the slow mid-winter disappearance of ice and snow at temperatures too low to cause melting.

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Q: Which most likely has greater thermal energy ice or water vapor?
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Related questions

How does thermal energy of water vapor change as the vapor condenses?

The thermal energy decreases as the vapor condenses.

What is meant by saturated liquid vapor?

Any addition of thermal energy to a saturated liquid will cause it to vaporize. Any subtraction of thermal energy from a saturated vapor will cause it to condense.

Does gas have the lowest thermal energy?

either solid liquid or gass or vapor

What happenes to water vapor when thermal energy is removed?

It will first condense and then solidify.

What is responsible for changing liquid into vapor?

Either a reduction of the ambient pressure or an increase in thermal energy (temperature).

What is responsible for changing liquid water into vapor?

Either a reduction of the ambient pressure or an increase in thermal energy (temperature).

Explain why you can step out of the shower into a warm bathroom and begin to shower?

because this means you have vapor or steam that is let out of your skin. then the vapor is released and cooled and you feel cold. also because the thermal energy is being taken away ffrom your body in the cooling state. these are the effects of kinetic and potenial energy working inside the thermal energy.

What happens to the the energy from the sun when it changes liquid water into water vapor?


How are changes in thermal energy and state of matter realted?

If the thermal energy is higher, then the particles in the object move faster and want to get away from each other because it is so hot, thus, its a gas. If the thermal energy is lower, then the particles in the object move slower and form a solid shape, like they are huddling together, thus, its a solid. If the thermal energy is right in between the two above, then it is a liquid. A great example is H2O, it is the base measurement of density, when its thermal energy rises, it turns into water vapor, if its thermal energy lowers, it turns to ice.

How does energy change when you turn the kettle on?

The evaporation of water by boiling is the transfer of thermal energy (radiation or convection) to the molecules which form water vapor. The energy is the same, but it changes from kinetic to potential energy. As the water vapor gives up heat by conduction in the air, the water again condenses (dew, rain, ice, snow).

What factor combines with thermal energy and its uneven distribution across the earth's surface to cause a change un the state of the earth's atmosphere?

Water vapor.

How much thermal energy does 10cm3 of methylated spirit release when burning?

You'd need to specify what the methylated spirit is doing. Burning? Condensing from vapor?