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Who is Ziryab?


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Answered 2007-01-22 04:27:16

Who was Ziryab? From the 8th century, one of the main musical centers of the Arabic nation besides the key places Damascus and Baghdad, was Spain. When Arabs began to expand in southern Spain, two different cultures "crashed" themselves, and then the fusion developed in a variety of cultural issues. Regarding music, this fusion was known as Andalusian or Moorish branch of Islamic music. Ziryab was the main figure of this development. A gifted pupil of Ishaq al-Mawsili, he had to migrate from Baghdad to Spain because he got advantage over his teacher (a severe offense, then and nowadays). He was settled in the court of Cordoba under the amir Abd al-Rahman II of the Umayyad Dynasty (822-52). There he made a whole revolution regarding music: he was an amazing singer, created a famous school of music, and made one of the main changes on ouds: to add a fifth (G) bass string. Regarding musical theory, he rearranged it completely, setting free the metrical and rhythmical parameters and creating new ways of expression (mwashah, zajal, and nawbah -suite-). Besides, he also brought other values of the Baghdad culture to al-Andalus, including etiquette, cooking, fashion, and toothpaste among others.

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When was Ziryab born?

Ziryab was born in 789.


When did Ziryab die?

Ziryab died in 857.


Who is Ziryab and why was he significant to the Muslim world?

he is a king and he ruled the world


Who created Tooth Paste?

the Greeks and the Romans improved the idea of toothpaste, then the Persian musician and fashion designer Ziryab first thought of the idea.


Did deodorant exist in the middle ages?

A Muslim polymath named Ziryab, who lived in the Spanish city of Cordoba, invented the earliest deodorant of which we have any record, in the 9th century. There were doubtless other deodorants used, as well, that are not recorded.


What year was toothpaste invented in and where was it invented in?

The first fluoride toothpaste to prevent cavities was invented in 1952 in Bloomington, Indiana. 14 years of research was conducted to produce the product at Indiana University. Otherwise, early toothpaste dates back to the 9th century, Ziryab invented and popularized the product throughout Islamic Iberia (or Al-Andalus).


What actors and actresses appeared in Ice cream fi Glim - 1992?

The cast of Ice cream fi Glim - 1992 includes: Ashraf Abdel Baqi Ezzat Abou Aouf Amr Diab as Saif Hussien El Imam Gihan Fadel as AYA Yehia Ghannam Ali Hassanein as Ziryab Alaa Waley El Din


Why are bangs called bangs?

Bangs are the style name in the US. In the UK they are called fringes. Wikipedia extrapolates that they are named after the style of bobbing horse's tails straight across called "bang tailed". An interesting note is that the style has been around as a fashion cut since the seventh century. See the link for Ziryab, the noted fashionista and celebrated style guru of the Islamic world.


What movie and television projects has Ali Hassanein been in?

Ali Hassanein has: Performed in "Al-bahths an Al-Sayyid Marzuq" in 1990. Played Sheikh Obaid in "Kit Kat" in 1991. Played Ziryab in "Ice cream fi Glim" in 1992. Played Guest appearance in "Dehk, we leab we gad we hob" in 1993. Played Ship owner in "El-Bahr Bi-Yedhak Ley" in 1994. Played Selim in "El-Farah" in 1999. Performed in "Amn Dawla" in 1999. Performed in "Rasha garea" in 2001. Performed in "Mahmoud Al-Masri" in 2004. Performed in "Katkout" in 2006. Played Ezzat El-Hinnawi in "Badal Faqed" in 2009.


Was toothpaste invented in World War 1?

The earliest known reference to toothpaste is in a manuscript from Egypt in the 4th century A.D., which prescribes a mixture of iris flowers.[Wikipedia:Citation_needed] However, toothpastes or powders did not come into general use until the 19th century. The Ancient_Greece, and then the Ancient_Rome, improved the recipes for toothpaste by adding abrasives such as crushed bones and oyster shells.Answers.comIn the 9th century, the Persian_peoplemusician and fashion designer Ziryabis known to have invented a type of toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Al-Andalus.Answers.comThe exact ingredients of this toothpaste are currently unknown,Answers.combut it was reported to have been both "functional and pleasant to taste".Answers.comIt is not known whether these early toothpastes were used alone, were to be rubbed onto the teeth with rags, or were to be used with early toothbrushes such as Neem_treetwigs or Miswak. It is known that these twigs were used by Indians from ancient times. Neem tree twigs are said to have good medicinal effects.


What are 20 innovations by Muslims?

1) Coffee The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee. 2) Pin-Hole Camera The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one. 3) Chess A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe - where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century - and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot. 4) Parachute A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn't. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles' feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing - concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him. 5) Shampoo Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders' most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV. 6) Refinement Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam's foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today - liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry. 7) Shaft The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock. ) Metal Armor Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders' metal armour and was an effective form of insulation - so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland. 9) Pointed Arch The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe's Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe's castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world's - with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V's castle architect was a Muslim. 10) Surgery Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today 11) Windmill The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe. 12) Vaccination The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it. 13) Fountain Pen The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action. 14) Numerical Numbering The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi's book, Al-Jabr WA-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi's discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology. 15) Soup Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal - soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas - see No 4). 17) Pay Cheques The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad. 18) Earch is in sphere shape? By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, "is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth". It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth's circumference to be 40, 253.4km - less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139. 19) Rocket and Torpedo Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting egg", and a torpedo - a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up. 20) Gardens Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip. Information above is retrieved from the shown link below


What did the Arabs invent?

First one should take note that Arabs in ancient times means Semites Semites in general were not great inventors in the materialistic sense. However, they were very spiritual/theorists. Religion: Jews, Christians and Muslims are all worshiping an Semitic based GOD that existed in the minds of these desert people. Math and Theory: Is an Semitic science the 12 based count started by bedouin knucle counting that was mixed with the older 10based count. the concept of zero was aslo a later Semitic mathmetical invention, the Alphabet concept is also Semitic Terrorism/Imperialism: The concept of Hell, the first empire (Akkadians) was also Semitic. I can add some of the past inventions in the Arab's history: 1 The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee. 2 The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one. 3 A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe - where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century - and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot. 4 A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn't. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles' feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing - concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing. Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him. 5 Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders' most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV. 6 Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam's foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today - liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry. 7 The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock. 8 Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw- filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders' metal armour and was an effective form of insulation - so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland. 9 The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe's Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe's castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world's - with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V's castle architect was a Muslim. 10 Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al- Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today. 11 The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe. 12 The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it. 13 The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action. 14 The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al- Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al- Khwarizmi's book, Al-Jabr WA-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi's discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology. 15 Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal - soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas - see No 4). 16 Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam's non-representational art. In contrast, Europe's floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were "covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned". Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly. 17 The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad. 18 By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, "is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth". It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth's circumference to be 40,253.4km - less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139. 19 Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting egg", and a torpedo - a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up. 20 Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip. "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World" is a new exhibition which began a nationwide tour this week. It is currently at the Science Museum in Manchester. For more information, go to www.1001inventions.com. 1 The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee. 2 The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one. 3 A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe - where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century - and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot. 4 A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn't. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles' feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing - concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing. Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him. 5 Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders' most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV. 6 Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam's foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today - liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry. 7 The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock. 8 Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw- filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders' metal armour and was an effective form of insulation - so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland. 9 The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe's Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe's castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world's - with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V's castle architect was a Muslim. 10 Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al- Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today. 11 The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe. 12 The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it. 13 The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action. 14 The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al- Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al- Khwarizmi's book, Al-Jabr WA-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi's discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology. 15 Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal - soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas - see No 4). 16 Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam's non-representational art. In contrast, Europe's floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were "covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned". Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly. 17 The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad. 18 By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, "is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth". It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth's circumference to be 40,253.4km - less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139. 19 Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting egg", and a torpedo - a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up. 20 Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip. "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World" is a new exhibition which began a nationwide tour this week. It is currently at the Science Museum in Manchester. For more information.


What is fashionable society?

Briefly, it's that social class that attends and can afford to shop for clothes at designers' fashion shows. Fashion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaIn Following the Fashion (1794), James Gillray caricatured a figure flattered by the short-bodiced gowns then in fashion, contrasting it with an imitator whose figure is not flattered.Fashion, a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially in clothing. The more technical term, costume, has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has in popular use mostly been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it. For a broad cross-cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing, costume and fabrics. The remainder of this article deals with clothing fashions in the Western world.[1]Contents">Contents[hide] 1 Clothing fashions2 The Fashion Industry3 Media4 Intellectual property5 See also6 References7 Further reading8 External linksClothing fashions2008 runway show For detailed historical articles by period, see History of Western fashion Early Western travelers, whether to Persia, Turkey or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Japanese Shogun's secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years.[2] However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing.[3]Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change (such as in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate), but then a long period without major changes followed. This occurred in Moorish Spainfrom the 8th century, when the famous musician Ziryab introduced sophisticated clothing styles based on seasonal and daily timings from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration to Córdoba, Spain.[4][5] Similar changes in fashion occurred in the Middle East from the 11th century, following the arrival of the Turks who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.[6]The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which hiFernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing.[7][8] The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers. Marie Antoinette was a fashion iconThe pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles. These remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating from Ancien Régime France.[9] Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasantsfollowing trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites - a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.[10] Albrecht Dürer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoisie from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her tallerTen 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, asAlbrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.[11]Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year,[12] the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly. Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the 1620s. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant.[13]Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the origins of many fashions in street fashion. For women the flapper styles of the 1920s marked the most major alteration in styles for several centuries, with a drastic shortening of skirt lengths, and much looser-fitting clothes; with occasional revivals of long skirts forms of the shorter length have remained dominant ever since. The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Milan, New York City, Paris, and London. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences, and which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion.Modern Westerners have a wide choice available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural status start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect them may start to wear clothes of a similar style.Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation, and geography as well as over time. If, for example, an older person dresses according to the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms 'fashionista' or fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows the current fashions.One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes.)The Fashion IndustryThe fashion industry is a product of the modern age. Prior to the mid-19th century, virtually all clothing was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century-with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores-clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices. Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, today it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold in a third. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally. The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry's many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain. However, by any measure, the industry inarguably accounts for a significant share of world economic output. The fashion industry consists of four levels: the production of raw materials, principally fibres and textiles but also leather and fur; the production of fashion goods by designers, manufacturers, contractors, and others; retail sales; and various forms of advertising and promotion. These levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors, all of which are devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit. [14]MediaFashion shot from 2006 An important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique and commentary can be found in magazines, newspapers, on television, fashion websites, social networks and in fashion blogs.At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs of various fashion designs and became even more influential on people than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public clothing taste. Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).Vogue, founded in the US in 1892, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines - followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows like Fashion-television started to appear. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the fashion industry.However, over the past several years, fashion websites have developed that merge traditional editorial writing with user-generated content. New magazines like iFashion Network, and Runway Magazine, led by Nole Marin from America's Next Top Model, have begun to dominate the digital market with digital copies for computers, iPhones and iPads.Sporting a different view, a few days after the 2010 Fall Fashion Week in New York City came to a close, Fashion Editor Genevieve Tax said, "Because designers release their fall collections in the spring and their spring collections in the fall, fashion magazines such as Vogue always and only look forward to the upcoming season, promoting parkas come September while issuing reviews on shorts in January." "Savvy shoppers, consequently, have been conditioned to be extremely, perhaps impractically, farsighted with their buying."[15]Intellectual propertyWithin the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry. To "take inspiration" from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends. For the past few years, WGSNhas been a dominant source of fashion news and forecasts in steering fashion brands worldwide to be "inspired" by one another. Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with the process of trend-making would, on this view, be counter-productive. In contrast, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies. In 2005, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries.[16][17]


History of fashion trends?

Fashion refers to the styles and customs prevalent at a given time. In its most common usage however, "fashion" describes the popular clothing style. Many fashions are popular in many cultures at any given time. Important is the idea that the course of design and fashion will change more rapidly than the culture as a whole. Fashion designers create and produce clothing articles. The terms "fashionable" and "unfashionable" were employed to describe whether someone or something fits in with the current or even not so current, popular mode of expression. However, more so in the modern era items termed 'not so current' may indeed fit into the term 'Retro.' Retro fashion allows rule shifts, such as 'old is suddenly new,' thus fashionable. The term "fashion" is frequently used in a positive sense, as a synonym for glamour, beauty and style[citation needed]. In this sense, fashions are a sort of communal art, through which a culture examines its notions of beauty and goodness. The term "fashion" is also sometimes used in a negative sense, as a synonym for fads and trends, and materialism. There exist a number of cities recognized as global fashion centers or fashion capitals. Fashion Weeks are held in these cities where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. The main four cities are Paris, Milan, New York, and London - these four are renowned for their major influence on global fashion and are headquarters to the greatest fashion companies. Other cities, including Tokyo, Los Angeles, Berlin, Rome, Buenos Aires,Toronto, Hong Kong, São Paulo, Sydney, Moscow, New Delhi and Miami also hold fashion weeks and are better recognized every year. Areas of fashion Fashion as social phenomena is common. The rise and fall of fashion has been especially documented and examined in the following fields: * Architecture, interior design, and landscape design * Arts and crafts * Body type, clothing or costume, cosmetics, personal grooming, hairstyle, and personal adornment * Dance and music * Forms of address, slang, and other forms of speech * Economics and spending choices, as studied in behavioral finance * Entertainment, games, hobbies, sports, and other pastimes * Etiquette * Fast fashion * Management, management styles and different ways of organizing * Politics and media, especially the topics of conversation encouraged by the media * Philosophy and religion: although the doctrines of religions and philosophies change very slowly if at all, there can be rapid changes in what areas of a religion or a philosophy are seen as most important and most worth following or studying. * Social networks and the diffusion of representations and practices * Sociology and the meaning of clothing for identity-building * Technology, such as the choice of computer programming techniques * Hospitality industry, such as designer uniforms custom made for a hotel, restaurant, casino, resort or club, in order to reflect a property and brand. Of these fields, costume especially has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has mostly been relegated to only mean fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it. This linguistic switch is due to the so-called fashion plates which were produced during the Industrial Revolution, showing novel ways to use new textiles. For a broad cross-cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing, costume and fabrics. The remainder of this article deals with clothing fashions in the Western world.[1] Clothing Some historians observe the frequently changing clothing styles as a distinctively Western habit among urban populations.[dubious - discuss] Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change (such as in ancient Rome), but then a long period without large changes followed. In 8th century Cordoba, Spain, Ziryab (a famous musician of that time) is said to have introduced sophisticated clothing styles based on seasonal and daily timings from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration. English caricature of Tippies of 1796 The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing.[2][3] The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers. The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles, which remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, finally those from Ancien Régime in France.[3]:317-24 Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites - a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.[3]:313-15 The fashions of the West are generally unparalleled either in antiquity or in the other great civilizations of the world. Early Western travellers, whether to Persia, Turkey, Japan or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Japanese Shogun's secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years.[3]:312-3:323 However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing,[4] Albrecht Dürer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her taller . Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.[3]:317-21 Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year,[5] the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly. Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the 1620s. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant.[6] Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the origins of many fashions in street fashion. Modern Westerners have a wide choice available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural status start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect them may start to wear clothes of a similar style. . Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation, and geography as well as over time. If, for example, an older person dresses according to the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms fashionista or fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows the current fashions. One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes.) Changes Fashion, by description, changes constantly. The changes are more rapidly in other aspects like the fields of human activity (language, thought, etc). For some, modern fast-paced changes in fashion embody many of the negative aspects of capitalism: it results in waste and encourages people quaconsumers to buy things unnecessarily. Other people enjoy the diversity that changing fashion can apparently provide, seeing the constant change as a way to satisfy their desire to experience "new" and "interesting" things. Note too that fashion can change to enforce uniformity, as in the case where so-called Mao suits became the national uniform of mainland China. At the same time there remains an equal or larger range designated "out of fashion". (These or similar fashions may cyclically come back "into fashion" in due course, and remain "in fashion" again for a while.) In the past, new discoveries and lesser-known parts of the world could provide an impetus to change fashions based on the exotic: Europe in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries, for example, might favor things Turkish at one time, things Chinese at another, and things Japanese at a third. Globalization has reduced the options of exotic novelty in more recent times, and has seen the introduction of non-Western wear into the Western world. Fashion houses and their associated fashion designers, as well as high-status consumers (including celebrities), appear to have some role in determining the rates and directions of fashion change. The impact of this influence depends on many things like economic status. In an article appearing in the Econ Journal Watch economists Philip R. P. Coelho, Daniel B. Klein and James E. McClure took issue with economic research explaining fashion cycles as the product of short term monopolies and self identified social stratification. In their research Coelho, Klein and McClure demonstrated At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years). Vogue, founded in the US in 1902, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines - followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows like FashionTelevision started to appear. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the industry. Fashion Editor, Brooke Kelley said, "There's a misconception in the industry that TV, magazines and blogs dictate to the consumer, what to wear. But most trends aren't released to the public before consulting the target demographic. So what you see in the media is a result of research of popular ideas among the people. Essentially, fashion is a group of people bouncing ideas off of one another, like any other form of art." [8] Media, social, political, and cultural influences have a significant effect on how fashion is viewed. In the United States in 2009, there was considerable interest and discussion in the media on the clothing choices of Michelle Obama, First Lady. The majority of articles praised her sense of fashion, irrespective of how her clothing selections fit within the larger realm of current trends in contemporary fashion. The political and cultural popularity of an individual can play a role equal or greater than artistic factors in how their sense of fashion is viewed by the media.


What Muslim technologies influenced other civilizations?

Chemical industriesJabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), the "father of chemistry", invented the alembic still and many chemicals, including distilled alcohol, and established the perfume industry. Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (Rhazes) isolated many chemical substances, produced many medications, and described many laboratory apparatus.Laboratory setup for steam distillation, invented by Avicenna in the 11th century.Aqua regia was first isolated by Geber.Hydrochloric acid, a mineral acid, was first isolated by Geber.Nitric acid, a mineral acid, was first isolated by Geber.Sulfuric acid, a mineral acid, was first isolated by Geber.Arsenic, a chemical element, was first isolated by Geber in the 8th century.Coloured stained glass windows in the Nasir al-Mulk mosque in Shiraz, Iran.See also: Alchemy and chemistry in IslamEarly forms of distillation were known to the Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptians since ancient times, but it was Muslim chemists who first invented pure distillation processes which could fully purify chemical substances. They also developed several different variations of distillation (such as dry distillation, destructive distillation and steam distillation) and introduced new distillation aparatus (such as the alembic, still, and retort), and invented a variety of new chemical processes and over 9,000 chemical substances.[2]Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith:"Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Moslems; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Moslems inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations."[3]Robert Briffault wrote in The Making of Humanity:"Chemistry, the rudiments of which arose in the processes employed by Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers combining metals into various alloys and 'tinting' them to resemble gold, processes long preserved as a secret monopoly of the priestly colleges, and clad in the usual mystic formulas, developed in the hands of the Arabs into a widespread, organized passion for research which led them to the invention of distillation, sublimation, filtration, to the discovery of alcohol, of nitric and sulphuric acids (the only acid known to the ancients was vinegar), of the alkalis, of the salts of mercury, of antimony and bismuth, and laid the basis of all subsequent chemistry and physical research."[4][edit] Chemical processesThe following chemical processes were invented by Muslim chemists: Assation (or roasting), cocotion (or digestion), ceration, lavage, solution, mixture, and fixation.[5]Calcination (al-tashwiya): Invented by Geber.[6][7]Crystallization (al-tabalwur): Invented by Geber.[8]Distillation, pure (al-taqtir): Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) was the first to fully purify chemical substances through distillation, using the alembic, in the 8th century.[4]Destructive distillation: Invented by Muslim chemists in the 8th century to produce tar from petroleum.[9]Dry distillationFiltration (al-tarshih): Invented by Geber.[4]Liquefaction, purification, oxidisation, and evaporation (tabkhir): Invented by Geber.[10]Solution (al-tahlil), sublimation(al-tas'id), amalgamation (al-talghim), ceration (al-tashmi), and a method of converting a substance into a thick paste or fusible solid.[6]Steam distillation: Invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century for the purpose of producing essential oils.[11][citation needed]Water purification[edit] Chemical substancesArsenic, alkali, alkali salt, borax, and pure sal ammoniac: Isolated by Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) in the 8th century.[7]Cheese glue and plated mail: Invented by Geber.[12]Derivative and artificial chemical substances: In the 10th century, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi wrote that he and his Muslim predecessors (Calid, Geber and al-Kindi) invented the following derivative and artificial substances: lead(II) oxide (PbO), red lead (Pb3O4), tin(II) oxide(Isfidaj), copper acetate (Zaniar), copper(II) oxide (CuO), lead sulfide, zinc oxide, bismuth oxide, antimony oxide, iron rust, iron acetate, Daws (a contituent of steel), cinnabar (HgS), arsenic trioxide (As2O3), alkali (al-Qili), sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and Qalimiya (anything that separates from metals during their purification).[13]Ethanol and pure ammonia: Isolated by Arabic chemists.[14]Lead carbonatic: Isolated by Geber.[15]Medicinal substances: Muslim chemists discovered 2,000 medicinal substances.[2]Potassium nitrate, pure: Isolated by Hasan al-Ramah in the 1270s.[7]Rose water: First produced by Muslim chemists in the medieval Islamic world through the distillation of roses, for use in the drinking and perfumery industries.[7]Sal nitrum: Isolated by Geber.[7]Acids Aqua regia: Isolated by Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) in the 8th century.[7]Carboxylic acids: Geber isolated Acetic acid from vinegar.[8][16] He is also credited with the discovery and isolation of Citric acid, the sour component of lemons and other unripe fruits.[8]Mineral acids: The mineral acids-nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid-were first isolated by Geber.[17] He originally referred to sulfuric acid as the oil of vitriol.[7][14][18]Organic acids: Geber isolated Uric acid.[10] He also isolated Tartaric acid from wine-making residues.[8]Elements Arsenic: Isolated by Geber in the 8th century.[15]Antimony: Isolated by Geber.[4][15][edit] Food and drinkCoffee: Produced by Khalid in Kaffa, Ethiopia, in the 9th century.[10]Confectionery: Due to advances in sugar production and the invention of sugar refineries, this led to the production of early confectioneries by the Arabs.[19]Distilled water and water purification: Purified by Muslim chemists.[14]Pure distilled alcohol and ethanol: First isolated by Al-Kindi (Alkindus) in the 9th century.[7][20] Ahmad Y Hassan wrote: "The distillation of wine and the properties of alcohol were known to Islamic chemists from the eighth century. The prohibition of wine in Islam did not mean that wine was not produced or consumed or that Arab alchemists did not subject it to their distillation processes. Jabir ibn Hayyan described a cooling technique which can be applied to the distillation of alcohol."[21]Restaurant and three-course meal: The earliest restaurants came into existence throughout the Islamic world from the 10th century, shortly before restaurants appeared in China in the 11th century. The Islamic world had "restaurants where one could purchase all sorts of prepared dishes." These restaurants were mentioned by Al-Muqaddasi (born 945) in the late 10th century.[22] Restaurants in medieval Islamic Spain served three-course meals, which was earlier introduced in the 9th century by Ziryab, who insisted that meals should be served in three separate courses consisting of soup, the main course, and dessert.[23]Rose water: See Chemical substances above.Sugar refinery: See Industrial milling below.[edit] Glass industryArtificial gemstone: Geber (d. 815) first described the production of high-quality coloured glass cut into artificial gemstones.[24][25]Artificial pearl and purification of pearls: In his Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), Jabir described the first recipes for the manufacture of artificial pearls and for the purification of pearls that were discoloured from the sea or from grease.[26]Coloured stained glass windows: Muslim architects in Southwest Asia were the first to produce stained glass windows using coloured glass rather than stone producing a stained glass-like effect, as was the case in early churches. In the 8th century, the Arab chemist Geber scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing high-purity coloured glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to 12 recipes inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book.[24][25]Concave, convex and spherical mirrors: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) gave the earliest accurate descriptions of concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries,[27] and he also gave the earliest accurate description of spherical mirrors.[28]Dying and artificial colouring of gemstones and pearls: In The Book of the Hidden Pearl, Geber described the first recipes for the dying and artificial colouring of gemstones and pearls.[26]Glass factory: The first industrial complex for glass and pottery production was built in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, in the 8th century. Extensive experimentation was carried out at the complex, which was two kilometres in length, and a variety of innovative high-purity glass were developed there. Two other similar complexes have also been discovered, and nearly three hundred new chemical recipes for glass are known to have been produced at all three sites.[29] The first glass factories were thus built by Muslim craftsmen in the Islamic world. The first glass factories in Europe were later built in the 11th century by Egyptian craftsmen in Corinth, Greece.[17]Quartz glass and Silica glass: The production of glass from stone (including quartz) and sand, was pioneered by Abbas Ibn Firnas in the 9th century.[30]Parabolic mirror: Invented by Ibn Sahl in the 10th century.[31] These observations were repeated by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics (1021).[28][edit] Military technologySee also: Alchemy and chemistry in Islam A picture of a 15th century Granadian siege cannon from the book Al-izz wal rifa'a.The Ottoman Janissary corps were using matchlock muskets since the 1440s. They are depicted battling the Knights Hospitaller in this 1522 painting.Damascus steel: One of the most famous steels produced in the medieval Near East was Damascus steel used for swordmaking, and mostly produced in Damascus, Syria, in the period from 900 to 1750. This was produced using the crucible steel method, based on the earlier Indian wootz steel. This process was further refined in the Middle East using locally produced steels. The process allowed carbides to precipitate out as micro particles arranged in sheets or bands within the body of a blade. The carbides are far harder than the surrounding low carbon steel, allowing the swordsmith to make an edge which would cut hard materials with the precipitated carbides, while the bands of softer steel allowed the sword as a whole to remain tough and flexible. A team of researchers based at the Technical University of Dresden that uses x-rays and electron microscopy to examine Damascus steel discovered the presence of cementite nanowires[32] and carbon nanotubes.[33] Peter Paufler, a member of the Dresden team, says that these nanostructures give Damascus steel its distinctive properties[34] and are a result of the forging process.[34][35]Dissolved talc: Egyptian soldiers at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 were the first to smear dissolved talc (from Arabic talq) on their hands, as forms of fire protection from gunpowder.[36]Fireproof clothing: Asbestos may have possibly been used as a form of fire protection by the ancient Chinese and Greeks. However, it was Egyptian soldiers at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 who were the first to wear fireproof clothing to protect themselves from gunpowder fires as well as chemicals in gunpowder warfare. Their fireroof protective clothing consisted of a silk tunic (still worn by Formula 1 drivers underneath their Nomex fire suits), aketon (from the Arabic al-qutn "the cotton"), and mainly a woolen overtunic that protects against fires and chemical weapons], similar to the clothing worn by modern soldiers for protection against biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. Due to the effectiveness of their fireproof clothing, the Egyptian soldiers were able to attach gunpowder cartridges and incendiary devices to their clothing.Gunpowder cartridge: Gunpowder cartridges were first employed by the Egyptians, for use in their fire lances and hand cannons against the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.[36]Hand cannon, handgun, and small arms: The first portable hand cannons (midfa) loaded with explosive gunpowder, the first example of a handgun and portable firearm, were used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and again in 1304. The gunpowder compositions used for the cannons at these battles were later described in several manuscripts in the early 14th century. According to Shams al-Din Muhammad (d. 1327), the cannons had an explosive gunpowder composition (74% saltpetre, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) almost identical to the ideal compositions for explosive gunpowder used in modern times (75% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon).[36]Matchlock: The Janissary corps of the Ottoman army were using matchlock muskets as early as the 1440s.[37] The first dated illustration of a matchlock mechanism in Europe dates to 1475.Purified potassium nitrate: Muslim chemists were the first to purify potassium nitrate (saltpetre; natrun or barud in Arabic) to the weapons-grade purity for use in gunpowder, as potassium nitrate needs to be purified to be used effectively. This purification process was first described by Ibn Bakhtawayh in his al-Muqaddimat in 1029. The first complete purification process for potassium nitrate is described in 1270 by the Arab chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya WA al-Manasib al-Harbiyya ('The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices', a.k.a. the Treatise on Horsemanship and Stratagems of War). He first described the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes) to remove calcium and magnesium salts from the potassium nitrate.[36][38] Hasan al-Rammah also describes the purifying of saltpetre using the chemical processes of solution and crystallization, and this was the first clear method for the purification of saltpetre.[39] Bert S. Hall,[40] however, disputes the efficacy of al-Rammah's formula for the purification of potassium nitrate.[edit] Oil industryEssential oil: Invented by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) in the 11th century.[11]Kerosene and kerosene lamp: Invented by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi in the 9th century.[41]Oil field, petroleum industry, naphtha, and tar: An early petroleum industry was established in the 8th century, when the streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum through destructive distillation. In the 9th century, oil fields were first exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce naphtha. These fields were described by al-Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of its oil wells as hundreds of shiploads.[9]Petrol: Muslim chemists were the first to produce petrol from crude oil.[42][edit] PotteryMain article: Islamic pottery Tin-glazed Hispano-Moresque ware with lusterware decoration, from Spain circa 1475.Albarello: An albarello is a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs. The development of this type of pharmacy jar had its roots in the Islamic Middle East. Brought to Italy by Hispano-Moresque traders, the earliest Italian examples were produced in Florence in the 15th century.Hispano-Moresque ware: This was a style of Islamic pottery created in Islamic Spain, after the Moors had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze, and painting in metallic lusters. Hispano-Moresque ware was distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of it decoration.[43]Lusterware: Invented by Geber, who applied it to ceramic glazes in the 8th century.[44] The technique soon became popular in Persia from the 9th century, and lusterware was later produced in Egypt during the Fatimid caliphate in the 10th-12th centuries. While the production of lusterware continued in the Middle East, it spread to Europe-first to Al-Andalus, notably at Malaga, and then to Italy, where it was used to enhance maiolica.Pottery factory: The first industrial complex for glass and pottery production was built in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, in the 8th century. Extensive experimentation was carried out at the complex, which was two kilometres in length. Two other similar complexes have also been discovered.[29]Stonepaste ceramic: Invented in 9th-century Iraq,[45] it was a vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from non-refactory fire clay.[46]Tin-glazing: The tin-glazing of ceramics was invented by Muslim potters in 8th-century Basra, Iraq. Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first examples of this technique can be found as blue-painted ware in 8th-century Basra.[47]Tin-glazed pottery: The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.[48] From there, it spread to Egypt, Persia and Spain, before reaching Italy in the Renaissance, Holland in the 16th century, and England, France and other European countries shortly after.[edit] Civil engineeringThe interiors of the Alhambra in Spain are decorated with arabesque designs. The minaret is a distinct feature of Islamic architecture. The spiralling minaret located at the Great Mosque of Samarra, Iraq built in 852, is one of the oldest.At 72.5 meters, the Qutab Minar was the tallest minaret until the 20th century, and remains the tallest brick and stone minaret in the world.The tallest minaret is currently the one at Hassan II Mosque, at 210 metres (689 ft) tall, pictured above.An illustration of patterned Girih tiles, found in Islamic architecture dating back over five centuries ago. These featured the first quasicrystal patterns and self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tilings.The norias in Hama on the Orontes River in Syria. The flywheel was first employed in a noria by Ibn Bassal in the 11th century.The first windmills were built in the Islamic world and introduced to Europe through Spain.During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, the early Muslim Arab Empire was ahead of its time regarding domestic water systems such as water cleaning systems and advanced water transportation systems resulting in better agriculture, something that helped in issues related to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.[49] Al-Jazari invented a variety of machines for raising water in 1206,[50] as well as water mills and water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata in the late 12th century.[51]Kerosene lamp, and litter collection facilities: Cordoba had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.[52] The first kerosene lamp was invented by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi in the 9th century.[41]Surveying instruments: Muslim engineers invented a variety of surveying instruments for accurate levelling, including a wooden board with a plumb line and two hooks, an equilateral triangle with a plumb line and two hooks, and a "reed level". They also invented a rotating alidade used for accurate alignment, and a surveying astrolabe used for alignment, measuring angles, triangulation, finding the width of a river, and the distance between two points separated by an impassable obstruction.[53]Tar roads and pavements: Tar was a vital component of the first sealed tarmac roads. The streets of Baghdad were the first to be paved with tar from the 8th century AD. Tar was derived from petroleum, accessed from oil fields in the region, through the chemical process of destructive distillation.[9]Ventillator: The first ventillators were invented in Islamic Egypt and were widely used in many houses throughout Cairo during the Middle Ages. These ventillators were later described in detail by Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi in 1200, who reported that almost every house in Cairo has a ventillator, and that they cost anywhere from 1 to 500 dinars depending on their sizes and shapes. Most ventillators in the city were oriented towards the Qibla (the direction of Mecca), as was the city in general.[54][edit] ArchitectureAcequia: A community operated waterway used in Spain and former Spanish colonies in the Americas for irrigation, they were first introduced by the Moors in Al-Andalus before the 13th century.[17]Arabesque: An elaborative application of repeating geometric forms often found decorating the walls of mosques. Geometric artwork in the form of the Arabesque was not used in the Middle East or Mediterranean Basin until the Islamic Golden Age. Euclidean geometry as expounded on by Al-Abbās ibn Said al-Jawharī (ca. 800-860) in his Commentary on Euclid's Elements, the trigonometry of Aryabhata and Brahmagupta as elaborated on by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (ca. 780-850), and the development of spherical geometry[55] by Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī (940-998) and spherical trigonometry by Al-Jayyani (989-1079)[56] for determining the Qibla (direction to Mecca) and times of Salah prayers and Ramadan,[55] all served as an impetus for the art form that was to become the Arabesque.Bridge dam: The bridge dam was used to power a water wheel working a water-raising mechanism. The first was built in Dezful, Iran, which could raise 50 cubits of water for the water supply to all houses in the town. Similar bridge dams later appeared in other parts of the Islamic world.[57]Central heating through underfloor pipes: The hypocaust heating system used by the Romans continued to be in use around the Mediterranean region during late Antiquity and by the Umayyad caliphate. By the 12th century, Muslim engineers in Syria introduced an improved central heating system, where heat travelled through underfloor pipes from the furnace room, rather than through a hypocaust. This central heating system was widely used in bath-houses throughout the medieval Islamic world.[58]Cobwork: The earliest appearance of cobwork (tabya) dates back to the Maghreb and Al-Andalus in the 11th century, and was first described in detail by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century, who regarded it as a characteristically Muslim practice. Cobwork later spread to other parts of Europe from the 12th century onwards.[59]Geared and hydropowered water supply system: Al-Jazari developed the earliest water supply system to be driven by gears and hydropower, which was built in 13th century Damascus to supply water to its mosques and Bimaristan hospitals. The system had water from a lake turn a scoop-wheel and a system of gears which transported jars of water up to a water channel that led to mosques and hospitals in the city.[60]Girih tiles, quasicrystal pattern, and self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tiling: Geometrical quasicrystal patterns were first employed in the girih tiles found in medieval Islamic architecture dating back over five centuries ago. In 2007, Professor Peter Lu of Harvard University and Professor Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University published a paper in the journal Science suggesting that girih tilings possessed properties consistent with self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tilings such as the Penrose tilings, predating them by five centuries.[61][62]High-rise roof garden: The medieval Egyptian city of Fustat had a number of high-rise buildings which Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described as rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top storey complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them.[63]Minaret: The minaret is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic architecture, especially mosques, dating back to the early centuries of Islam. Minarets are generally tall spires with onion-shaped crowns, usually either free standing or much taller than any surrounding support structure. The tallest minaret in pre-modern times was the Qutub Minar, which was 72.5 meters (237.9 ft) tall and was built in the 12th century, and it remains the tallest brick and stone minaret in the world. The tallest minaret in modern times is the one at Hassan II Mosque, which is 210 metres (689 ft) tall and was built in 1986.[edit] Industrial millingSee also: Muslim Agricultural Revolution A variety of industrial mills were active in the medieval Islamic world, including fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, and windmills, many of which were original inventions by Muslim engineers. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from Al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.[64] These advances made it possible for many industrial operations that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be driven by machinery instead in the Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe later laid the foundations for the Industrial Revolution in 18th century Europe.[65]Bridge mill: The bridge mill was a unique type of water mill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Cordoba, Spain in the 12th century.[66]Factory milling installation: The first factory milling installations were built by Muslim engineers throughout every city and urban community in the Islamic world. For example, the factory milling complex in 10th century Baghdad could produce 10 tonnes of flour] every day.[67] The first large milling installations in Europe were built in 12th century Islamic Spain.[68]Flywheel-driven noria: See Mechanical technology below.Fulling mill: The first references to fulling mills are reported in Persia from the 10th century. By the time of the Crusades in the 11th century, fulling mills were active throughout the Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa to Central Asia.[64]Geared and wind powered gristmills with trip hammers: The first geared gristmills[69] were invented by Muslim engineers in the Islamic world, and were used for grinding corn and other seeds to produce meals, and many other industrial uses such as fulling cloth, husking rice, papermaking, pulping sugarcane, and crushing metallic ores before extraction. Gristmills in the Islamic world were often made from both watermills and windmills. In order to adapt water wheels for gristmilling purposes, cams were used for raising and releasing trip hammers to fall on a material.[70] The first wind-powered gristmills driven by windmills were built in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in the 9th and 10th centuries.[68]Hydropowered forge and finery forge: The first forge to be driven by a hydropowered water mill rather than manual labour, also known as a finery forge, was invented in 12th century Islamic Spain.[68]Paper mill: Paper was introduced into the Muslim world by Chinese prisoners after the Battle of Talas. Muslims made several improvements to papermaking, mainly the use of hydropower rather than manual labour to produce paper, and they built the first paper mills in Baghdad, Iraq, as early as 794. Papermaking was transformed from an art into a major industry as a result.[71][72]Stamp mill: Stamp mills were first used by miners in Samarkand from as early as 973. They were used in medieval Persia for the purpose of crushing ore. By the 11th century, stamp mills were in widespread use throughout the Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa to Central Asia.[64]Sugar refinery: The first sugar refineries were built by Muslim engineers.[64] They were first driven by water mills, and then windmills from the 9th and 10th centuries in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.[68]Underground watermill: Other innovations that were unique to the Islamic world include the situation of watermills in the underground irrigation tunnels of a qanat and on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems.[68]Windmill: The first windmills were built in Sistan, Afghanistan, sometime between the 7th century and 9th century, as described by Muslim geographers. These were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.[73] The first windmill may have been constructed as early as the time of the second Rashidun caliph Umar (634-644 AD), though some argue that this account may have been a 10th century amendment.[74] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.[70] The first horizontal windmills were built in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in the 9th and 10th centuries. They had a variety of uses, such as grinding grain, pumping water, and crushing sugar-cane.[68] A small primitive wind wheel operating an organ is described as early as the 1st century AD by Hero of Alexandria, marking probably the first instance of a wind powering machine in history.[75][76] Horizontal axle windmills of the type generally used today were developed in Northwestern Europe in the 1180s.[77][edit] CosmeticsA number of hygienic cosmetics were invented by Muslim chemists, cosmetologists and physicians.[78] Cosmetic dentistry and tooth bleaching: In his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), Abulcasis described methods for strengthening the gums and introduced the method of tooth bleaching using tooth whiteners.[79]Bangs: In the 9th century, Ziryab introduced a new hairstyle for women in Al-Andalus: a "shorter, shaped cut, with bangs on the forehead and the ears uncovered."[80]Beauty parlour and cosmetology school: In the 9th century, Ziryab opened the first beauty parlour and "cosmetology school" for women near Alcázar, Al-Andalus."[80]Chemical depilatory for hair removal: In the 9th century, Ziryab taught women in Al-Andalus "the shaping of eyebrows and the use of depilatories for removing body hair".[80]Hair care and hair dye: In his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), Abulcasis first described hair dyes for changing human hair color to blond or black hair, and hair care for correcting kinky or curly hair.[79] Dyestuff was also created by earlier Muslim chemists.[81]Lipstick, solid: In 1000 CE, the Andalusian Arab cosmetologist Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) invented solid lipsticks, which were perfumed stocks rolled and pressed in special molds, and he described them in his Al-Tasrif.[79]Pomade: Produced by Arabs.[14][edit] HygieneHand cream and lotion, and suntan lotion[disambiguation needed]: In his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), Abulcasis described the first hand creams and lotions, and the first early suntan lotions, describing their ingredients and benefits in depth.[79]Toothpaste, functional and pleasant: In the 9th century, the Persian musician and fashion designer Ziryab is known to have invented a type of toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Islamic Spain.[82] The exact ingredients of this toothpaste are not currently known,[80] but unlike the earlier Egyptian and Roman toothpastes, Ziryab's toothpaste was reported to have been both "functional and pleasant to taste."[82] In circa 1000, Abulcasis recommended a toothpaste made from cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom and coriander leaves, as a remedy for bad breath resulting from eating garlic or onions.[79][edit] PerfumeryPerfume usage was recorded in the Arabian Peninsula since the 7th century, and Muslims made many advances in perfumery in the proceeding centuries. This included the extraction of numerous fragrances, as well as the cheap mass-production of incenses. Muslim scientists such as Al-Kindi elaborated a vast number of recipes for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Perfume industry: Established by Geber (Jabir) (b. 722, Iraq) and Al-Kindi (b. 801, Iraq).[83] Jabir developed many techniques, including distillation, evaporation and filtration, which enabled the collection of the odour of plants into a vapour that could be collected in the form of water or oil.[83] Al-Kindi carried out extensive research and experiments in combining various plants and other sources to produce a variety of scent products.Camphor: In the 9th century, the Arab chemist Al-Kindi (Alkindus) provided the earliest recipe for the production of camphor in his Kitab Kimiya' al-'Itr (Book of the Chemistry of Perfume).[84]Deodorants, under-arm and roll-on: In the 9th century, Ziryab invented under-arm deodorants in Al-Andalus.[23] In circa 1000, another under-arm deodorant was described in Al-Andalus by Abulcasis,[79] who also invented perfumed stocks, rolled and pressed in special moulds, similar to modern roll-on deodorants.[85]Extraction of fragrances through steam distillation: Introduced by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) in the 11th century.Ghaliya: The preparation of a perfume called ghaliya, which contained musk, amber and other ingredients, and the use of various drugs and apparatus], was produced by al-Kindi.Musk and floral perfumes: Produced in the 11th-12th centuries in the Arabian Peninsula.[81]Jasmine and citrus perfumes: Muslims introduced new raw ingredients in perfumery, which were produced from different spices, herbals, and other fragrance materials, which are still used in modern perfumery. These included jasmine from South and Southeast Asia, and citrus fruits from East Asia.Rose water: See Chemical substances above.[edit] InstitutionsA number of important economic, educational, legal and scientific institutions previously unknown in the ancient world have their origins in the medieval Islamic world. Academic degree-granting university:[86] If the definition of a university is assumed to mean an institution of higher education and research which issues academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master and doctorate) like in the modern sense of the word, then the medieval Madrasahs known as Jami'ah("university" in Arabic) founded in the 9th century would be the first examples of such an institution.[87][88] The University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco is thus recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri.[89] Also in the 9th century, Bimaristan medical schools were founded in the medieval Islamic world, where medical degrees and diplomas were issued to students of Islamic medicine who were qualified to be a practicing Doctor of Medicine.[88][90] Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 975, was a Jami'ah university which offered a variety of post-graduate degrees (Ijazah),[88] and had individual faculties[91] for a theological seminary, Islamic law and jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomy, early Islamic philosophy, and logic in Islamic philosophy.[88] The modern academic robe worn by graduates was also adapted from the robe worn by the Alim (alumni).[92]Agency and Aval: The first agencies were the Hawala, mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century. Hawala itself later influenced the development of the agency in common law and in civil laws such as the Aval in French law and the Avallo in Italian law. The words Aval and Avallo were themselves derived from Hawala. The transfer of debt, which was "not permissible under Roman law but became widely practiced in medieval Europe, especially in commercial transactions", was due to the large extent of the "trade conducted by the Italian cities with the Muslim world in the Middle Ages." The agency was also "an institution unknown to Roman law" as no "individual could conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent." In Roman law, the "contractor himself was considered the party to the contract and it took a second contract between the person who acted on behalf of a principal and the latter in order to transfer the rights and the obligations deriving from the contract to him." On the other hand, Islamic law and the later common law "had no difficulty in accepting agency as one of its institutions in the field of contracts and of obligations in general."[93]Assize of novel disseisin and contract protected by the action of debt: According to Professor John Makdisi, the "royal English contract protected by the action of debt" has origins in "the Islamic Aqd", and "the English assize of novel disseisin" has origins in "the Islamic Istihqaq", in classical Maliki jurisprudence.[94]College: The origins of the college lie in the medieval Islamic world. The madrasah was a medieval Islamic college of law and theology, usually affiliated with a mosque, and was funded by early charitable trusts known as Waqf, the origins of the trust law.[87][95]Jury and jury trial: The closest predecessor to the English jury trial was the Lafif in the Maliki school of classical Islamic law and jurisprudence, which was developed between the 8th and 11th centuries. Like the English jury, the Islamic Lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighborhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict, about matters "which they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff." According to John Makdisi, "no other institution in any legal institution studied to date shares all of these characteristics with the English jury."[94]The first observatories to serve as research institutes were built by Muslim astronomers. The most famous was the Maragheh observatory, the current status of which is pictured here. Observatory as a research institute: As opposed to a private observation post as was the case in ancient times,[96] the astronomical observatories in the Islamic world were the first true observatories, in the sense that they functioned as early research institutes, like modern observatories.[86] The Islamic observatory was the first specialized astronomical institution with its own scientific staff,[97] director, astronomical program,[96] large astronomical instruments, and building where astronomical research and observations are carried out. Islamic observatories were also the first to employ enormously large astronomical instruments in order to improve the accuracy of their observations.[97] Famous examples include the observatories at Baghdad and Ray, Iran, the Maragheh observatory, Ulugh Beg's observatory at Samarqand, and the Istanbul observatory of al-Din.Public library and lending library:[86] A number of distinct features of the modern library were introduced in the Islamic world, where libraries not only served as a collection of manuscripts as was the case in ancient libraries, but also as a public library and lending library, a centre for the instruction and spread of sciences and ideas, a place for meetings and discussions, and sometimes as a lodging for scholars or boarding school for pupils. The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories.[98]Restaurant: See Food and drink above.Trust institution and charitable trust: The Waqfin Islamic law, which developed in the Islamic world from the 7th to 9th centuries, were the first charitable trust.[99] Every waqf was required to have a waqif (founder), mutawillis (trustee), qadi (judge) and beneficiaries.[100] Under both a waqf and a trust, "property is reserved, and its usufruct appropriated, for the benefit of specific individuals, or for a general charitable purpose; the corpus becomes inalienable; estates for life in favor of successive beneficiaries can be created" and "without regard to the law of inheritance or the rights of the heirs; and continuity is secured by the successive appointment of trustees or mutawillis."[101][edit] Medical institutionsSee also: Bimaristan, Islamic medicine, and Islamic psychology Apothecary, Drugstore, and Pharmacy: The first drugstores and pharmacies were opened by Muslim pharmacists in Baghdad in 754,[2] while the first apothecary shops were also founded by Muslim practitioners at the time.[102]Medical school: The Islamic Bimaristans were not only hospitals, but also the first medical schools and universities to issue diplomas. The first of these institutions was opened in Baghdad during the time of Harun al-Rashid. They then appeared in Egypt from 872 and then in Islamic Spain, Persia and the Maghreb thereafter. Physicians and surgeons at Islamic hospital-universities gave lectures to medical students and diplomas were issued to students who completed their education and were qualified to be doctors of medicine.[103]Psychiatric hospital: The first psychiatric hospitals were built in the medieval Islamic world. The first of these were built built in Baghdad in 705, Fes in the early 8th century, and Cairo in 800.[104]Public hospital: The Islamic Bimaristans were the first free public hospitals, and replaced the healing temples and sleep temples found in ancient times.[86] They were hospital in the modern sense, an establishment where the ill were welcomed and cared for by qualified staff. In this way, Muslim physicians were the first to make a distinction between a hospital and other different forms of sleep and healing temples, hospices, assylums, lazarets and leper-houses, all of which in ancient times were more concerned with isolating the sick and the mad from society "rather than to offer them any way to a true cure." The medieval Bimaristan hospitals are thus considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word.[105]Quarantine: The discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases and the use of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases was introduced by Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine (1025).[106]Geriatric medicine: Arabs were the first to write books on Geriatric medicine.[edit] Mechanical technologyAl-Jazari invented the bayonet fitting, camshaft, bolted lock, laminate, paper model, calibrated orifice, sand casting, gate operator, linkage, water level, crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pumps, double-action reciprocating piston suction pump, programmable humanoid robot band, programmable analog computer, flush mechanism, and automated servants. Al-Jazari's candle clock employed a bayonet fitting for the first time in 1206.Drawing of the self-trimming lamp in Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir's 9th century Arabic treatise on mechanical devices, the Book of Ingenious Devices.Diagram of a hydropowered water-raising machine from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by Al-Jazari in 1206.The double-action reciprocating suction piston pump with a valve and crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism, from a manuscript of Al-Jazari, considered to be a "father of modern day engineering".The programmable humanoid robot band of Al-Jazari, considered to be a "father of robotics".The programmable humanoid robot band designed by Al-Jazari in 1206.The hand washing automaton with a flush mechanism designed by Al-Jazari in 1206.Artificial thunder, lightning and weather simulation: Abbas Ibn Firnas invented an artificial weather simulation room, in which spectators saw stars and clouds, and were astonished by artificial thunder and lightning, which were produced by mechanisms hidden in his basement laboratory.[107][108]Bayonet fitting: Al-Jazari's candle clock in 1206 employed, for the first time, a bayonet fitting, a fastener mechanism still used in modern times.[109]Camshaft: The first known use of cams on a camshaft were invented in Iraq by Al-Jazari in 1206.[110] His camshaft was attached to a water wheel and was used to operate levers moving robotic musicians in his castle clock (see Analog computers below).[111]Bolted lock, and mechanical controls: According to Donald Routledge Hill, Al-Jazari first described several early mechanical controls, including "a large metal door...and a lock with four bolts."[70]Complex segmental and epicyclic gearing: Segmental gears ("a piece for receiving or communicating reciprocating motion from or to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear, or ring, having cogs on the periphery, or face."[112]) and epicyclic gears were both first invented by the 11th century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi from Islamic Spain. He employed both these types of gears in the gear trains of his mechanical clocks. Simple gears have been known before him, but this was the the first known case of complex gears used to transmit high torque.[17] Segmental gears were also later employed by Al-Jazari in 1206. Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. wrote: "Segmental gears first clearly appear in Al-Jazari, in the West they emerge in Giovanni de Dondi's astronomical clock finished in 1364, and only with the great Sienese engineer Francesco di Giorgio (1501) did they enter the general vocabulary of European machine design."[113]Design and construction methods: According to Donald Routledge Hill, "We see for the first time in Al-Jazari's work several concepts important for both design and construction: the lamination of timber to minimize warping, the static balancing of wheels, the use of wooden templates (a kind of pattern), the use of paper models to establish designs, the calibration of orifices, the grinding of the seats and plugs of valves together with emery powder to obtain a watertight fit, and the casting of metals in closed mold boxes with sand."[70]Escapement mechanism in rotating wheel: Al-Jazari invented a method for controlling the speed of rotation of a wheel using an escapement mechanism in 1206.[114]Fountain pen: The earliest historical record of a reservoir fountain pen dates back to the 10th century. In 953, Al-Muizz Lideenillah, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib via gravity and capillary action. As recorded by Qadi al-Nu'man al-Tamimi (d. 974) in his Kitdb al-Majalis WA 'l-musayardt, al-Mu'izz instructed and commissioned the construction of a fountain reservoir pen.[115][116]Gate operator: The first automatic doors were created by Hero of Alexandria and Chinese engineers under Emperor Yang of Sui prior to Islam. This was followed by the first hydraulics-powered automatic gate operators, invented by Al-Jazari in 1206.[117] Al-Jazari also created automatic doors as part of one of his elaborate water clocks.[70]Intermittent working: The concept of minimizing intermittent working is first implied in one of al-Jazari's saqiya chain pumps, which was for the purpose of maximising the efficiency of the saqiya chain pump.[118]Metal block printing and printed amulet: Printing was known as tarsh in Arabic. After woodblock printing appeared in the Islamic world, which may have been adopted from China, a unique type of block printing was invented in Islamic Egypt during the 9th-10th centuries: print blocks made from metals such as tin, lead and cast iron, as well as stone, glass and clay. The first printed amulets were invented in the Islamic world, and were printed with Arabic calligraphy using metal block printing. This technique, however, appears to have had very little influence outside of the Muslim world, since metal and other non-wooden forms of block printing were unknown in China or Korea, which later developed metal movable type printing instead. Block printing later went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China at least 100 years ago.[119]Metronome: According to Lynn Townsend White, Jr., the Andalusian polymath Abbas Ibn Firnas was the inventor of an early metronome in the 9th century.[30]On/off switch: The on/off switch, an important feedback control principle, was invented by Muslim engineers between the 9th and 12th centuries, and it was employed in a variety of automata and water clocks. The mechanism later had an influence on the development of the electric on/off switch which appeared in the 1950s.[120]In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers invented a number of automata (automatic machines) and mechanical devices, and they described a hundred such devices in their Book of Ingenious Devices. Some of their original inventions include:Automatic control[17]Feedback controller[121]Differential pressure[122]Fail-safe system[70]Float chamber[17]Hurricane lamp[70]Gas mask[70]Grab and Clamshell grab[70]Self-feeding lamp and self-trimming lamp: Invented by the eldest brother Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir.[70]Trick drinking vessels[70]Valve, plug valve,[70][121] and float valve.[121]In 1206, Al-Jazari also described over fifty mechanical devices in six different categories in The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, most of which he invented himself, along with construction drawings. Along with his other mechanical inventions described above, some of the other mechanical devices he first described include: phlebotomy measures, linkage, water level, and devices able to elevate water from shallow wells or flowing rivers.[50][51][123][124][edit] AutomataMark E. Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Arab engineers as follows:"Unlike the Greek designs, these Arab examples reveal an interest, not only in dramatic illusion, but in manipulating the environment for human comfort. Thus, the greatest contribution the Arabs made, besides preserving, disseminating and building on the work of the Greeks, was the concept of practical application. This was the key element that was missing in Greek robotic science."[125] "The Arabs, on the other hand, displayed an interest in creating human-like machines for practical purposes but lacked, like other preindustrial societies, any real impetus to pursue their robotic science."[126]Mechanical singing bird automata: Caliph al-Mamun had a silver and golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 827, which had the features of an automatic machine. There were metal birds that sang automatically on the swinging branches of this tree built by Muslim engineers at the time.[127][128] The Abbasid Caliph al-Muktadir also had a golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 915, with birds on it flapping their wings and singing.[127][129]Programmable automatic flute player: The Banū Mūsā invented an automatic flute player which appears to have been the first programmable machine, and which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.[130]Programmable analog computer: See Analog computers below.Programmable humanoid robot band: Al-Jazari (1136-1206) created the first recorded designs of a programmable humanoid robot in 1206, as opposed to the non-programmable automata in ancient times. Al-Jazari's robot was originally a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.[131] According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a "robot band" which performed "more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection."[132]Hand washing automaton with flush mechanism: Al-Jazari invented a hand washing automaton first employing the flush mechanism now used in modern flush toilets. It features a female humanoid automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the female automaton refills the basin.[133]Peacock fountain with automated humanoid servants: Al-Jazari's "peacock fountain" was a sophisticated hand washing device featuring humanoid automata as servants which offer soap and towels. Mark E. Rosheim describes it as follows: "Pulling a plug on the peacock's tail releases water out of the beak; as the dirty water from the basin fills the hollow base a float rises and actuates a linkage which makes a servant figure appear from behind a door under the peacock and offer soap. When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure - with a towel!"[125][edit] PumpsCrankshaft-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pumps: The first known use of a crankshaft in a chain pump was in one of Al-Jazari's saqiya machines described in 1206.[118] Al-Jazari also constructed a water-raising saqiya chain pump which was run by hydropower rather than manual labour, though the Chinese were also using hydropower for other chain pumps prior to him. Saqiya machines like the ones he described have been supplying water in Damascus since the 13th century up until modern times,[134] and were in everyday use throughout the medieval Islamic world.[118]Crankshaft-driven screw and screwpump: In ancient times, the screw and screwpump were driven by a treadwheel, but from the 12th and 13th centuries, Muslim engineers operated them using the crankshaft.[135]Double-action piston suction pump with reciprocating motion: In 1206, al-Jazari demonstrates the first suction pipes and suction piston pump, the first use of double-action, and one of the earliest valve operations, when he invented a twin-cylinder double-action reciprocating suction piston pump, which seems to have had a direct significance in the development of modern engineering. This pump is driven by a water wheel, which drives, through a system of gears, an oscillating slot-rod to which the rods of two pistons are attached. The pistons work in horizontally opposed cylinders, each provided with valve-operated suction and delivery pipes. The delivery pipes are joined above the centre of the machine to form a single outlet into the irrigation system. This pump is remarkable for being the earliest known use of a true suction pipe in a pump.[136]Flywheel-driven chain pump and noria: A flywheel is used to smooth out the delivery of power from a driving device to a driven machine. The mechanical flywheel was first invented by Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038-1075) of Islamic Spain, who pioneered the use of the flywheel in the chain pump (saqiya) and noria.[137]Weight-driven pump: Most ancient and medieval pumps were either driven by manual labour or hydraulics. The first weight-driven pump was described as part of a perpetual motion water-raising machine in a medieval Arabic manuscript written some time after Al-Jazari. It featured a mercury-powered clockwork escapement mechanism and had two out gear-wheels driven by lead weights which mesh with a large central gear-wheel.[138][edit] Medical productsSee also: Islamic medicine [edit] Drugs and medicationsMuslim physicians pioneered a number of drugs and medications for use in medicine, including:Avicenna, considered the "father of modern medicine", pioneered clinical pharmacology, and described inhalational anesthetics and various drugs and medications, in The Canon of Medicine (1025). Alcohol as an antiseptic: The application of pure alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent, and the use of alcohol as a solvent and antiseptic, was introduced by Muslim physicians and surgeons in the 10th century.[9]Cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, and Hindiba: Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025) attempted the earliest known treatments for cancer. One method he discovered was the "Hindiba", a herbal compound drug which Ibn al-Baitar later identified as having "anticancer" properties and which could also treat other tumors and neoplastic disorders. Avicenna wrote a separate supplement treatise dedicated to the pharmacotherapy of Hindiba, giving details on the drug's properties and uses, and he then gives instructions on its preparation as medication.[139] After recognizing its usefulness in treating neoplastic disorders, Hindiba was patented in 1997 by Nil Sari, Hanzade Dogan and John K. Snyder.[140]Chemotherapeutic drugs: Pioneered by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), who introduced the use of chemical substances such as vitriol, copper, mercuric and arsenic salts, sal ammoniac, gold scoria, chalk, clay, coral, pearl, tar, bitumen and alcohol for medical purposes.[141]Clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, and efficacy test: The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine in 1025.[142] His emphasis on tested medicines laid the foundations for an experimental approach to pharmacology.[143] The Canon laid out the rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology[144] and modern clinical trials,[145] randomized controlled trials[146][147] and efficacy tests.[148][149]Cough medicine and syrup: The use of syrups for treating coughs originates from medieval Arabic physicians.[14][150]Drugs, foods, herbs, plants and chemical substances: In antiquity, Dioscorides listed about 500 plants in the 1st century. Muslim botanists, chemists and pharmacists dicovered many more during the Middle Ages. For example, Al-Dinawari described more than 637 plant drugs in the 9th century,[151] and Ibn al-Baitar described at least 1,400 different plants, foods and drugs, 300 of which were his own original discoveries, in the 13th century.[152] In total, at least 2,000 medicinal substances were discovered by Muslim botanists, chemists and pharmacists.[2]Epilepsy and seizure medications: Abulcasis, in his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), invented medications called Ghawali and Lafayfe for the treatment of epilepsy and seizure.[79]Medicinal-grade alcohol: Produced through distillation. These distillation devices for use in chemistry and medicine were manufactured on a large scale in the 10th century.Parasitology: Parasites were first discovered by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), when he discovered the cause of scabies.[153] He recommended specific substances to destroy microbes, and the application of sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite.Pharmacopoeia: The first pharmacopoeia books were written by Muslim physicians.[154] These included Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine and other pharmacopoeia books by Abu-Rayhan Biruni in the early 11th century,[155] Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century (and printed in 1491),[156] and Ibn al-Baitar in the 14th century.[9]Phytotherapy, Taxus baccata, and calcium channel blocker: Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine introduced the medicinal use of Taxus baccata L. He named this herbal drug "Zarnab" and used it as a cardiac remedy. This was the first known use of a calcium channel blocker drug, which were not used in the Western world until the 1960s.[157]Sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction drugs: Muslim physicians identified the issue of sexual and erectile dysfunction, and they were the first to prescribe medication for the treatment of the problem. They developed several methods of therapy for this issue, including the single drug method where a drug is prescribed, and a "combination method of either a drug or food." These drugs were also occasionally used for recreational drug use to improve male sexuality in general by those who did not suffer from sexual dysfunctions. Most of these drugs were oral medication, though a few patients were also treated through topical and transurethral means. Sexual dysfunctions were being treated with tested drugs in the Islamic world since the 9th century until the 16th century by a number of Muslim physicians and pharmacists, including al-Razi, Thabit bin Qurra, Ibn Al-Jazzar, Avicenna (The Canon of Medicine), Averroes, Ibn al-Baitar, and Ibn al-Nafis (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine).[158]Topical cream: For the relief and treatment of common colds, Abulcasis invented Muthallaathat, which was prepared from camphor, musk and honey, similar to the modern Vicks Vapour Rub.[79][edit] Surgical instrumentsA wide variety of surgical instruments and techniques were invented in the Muslim world, as well as the refinement of earlier instruments and techniques. In particular, over 200 surgical instruments were listed by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) in the Al-Tasrif (1000), many of which were never used before by any previous surgeons. Hamidan, for example, listed at least twenty six innovative surgical instruments that Abulcasis introduced. Adhesive bandage and plaster: Introduced by Abulcasis.[159][160]Bone saw: Invented by Abulcasis.[10]Cancer surgery: Another method for treating cancer first described by Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine was a surgical treatment. He stated that the excision should be radical and that all diseased tissue should be removed, which included the use of amputation or the removal of veins running in the direction of the tumor. He also recommended the use of cauterization for the area being treated if necessary.[159]Cataract extraction, hypodermic needle, injection syringe, and suction: In circa 1000, the Muslim ophthalmologist Ammar ibn Ali of Mosul was the first to successfully extract cataracts. He invented a hollow metallic syringe hypodermic needle, which he applied through the sclerotic and successfully extracted the cataracts through suction.[161]Catgut, use of: The use of catgut for internal stitching was introduced by Abulcasis.Cotton dressing and bandage: The earliest known use of cotton (derived from the Arabic word qutn) as a dressing for controlling hemorrhage, was described by Abulcasis.[159]Curette, retractor, sound, surgical spoon, surgical hook, and surgical rod: Invented by Abulcasis in his Al-Tasrif(1000).[162]Fetus extraction: Abulcasis, in his Al-Tasrif(1000), first described the surgical procedure of extractiing a dead fetus using forceps.[163]General anaesthesia, General anaesthetic, oral anesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, and narcotic-soaked sponge: Surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face, were introduced by the Muslim anesthesiologists, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis) and Ibn Zuhr, in Islamic Spain. Sigrid Hunke wrote: "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."[164]Illustrated surgical atlas: Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), produced in the 15th century, was the first surgical wiktionary:atlas|atlas. Surgical operations were illustrated for the first time in the Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye.[165]Ligature: Introduced by Abulcasis in the Al-Tasrif, for the blood control of arteries in lieu of cauterization.[166]Surgical suture: Abulcasis in his Al-Tasrif.[167]Tracheotomy, correct description of: While tracheostomy may have possibly been portrayed on ancient Egyptian tablets, the first clear and correct description of the tracheotomy operation for suffocating patients was described by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century.[167][168][edit] Navigational technologySee also: Geography in medieval Islam, Astronomy in medieval Islam, and Physics in medieval Islam The 32-point compass rose was invented by Arab navigators. Shown here is the one by Jorge de Aguiar (1492).[edit] InstrumentsBaculus: The baculus, used for nautical astronomy, originates from Islamic Spain and was later used by Portuguese navigators for long-distance travel.[169]Cartographic grids: Invented in 10th-century Baghdad.[170]Compass dial: In the early 14th century, Ibn al-Shatir invented the compass dial, a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers.[171]Compass rose: The Arabs invented the 32-point compass rose during the Middle Ages.[172]Navigational astrolabe: Invented in the Islamic world, it employed the use of a polar projection system.[173]Orthographical astrolabe: Invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century.[174]Terrestrial globe: See Globes below.[edit] TransportKamal: Arab navigators invented a rudimentary sextant known as a kamal, used for celestial navigation and for measuring the altitudes and latitudes of the stars, in the late 9th century.[175] They employed in the Indian Ocean from the 10th century,[176] They employed it in the Indian Ocean from the 10th century,[176] and it was adopted by Indian navigators soon after,[177] followed by Chinese navigators some time before the 16th century.[178] The invention of the kamal allowed for the earliest known latitude sailing,[176] and was thus the earliest step towards the use of quantitative methods in navigation.[178]Rudder with tackles, permanent sternpost-mounted: The Arabs used a sternpost-mounted rudder which differed technically from both its European and Chinese counterparts. On their ships "the rudder is controlled by two lines, each attached to a crosspiece mounted on the rudder head perpendicular to the plane of the rudder blade."[179] The earliest evidence comes from the Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Marifat al-Aqalim ('The Best Divisions for the Classification of Regions') written by al-Muqaddasi in 985.[180] According to Lawrence V. Mott, the "idea of attaching the rudder to the sternpost in a relatively permanent fashion, therefore, must have been an Arab invention independent of the Chinese."[179]Minaret of the Great Mosque at Córdoba, where Abbas Ibn Firnas flew from in the 9th century. [edit] AviationParachute: In 9th century Islamic Spain, Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firnas) invented a primitive version of the parachute.[181][182][183][184] John H. Lienhard described it in The Engines of Our Ingenuity as follows: "In 852, a new Caliph and a bizarre experiment: A daredevil named Armen Firman decided to fly off a tower in Cordova. He glided back to earth, using a huge winglike cloak to break his fall."[185][edit] Scientific instrumentsSee also: Islamic astronomy, Islamic physics, and Alchemy and chemistry in Islam Muslim astronomers developed a number of astronomical instruments, including several variations of the astrolabe, originally invented by Hipparchus in the 2nd century BCE, but with considerable improvements made to the device in the Muslim world. These instruments were used by Muslims for a variety of purposes. In the 10th century, Al-Sufi first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, related to astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, Qibla (direction to Mecca), Salah prayers, etc.[186][edit] Analog computersThe universal latitude-independent astrolabe was invented by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in Islamic Spain circa1015. The one shown here is from Persia in the 18th century. The spherical astrolabe was invented by Muslim astronomers. This is the earliest surviving example from the 14th century.Equatorium: Invented by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in Islamic Spain circa 1015,[17] it was a mechanical analog computer device for finding the longitudes and positions of the moon, sun, and planet]s, without calculation using a geometrical model to represent the celestial body's mean and anomalistic position.Saphaea: The first universal latitude-independent astrolabe, invented by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in 11th century Islamic Spain. Unlike its predecessors, it did not depend on the latitude of the observer, and could be used anywhere on the Earth.[187]Zuraqi: A heliocentric astrolabe where the Earth is in motion rather than the sky, by al-Sijzi in the 11th century.[188]Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī's hodometer[189] was an early example of a fixed-wired knowledge processing machine in the early 11th century.[190]Mechanical lunisolar calendar computer: Featured a gear train and gear-wheels, and was invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.[191]Mechanical geared astrolabe: Invented by Ibn Samh (c. 1020).[192]Linear astrolabe ("staff of al-Tusi"): Invented by Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī in the 12th century.[193]Programmable analog computer: The castle clock, an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the earliest programmable analog computer.[111] It displayed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway causing automatic doors to open every hour,[70][194] and five robotic musicians who play music when moved by levers operated by a camshaft attached to a water wheel. The length of day and night could be re-programmed every day in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.[111]Mechanical geared astrolabe with calendar computer: Invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.[195]Plate of Conjunctions: A computing instrument used to determine the time of day at which planetary conjunctions will occur,[196] and for performing linear interpolation,[197] invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century.Planetary computer: The Plate of Zones, a mechanical planetary computer which could graphically solve a number of planetary problems, was invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century. It could predict the true positions in longitude of the sun and moon,[197] and the planets in terms of elliptical orbits;[198] the latitudes of the Sun, Moon, and planets; and the ecliptic of the Sun. The instrument also incorporated an alidade and ruler.[199][edit] Laboratory apparatusGeber invented the alembic, the first still with a retort, and the first distillation device to fully purify chemical substances. Alembic, still, and retort: Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) invented the alembic in the 8th century. This was the first still[3] with a retort,[200] and the first distillation device to fully purify chemical substances.Conical measure: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the 11th century.[201][202]Hydrostatic balance and steelyard: Al-Khazini in 1121.[203]Laboratory flask and pycnometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.[203]Refrigerated coil and refrigerated tubing: In the 11th century, Avicenna invented the refrigerated coil, which condenses aromatic vapours.[204][205] This was a breakthrough in distillation technology and he made use of it in his steam distillation process, which requires refrigerated tubing, to produce essential oils.[11]Thermometer and air thermometer: Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) in the 11th century.[206]Tools for drug preparation: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) first described the following tools for the preparation of drugs (li-tadbir al-aqaqir): cucurbit and still with evacuation tube (qar aq anbiq dhu-khatm), receiving matras (qabila), blind still (without evacuation tube) (al-anbiq al-ama), aludel (al-uthal), goblets (qadah), flasks (qarura or quwarir), rosewater flasks (ma wariyya), cauldron (marjal aw tanjir), earthenware pots varnished on the inside with their lids (qudur aq tanjir), water bath or sand bath (qadr), oven (al-tannur in Arabic, athanor in Latin), small cylindirical oven for heating aludel(mustawqid), funnels, sieves, and filters.[6]Tools for melting substances: Al-Razi (Rhazes), in his Secretum secretorum (Latinized title), described the following original tools for melting chemical substances (li-tadhwib): crucible (bawtaqa)[6] and kilns with superimposed crucibles known as but bar but (crucible on crucible) in Arabic and botus barbatusin Latin.[207][edit] Mural instrumentsThe first sextant was built in Ray, Iran by Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in 994. The earliest surviving sextant is Ulugh Beg's mural "Fakhri Sextant" constructed in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, during the 15th century, pictured above. Quadrant and mural instrument: Invented by Al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad, Iraq.[208]Almucantar quadrant: Invented in the medieval Islamic world. It employed the use of trigonometry. The term "almucantar" is itself derived from Arabic.[209]Horary quadrant: For specific latitude]s, by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.[208]Sine quadrant: For astronomical calculations, by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.[208]Quadrans Vetus: Meaning "Old Quadrant", this was a universal horary quadrant which could be used for any latitude and at any time of the year to determine the time, as well as the times of Salah, invented by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad. This was the second most widely used astronomical instrument during the Middle Ages after the astrolabe. One of its main purposes in the Islamic world was to determine the times of Salah prayers.[210]Quadrans Novus: An astrolabic quadrant invented in Egypt in the 11th century or 12th century, and later known in Europe as the "Quadrans Novus" (New Quadrant).[211]Sextant: The first sextant was constructed in Ray, Iran, by Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in 994. It was a very large sextant that achieved a high level of accuracy for astronomical measurements, which he described his in his treatise, On the obliquity of the ecliptic and the latitudes of the cities.[212] In the 15th century, Ulugh Beg constructed the mural "Fakhri Sextant", which had a radius of approximately 36 meters. Constructed in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, the arc was finely constructed with a staircase on either side to provide access for the assistants who performed the measurements.[edit] Optical instrumentsIn ancient times, Euclid and Ptolemy believed that the eyes emitted rays which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that rays of light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), who is regarded as the "father of optics".[213] He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one, with his development of the scientific method. Observation tube: The "observation tube" (without lens) was invented by al-Battani (Albatenius) (853-929) and first described by al-Biruni (973-1048). These observation tubes were later adopted in Europe, where they influenced the development of the telescope.[214]Modern optics: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), with his Book of Optics (1021), refuted the emission theory of vision, and correctly explained and proved the modern intromission theory of vision, through extensive experimentation. He thus initiated a revolution in optics[215] and visual perception,[216] for which he is regarded as the "father of modern optics".[217]Camera obscura: Ibn al-Haytham worked out that the smaller the hole, the better the picture, and set up the first camera obscura,[10] a precursor to the modern camera.Pinhole camera: Ibn al-Haytham first described pinhole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters.[10]Magnifying glass: The earliest evidence of "a magnifying device, a convex lens forming a magnified image", dates back the Book of Optics published by Ibn al-Haytham in 1021. The Latin translation of his work was instrumental to the later inventions of eyeglasses,[218] the telescope,[219] and the microscope.[220][edit] Other instrumentsAn alidade (al-idhâdah "ruler" in Arabic). Alidade: Invented in the Islamic world. The term "alidade" is itself derived from Arabic word al-idhâdah"ruler".Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir in the early 14th century.[221]Astrometric devices: Produced in Islamic Spain around 1015.Astronomical compass: The first astronomical uses of the magnetic compass is found in a treatise on astronomical instruments written by the Yemeni sultan al-Ashraf in 1282. This was the first reference to the compass in astronomical literature.[222]Compendium instrument: A multi-purpose astronomical instrument, first constructed by the Muslim astronomer Ibn al-Shatir in the 13th century. His compendium featured an alidade and polar sundial among other things. Al-Wafa'i developed another compendium in the 15th century which he called the "equatorial circle", which also featured a horizontal sundial. These compendia later became popular in Renaissance Europe.[223]Shadow square: An instrument used to determine the linear height of an object, in conjunction with the alidade for angular observations, invented by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī in 9th-century Baghdad.[224][edit] Timekeeping devicesA sundial in Seville, Andalusia. The first universal and polar-axis sundials were invented by Muslim engineers. The elephant clock from Al-Jazari's manuscript in 1206. This was the earliest clock to employ a flow regulator, a closed-loop system, and an automaton like a cuckoo clock].[edit] Astronomical clocksMuslim astronomers and engineers constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories. [9] Timekeeping astrolabe: In the 10th century, al-Sufi described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, including timekeeping, particularly for the times of Salah prayers and Ramadan.[186]Geared mechanical lunisolar calendar computer: See Analog computers above.Geared mechanical astrolabe: Featured a calendar computer and gear-wheels, and was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.[195]Monumental water-powered astronomical clocks: Al-Jazari invented monumental water powered astronomical clocks which displayed moving models of the sun, moon, and stars. His largest astronomical clock displayed the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits. Another innovative feature of the clock was a pointer which travelled across the top of a gateway and caused automatic doors to open every hour.[70]Programmable castle clock: See Analog computers above.Quadrans Vetus: See Mural instruments above.[edit] Clocks with gears and escapementsGeared clock: The first geared clock was invented by the 11th-century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Iberia; it was a water clock that employed both segmental and epicyclic gearing.[17] Other monumental water clocks constructed by medieval Muslim engineers also employed complex gear trains and arrays of automata.[225] The first European clock to employ these complex gears was the astronomical clock created by Giovanni de Dondi in c. 1365.[17]Weight-driven mercury clock: A mercury clock, employing a mercury escapement mechanism[225] and a clock face similar to an astrolabe dial, was described in a Spanish language work for Alfonso X in 1277, compiled from earlier Arabic sources that likely date back to the 11th century.[17] The Jewish author of the relevant section, Rabbi Isaac, constructed the mercury clock using principles described by a philosopher named "Iran", identified with Heron of Alexandria (fl. 1st century AD), on how heavy objects may be lifted.[226] Knowledge of the mercury clock was later transmitted to other parts of Europe through translations.[9][17]Weight-driven water clock: Arab engineers invented weight-driven water clocks, where heavy floats were used as weights and a constant-head system was used as an escapement mechanism,[17] which was present in in the hydraulic controls they used to make heavy floats descend at a slow and steady rate.[225]Weight-driven water-powered scribe clock: In 1206, Al-Jazari invented some of the earliest weight-driven water clocks, including the water-powered scribe clock. This water-powered portable clock was a meter high and half a meter wide. The scribe with his pen was synonymous to the hour hand of a modern clock. This is an example of an ingenious water system by Al-Jazari.[51][227] Al-Jazari's famous water-powered scribe clock was reconstructed successfully at the Science Museum (London) in 1976.[edit] DialsUniversal sundial: A universal sundial for all latitudes, used for timekeeping and for the determination of the times of Salah, was produced in 9th-century Baghdad.[228]Navicula de Venetiis: A universal horary dial used for accurate timekeeping by the sun and stars, and could be observed from any latitude, invented in 9th century Baghdad.[229] This was later considered the most sophisticated timekeeping instrument of the Renaissance.[170]Polar-axis sundial: The ancient sundials were nodus-based with straight hour-lines, they indicated unequal hours-also called temporary hours-that varied with the seasons, since every day was divided into twelve equal segments; thus, hours were shorter in winter and longer in summer. The idea of using hours of equal time length throughout the year was the innovation of Ibn al-Shatir in 1371, based on earlier developments in trigonometry by Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albategni). Ibn al-Shatir was aware that "using a gnomon that is parallel to the Earth's axis will produce sundials whose hour lines indicate equal hours on any day of the year." His sundial is the oldest polar-axis sundial still in existence. The concept later appeared in Western sundials from at least 1446.[230][231]Compass dial: See Instruments above.[edit] Water clocksGeared water clock: See Clocks with gears and escapements above.Elephant clock: The elephant clock described by al-Jazari in 1206 is notable for several innovations. It was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time, which in this case was a humanoid robot in the form of a mahout striking a cymbal and a mechanical bird chirping like a cuckoo clock; the first mechanism to employ a flow regulator; and the earliest example of a closed-loop system in a mechanism.[232] The float regulator employed in the clock later had an important influence during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, when it was employed in the boiler of a steam engine and in domestic water systems.[17]Programmable castle clock: See Analog computers above.Weight-driven water clock: See Clocks with gears and escapements above.Weight-driven water-powered scribe clock: See Clocks with gears and escapements above.New water clocks discovery in the Book of secrets is shown in the Museum of Islamic Art; Doha, Qatar. References here: The Book of Secrets[edit] Other inventionsAl-Kindi's 9th century Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages was the first book on cryptanalysis and frequency analysis. Geomantic instrument, Egypt or Syria, 1241-1242 CE, made by Muhammad ibn Khutlukh al Mawsuli. British Museum.The lute was adopted from the Arab world. 1568 print.The Arabic four-stringed oud was the ancestor of the lute and guitar.The Arabic rebab was the ancestor of the rebec and the violin.Fielding H. Garrison wrote in the History of Medicine:"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, string instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc."[233]Other inventions from the Islamic world include:Airmail system utilizing homing pigeons by the Fatimid Caliph Aziz, and advances in music theory (see Arabic music) and irrigation techniques (see Muslim Agricultural Revolution).[234][235][236]Cryptanalysis and frequency analysis: In cryptology, the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis was given by 9th-century Arabian polymath, Al-Kindi (also known as "Alkindus" in Europe), in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. This treatise includes the first description of the method of frequency analysis.[237] It has been suggested that close textual study of the Qur'an first brought to light that Arabic has a characteristic letter frequency. Its use spread, and similar systems were widely used in European states by the time of the Renaissance.Experimental psychology: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) is considered to be the founder of experimental psychology,[238] for his experimental approach to the psychology of visual perception and optical illusions.[239]Geomancy: The most widely accepted origin for this practice is in the medieval Arabic world.[240]Fireproof paper, glow-in-the-dark ink, rust-free iron, and waterproof textile: According to Ismail al-Faruqi and Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, "In response to Jafar al-Sadik's wishes, [Jabir ibn Hayyan] invented a kind of paper that resisted fire, and an ink that could be read at night. He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhibited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent."[241]Fustian: The original medieval fustian was a stout but respectable cloth with a cotton weft and a linen warp, derived from El-Fustat, the name of a suburb of Cairo where this cloth was originally manufactured.[242][243]Graph paper, and orthogonal and regular grids: The first known use of graph paper dates back to the medieval Islamic world, where weavers often carefully drew and encoded their patterns onto graph paper prior to weaving.[244] Islamic quadrants used for various astronomical and timekeeping purposes from the 10th century also introduced markings with orthogonal and regular grids that are still identical to modern graph paper.[245][246]Persian carpet and cheque system[10]Scientific method, experimental science, and experimental physics: The scientific method was pioneered by the Muslim scientist and physicist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), who emphasized the role of experimentation and mathematics in obtaining the results in his Book of Optics (1021).[247] Due to his formulation of a modern quantitative, empirical and experimental approach to physics and science, he is also considered the pioneer of experimental science[248] and experimental physics,[249] and some have described him as the "first scientist" for these reasons.[250][edit] Musical instrumentsSee also: Arabic music, Islamic music, and Andalusian classical music Albogue, alboka, hornpipe, clarinet, and single-reed instrument: The earliest known hornpipes, clarinets and single-reed instruments were the albogue and alboka, both derived from the "al-bûq" (البوق) (literally "the trumpet" or "the horn") used in medieval Arabic music and Islamic music. The instrument was brought into Iberia by the Arab conquest.[251]Guitar, lute, and oud: The modern guitar (qitarin Arabic) is descended from the four-string oud brought by the Moors after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the 8th century, and which evolved into the modern lute.[252] The four-string guitar introduced by the Moors had eventually evolved into two types in Spain: the guitarra morisca (Moorish guitar) which had a rounded back, wide fingerboard and several soundholes, and then by 1200, the guitarra latina (Latin guitar) which resembled the modern guitar with one soundhole and a narrower neck.[253]Herdy Gerdy and stringed keyboard instrument: The earliest stringed instrument with a musical keyboard, an ancestor of the piano, was the hurdy gurdy, but its origins are uncertain. According to a theory proposed by Marianne Bröcker, an instrument similar to the hurdy gurdy is first mentioned in an Arabic musical compendium written by Al Zirikli in the 10th century.[254]Long-distance organ: A long-distance hydraulic organ that could be heard from sixty miles away was first described in the medieval Arabic treatise Sirr al-asrar and later translated into Latin by Roger Bacon in the 13th century.[255]Mechanical musical instrument and automatic hydraulic organ: The Banū Mūsā brothers invented "the earliest known mechanical musical instrument", in this case a hydropowered organ which played interchangeable cylinders automatically. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."[256]Programmable automatic flute player: The Banū Mūsā invented an automatic flute player which appears to have been the first programmable machine, and which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.[130]Timpani, naker, and naqareh: The modern timpani (kettle drum) evolved from the naker, the direct ancestor of most timpani, were were derived from the Arabic naqareh and brought to 13th century Continental Europe by Saracens and Crusaders.[251][257]Rebec, and rebab: The rebec was in use since the 10th century,[258] and was derived from the rebab which originated in medieval Arabic music and Islamic music.[251][edit] See alsoIslamic contributions to Medieval EuropeIslamic Golden AgeMuslim Agricultural RevolutionScience in medieval IslamTimeline of Islamic science and engineeringTimeline of historic inventions[edit] Notes^ Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong:"There have been many civilizations in human history, almost all of which were local, in the sense that they were defined by a region and an ethnic group. This applied to all the ancient civilizations of the Middle East-Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Persia; to the great civilizations of Asia-India, China; and to the civilizations of Pre-Columbian America. There are two exceptions: Christendom and Islam. These are two civilizations defined by religion, in which religion is the primary defining force, not, as in India or China, a secondary aspect among others of an essentially regional and ethnically defined civilization. Here, again, another word of explanation is necessary." ^ a b cd S. Hadzovic (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development", Med Arh. 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.^ a b Will Durant (1980). The Age of Faith (The Story of Civilization, Volume 4), p. 162-186. Simon & Schuster. Special:Booksources.^ a b cd Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 195.^ Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology: Towards Motivating the Muslim Child", OISE Papers in STSE Education, Vol. 3.^ a b cd Georges C. Anawati, "Arabic alchemy", p. 868, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 853-902)^ a b cd e f gh Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.^ a b cd Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), "On wine, chirality and crystallography", Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography 64: 246-258 [247]^ a b cd e f g Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. Special:Booksources.^ a b cd e f gPaul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 March 2006.^ a b c Marlene Ericksen (2000). Healing with Aromatherapy, p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. Special:Booksources.^ Ahmad Y Hassan, The Colouring of Gemstones, The Purifying and Making of Pearls, And Other Useful Recipes^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Arabic Alchemy: Science of the Art". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2010.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.^ a b cd e George Rafael, A is for Arabs, Salon.com, January 8, 2002.^ a b c Sarton, George, Introduction to the History of Science (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997), Quotations From Famous Historians of Science)^ Olga Pikovskaya, Repaying the West's Debt to Islam, BusinessWeek, March 29, 2005^ a b cd e f gh i j kl m Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam^ Khairallah, Amin A. (1946), Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine, chapter 10, Beirut^ Mokyr, Joel (2002), Twenty-Five Centuries of Technological Change, p. 25, Special:Booksources^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources, History of Science and Technology in Islam^ Lindsay, James E. (2005), Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 131, Special:Booksources^ a b Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), The Legacy of Muslim Spain, p. 117, Brill Publishers, Special:Booksources^ a b Ahmad Y Hassan, Assessment of Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna, History of Science and Technology in Islam.^ a b Hassan, Ahmad Y. "The Manufacture of Coloured Glass". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%209.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.^ a b Hassan, Ahmad Y. "The Colouring of Gemstones, The Purifying and Making of Pearls And Other Useful Recipes". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2092.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.^ R. S. Elliott (1966). Electromagnetics, Chapter 1. McGraw-Hill.^ a b Dr. Nader El-Bizri, "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 343-345, Routledge, New York, London.^ a b Henderson, J.; McLoughlin, S. D.; McPhail, D. S. (2004), "Radical changes in Islamic glass technology: evidence for conservatism and experimentation with new glass recipes from early and middle Islamic Raqqa, Syria", Archaeometry 46 (3): 439-68^ a b Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), pp. 97-111 [100]:"Ibn Firnas was a polymath: a physician, a rather bad poet, the first to make glass from stones (quartz?), a student of music, and inventor of some sort of metronome." ^ Roshdi Rashed (1990), "A Pioneer in Anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on Burning Mirrors and Lenses", Isis 81 (3), p. 464-491 [464-468].^ Kochmann, W.; Reibold M., Goldberg R., Hauffe W., Levin A. A., Meyer D. C., Stephan T., Müller H., Belger A., Paufler P. (2004). "Nanowires in ancient Damascus steel". Journal of Alloys and Compounds 372: L15-L19. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2003.10.005. ISSN 0925-8388. Levin, A. A.; Meyer D. C., Reibold M., Kochmann W., Pätzke N., Paufler P. (2005). "Microstructure of a genuine Damascus Sabre". Crystal Research and Technology 40 (9): 905-916. doi:10.1002/crat.200410456. http://www.crystalresearch.com/crt/ab40/905_a.pdf.^ Reibold, M.; Levin A. A., Kochmann W., Pätzke N., Meyer D. C. (16). "Materials:Carbon nanotubes in an ancient Damascus Sabre". Nature 444: 286. doi:10.1038/444286a.^ a b Legendary Swords' Sharpness, Strength From Nanotubes, Study Says^ Sanderson, Katharine (2006-11-15). "Sharpest cut from nanotube sword: Carbon nanotech may have given swords of Damascus their edge". Nature (journal). http://www.nature.com/news/2006/061113/full/061113-11.HTML. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.^ a b cd Ahmad Y Hassan, Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, History of Science and Technology in Islam.^ Nicolle, David (1995). The Janissaries. Osprey. p. 22. Special:Booksources.^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Potassium Nitrate in Arabic and Latin Sources, History of Science and Technology in Islam^ Ahmad Y Hassan (1987), "Chemical Technology in Arabic Military Treatises", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (New York Academy of Sciences): 153-166 [159]^ Bert S. Hall, in introduction to J. R. Partington, A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, p. xxvii.^ a b Zayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), "The Oil Weapons", Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1995, pp. 20-27^ Deborah Rowe, How Islam has kept us out of the 'Dark Ages', Science and Society, Channel 4, May 2004.^ Caiger-Smith, 1973, p.65^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Lustre Glass and Lazaward And Zaffer Cobalt Oxide In Islamic And Western Lustre Glass And Ceramics, History of Science and Technology in Islam^ Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Brill Academic Publishers) XII: 5. ISBN 9004103147.^ Standard Terminology Of Ceramic Whiteware and Related Products. ASTM Standard C242.^ Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Brill Academic Publishers) XII: 1. ISBN 9004103147.^ Caiger-Smith, 1973, p.23^ Islam: Empire of Faith, Part One, after the 50th minute.^ a b Al-Jazari, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya, translated by P. Hill (1973). Springer.^ a b c Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, Routledge, p.224.^ S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London. F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148-50.(cf. References, 1001 Inventions)^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", pp. 766-9, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-795)^ David A. King (1984), "Architecture and Astronomy: The Ventilators of Medieval Cairo and Their Secrets", Journal of the American Oriental Society 104 (1): 97-133^ a b Gingerich, Owen (April 1986), "Islamic astronomy", Scientific American 254 (10): 74, . Retrieved on 2008-05-18^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muadh Al-Jayyani", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive .^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 759, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95)^ Hugh N. Kennedy (1985), "From Polis To Madina: Urban Change In Late Antique And Early Islamic Syria", Past & Present (Oxford University Press) 106 (1): 3-27 [10-1]^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95)^ Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 181, University of Texas Press, Special:Booksources^ Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt (2007). "Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture". Science 315: 1106-1110. doi:10.1126/science.1135491. http://www.physics.Harvard.edu/~plu/publications/Science_315_1106_2007.pdf.^ Supplemental figures [1]^ Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992), Islamic Architecture in Cairo, Brill Publishers, p. 6, Special:Booksources04 09626 4^ a b cd Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1-30 [10-1 & 27]^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1-30^ Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 62, BRILL, Special:Booksources^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 783, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95)^ a b cd e f Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65, Brill Publishers, Special:Booksources^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95)^ a b cd e f gh i j kl m n Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64-9 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)^ Mahdavi, Farid (2003), "Review: Paper Before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World by Jonathan M. Bloom", Journal of Interdisciplinary History(MIT Press) 34 (1): 129-30^ The Beginning of the Paper Industry, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. Special:Booksources.^ Dietrich Lohrmann (1995). "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 77(1), p. 1-30 (8).^ A.G. Drachmann, "Heron's Windmill", Centaurus, 7 (1961), pp. 145-151^ Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp.1-30 (10f.)^ Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp.1-30 (18ff.)^ The invention of cosmetics. 1001 Inventions.^ a b cd e f gh "Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics". FSTC Limited. 2003-05-20. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=364. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.^ a b cd Lebling Jr., Robert W. (July-August 2003), "Flight of the Blackbird", Saudi Aramco World: 24-33, http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200304/flight.of.the.blackbird.htm, retrieved on 2008-01-28^ a b Dunlop, D.M. (1975), "Arab Civilization", Librairie du Liban^ a b Sertima, Ivan Van (1992), The Golden Age of the Moor, Transaction Publishers, p. 267, Special:Booksources^ a b Levey, Martin (1973), "Early Arabic Pharmacology", E.J. Brill: Leiden, Special:Booksources.^ Al-Kindi, FSTC^ How Islam invented a bright new world, The Herald, 25/10/2007.^ a b cd Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 18, Continuum International Publishing Group, Special:Booksources^ a b Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West", Journal of the American Oriental Society109 (2): 175-182 [175-77]^ a b cd Alatas, Syed Farid, "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian-Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112-32^ The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, Special:Booksources^ John Bagot Glubb:By Mamun's time medical schools were extremely active in Baghdad. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid. As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas to those who were considered qualified to practice. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 AD and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia. (cf. Quotations on Islamic Civilization) ^ Goddard, Hugh (2000), A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh University Press, p. 99, Special:Booksources^ Goddard, Hugh (2000), A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh University Press, p. 100, Special:Booksources^ Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring, 1978), "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems", The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 - Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24-25, 1977): 187-198 [196-8]^ a b Makdisi, John A. (June 1999), "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law", North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635-1739^ Toby E. Huff (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, Cambridge University Press, pp. 77-8^ a b Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 992-3 , in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 985-1007)^ a b (Kennedy 1962)^ Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 988-991 in Morelon, Régis & Roshdi Rashed (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, vol. 3, Routledge, Special:Booksources^ (Gaudiosi 1988)^ (Gaudiosi 1988, pp. 1237-40)^ (Gaudiosi 1988, p. 1246)^ Sharif Kaf al-Ghazal, Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3), pp. 3-9 [8].^ Sir John Bagot Glubb (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor (1999), Quotations on Islamic Civilization)^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2), p. 2-9 [7-8].^ Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 991-2 , in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 985-1007)^ David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100-1]^ Imamuddin, S. M. (1981), Muslim Spain 711-1492 A.D., Brill Publishers, p. 166, Special:Booksources^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 12: Machines of the East, History Channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwGfw1YW9Js, retrieved on 2008-09-07^ Georges Ifrah (2001), The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quatum Computer, p. 171, Trans. E.F. Harding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (See [2])^ a b c Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8, retrieved on 2008-09-06^ Segment gear, TheFreeDictionary.com^ The Automata of Al-Jazari. The Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul.^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 751-795 [792]. Routledge, London and New York.^ Bosworth, C. E. (Autumn 1981), "A Mediaeval Islamic Prototype of the Fountain Pen?", Journal of Semitic StudiesXXVl (i)^ ""Origins of the Fountain Pen"". Muslimheritage.com. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=365. Retrieved on September 18 2007.^ Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 181, University of Texas Press, Special:Booksources.^ a b c Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", p. 776, in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, pp. 751-795, Routledge, London and New York^ Richard W. Bulliet (1987), "Medieval Arabic Tarsh: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of Printing", Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (3), p. 427-438.^ F. L. Lewis (1992), Applied Optimal Control and Estimation, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.^ a b c Otto Mayr (1970). The Origins of Feedback Control, MIT Press.^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 12: Machines of the East, History Channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6gdknoXww8, retrieved on 2008-09-06^ Derek de Solla Price (1975). "The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari", Technology and Culture 16 (1), p. 81.^ The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din (2004), Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.^ a b Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, p. 9, Special:Booksources^ Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, p. 36, Special:Booksources^ a b Arslan Terzioglu (2007), The First Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History, in H. C. Guzel (ed.), The Turks, pp. 804-10^ Ismail b. Ali Ebu'l Feda history, Weltgeschichte, hrsg. von Fleischer and Reiske 1789-94, 1831.^ A. Marigny (1760). Histoire de Arabes. Paris, Bd. 3, S.206.^ a b Teun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine theory 36, p. 590-591.^ A 13th Century Programmable Robot. University of Sheffield.^ Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45-49^ Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, pp. 9-10, Special:Booksources^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Al-Jazari and the History of the Water Clock^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 771, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95)^ Ahmad Y Hassan, The Origin of the Suction Pump - Al-Jazari 1206 A.D., History of Science and Technology in Islam^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya, History of Science and Technology in Islam.^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, Routledge], p. 205, Special:Booksources^ Prof. Nil Sari (Istanbul University, Cerrahpasha Medical School) (06 June, 2007). "Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage". FSTC Limited. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=707.^ US patent 5663196 Methods for treating neoplastic disorders^ The Valuable Contribution of al-Razi (Rhazes) to the History of Pharmacy, FSTC^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67(5): 447-450 [448-9]^ Jacquart, Danielle, "Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances", European Review16 (2): 219-227 [219 & 222-5^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67(5): 447-450 [448]^ David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003), "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2)^ Jonathan D. Eldredge (2003), "The Randomised Controlled Trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship", Health Information and Libraries Journal 20, p. 34-44 [36].^ Bernard S. Bloom, Aurelia Retbi, Sandrine Dahan, Egon Jonsson (2000), "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine", International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 16 (1), p. 13-21 [19].^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67(5), p. 447-450 [449].^ Walter J. Daly and D. Craig Brater (2000), "Medieval contributions to the search for truth in clinical medicine", Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (4), p. 530-540 [536], Johns Hopkins University Press.^ Phyllis A. Balch, Robert Rister (2002), Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-To-Use A-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Heral Remedies, Avery, Special:Booksources^ Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", pp. 815 , in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)^ Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3^ Islamic medicine, Hutchinson Encyclopedia^ Philip K. Hitti (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. Special:Booksources)^ Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005), The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe, Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, United Kingdom^ M. Krek (1979), "The Enigma of the First Arabic Book Printed from Movable Type", Journal of Near Eastern Studies38 (3): 203-12^ Yalcin Tekol (2007), "The medieval physician Avicenna used an herbal calcium channel blocker, Taxus baccata L.", Phytotherapy Research 21 (7): 701-2^ A. Al Dayela and N. al-Zuhair (2006), "Single drug therapy in the treatment of male sexual/erectile dysfunction in Islamic medicine", Urology 68 (1): 253-4^ a b c Patricia Skinner (2001), Unani-tibbi, Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshhold (sic) Of A New Millennium - II, The Milli Gazette.^ Finger, Stanley (1994), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 70, Special:Booksources^ Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslem Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L.4 (1), p. 1-15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)^ Ingrid Hehmeyer and Aliya Khan (2007). "Islam's forgotten contributions to medical science", Canadian Medical Association Journal 176 (10).^ Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, p. 279-280 (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)^ G. Bademci (2006), First illustrations of female "Neurosurgeons" in the fifteenth century by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu, Neurocirugía 17: 162-165.^ Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, Ali S. Altwaijiri, Salah R. Elfaqih, Ahmad H. Mitwall (2003), "Extraction of urinary bladder described by Abul-Qasim Khalaf Alzahrawi (Albucasis) (325-404 H, 930-1013 AD)", Saudi Medical Journal 24 (12): 1283-1291 [1289].^ a b A. I. Makki. "Needles & Pins", AlShindagah 68, January-February 2006.^ Prof. Dr. Mostafa Shehata, "The Ear, Nose and Throat in Islamic Medicine", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2003 (1): 2-5 [4].^ Dr. Salah Zaimeche PhD (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology), 1000 years of missing Astronomy, FSTC.^ a b David A. King, "Reflections on some new studies on applied science in Islamic societies (8th-19th centuries)", Islam & Science, June 2004.^ (King 1983, pp. 547-548)^ G. R. Tibbetts (1973), "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1), p. 97-108 [105-106].^ Robert Hannah (1997). "The Mapping of the Heavens by Peter Whitfield", Imago Mundi 49, p. 161-162.^ Khwarizm, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.^ (McGrail 2004, pp. 85-6)^ a b c (McGrail 2004, p. 316)^ Raju, C. K. (2007), Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: The Nature of Mathematical Proof and Transmission of the Calculus From India to Europe in the 16th CE, pp. 240-59, Special:Booksources, http://ckraju.net/IndianCalculus/Education/Kamal_pages.pdf, retrieved on 2008-09-10^ a b (McGrail 2004, p. 393)^ a b Lawrence V. Mott, p.93^ Lawrence V. Mott, p.92f.^ Poore, Daniel. A History of Early Flight. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1952.^ Smithsonian Institution. Manned Flight. Pamphlet 1990.^ David W. Tschanz, Flights of Fancy on Manmade Wings, IslamOnline.net.^ Parachutes, Principles of Aeronautics, Franklin Institute.^ "'Abbas Ibn Firnas". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity (NPR, KUHF-FM Houston). 2004. Transcript.^ a b Dr. Emily Winterburn (National Maritime Museum), Using an Astrolabe, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation, 2005.^ M. T. Houtsma and E. van Donzel (1993), E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers, Special:Booksources^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, p. 135-136. State University of New York Press, Special:Booksources.^ D. De S. Price (1984). "A History of Calculating Machines", IEEE Micro 4 (1), p. 22-52.^ Tuncer Oren (2001). "Advances in Computer and Information Sciences: From Abacus to Holonic Agents", Turk J Elec Engin 9 (1), p. 63-70 [64].^ Donald Routledge Hill (1985). "Al-Biruni's mechanical calendar", Annals of Science 42, p. 139-163.^ Islam, Knowledge, and Science, University of Southern California^ Linear astrolabe, Encyclopædia Britannica.^ Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184, University of Texas Press, Special:Booksources^ a b Silvio A. Bedini, Francis R. Maddison (1966). "Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 56 (5), p. 1-69.^ E. S. Kennedy (1947), "Al-Kashi's Plate of Conjunctions", Isis 38 (1-2), p. 56-59 [56].^ a b E. S. Kennedy (1950), "A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kashi's Tabaq al-Manateq I. Motion of the Sun and Moon in Longitude", Isis 41(2), p. 180-183.^ E. S. Kennedy (1952), "A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kashi's Tabaq al-Maneteq II: Longitudes, Distances, and Equations of the Planets", Isis 43 (1), p. 42-50.^ E. S. Kennedy (1951), "An Islamic Computer for Planetary Latitudes", Journal of the American Oriental Society 71 (1), p. 13-21.^ Distillation, Hutchinson Encyclopedia, 2007.^ Marshall Clagett (1961). The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.^ M. Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova, "Statics", in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, p. 639) (cf. Khwarizm, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.)^ a b Robert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Khazini", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. VII, p. 346.^ Pitman, Vicki (2004), Aromatherapy: A Practical Approach, Nelson Thornes, p. xi, Special:Booksources^ Myers, Richard (2003), The Basics of Chemistry, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 14, Special:Booksources^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 191.^ M. S. Asimov, Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1999), The Age of Achievement: Vol 4, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 228, Special:Booksources^ a b c David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", in Christopher Walker (1999), ed., Astronomy before the telescope, p. 167-168. British Museum Press. Special:Booksources.^ Elly Dekker (1995), "An unrecorded medieval astrolabe quadrant from c. 1300", Annals of Science 52 (1), p. 1-47 [6].^ David A. King (2002). "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy33, p. 237-255 [237-238].^ Roberto Moreno, Koenraad Van Cleempoel, David King (2002). "A Recently Discovered Sixteenth-Century Spanish Astrolabe", Annals of Science 59 (4), p. 331-362 [333].^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive .^ R. L. Verma (1969). Al-Hazen: father of modern optics.^ Regis Morelon, "General Survey of Arabic Astronomy", pp. 9-10, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 1-19)^ Sabra, A. I.; Hogendijk, J. P. (2003), The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives, MIT Press, pp. 85-118, Special:Booksources^ Hatfield, Gary (1996), "Was the Scientific Revolution Really a Revolution in Science?", in Ragep, F. J.; Ragep, Sally P.; Livesey, Steven John, Tradition, Transmission, Transformation: Proceedings of Two Conferences on Pre-modern Science held at the University of Oklahoma, Brill Publishers, p. 500, Special:Booksources^ R. L. Verma (1969), Al-Hazen: father of modern optics^ Kriss, Timothy C.; Kriss, Vesna Martich (April 1998), "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery", Neurosurgery 42 (4): 899-907^ O. S. Marshall (1950). "Alhazen and the Telescope", Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets 6, p. 4^ Richard Powers (University of Illinois), Best Idea; Eyes Wide OpenNew York Times, April 18, 1999.^ David A. King (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis 74 (4), p. 531-555 [545-546].^ Emilie Savage-Smith (1988), "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine", Isis 79 (2): 246-266 [263].^ King, David A., "Astronomy and Islamic society", pp. 163-8 , in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 128-184)^ David A. King (2002). "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy33, p. 237-255 [238-239].^ a b c Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 794, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, p. 751-95)^ Mills, A. A. (1988), "The mercury clock of the Libros del Saber", Annals of Science 45 (4): 329-344 [332]^ Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (ed. 1974) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, Translated and annotated by Donald Routledge Hill, Dordrecht / D. Reidel, part II.^ David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", p. 168-169.^ David A. King (December 2003). "14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad? New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis", Centaurus 45(1-4), p. 204-226.^ "History of the sundial". National Maritime Museum. http://www.nmm.ac.UK/server/show/conWebDoc.353. Retrieved on 2008-07-02.^ Jones, Lawrence (December 2005), "The Sundial And Geometry", North American Sundial Society 12 (4)^ The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.^ Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine^ Professor Salim T. S. Al-Hassani (2006). 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World. FSTC. Special:Booksources.^ Where the heart is, 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World, 2006.^ Laura Shannon (2006). 1001 Inventions At Museum Of Science And Industry Manchester.^ Ibrahim A. Al-Kadi (April 1992), "The origins of cryptology: The Arab contributions", Cryptologia 16(2): 97-126^ (Khaleefa 1999)^ (Steffens 2006), Chapter 5^ Skinner, Stephen (1980). Terrestrial Astrology: Divination by Geomancy. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. pp.14-5^ Ismail al-Faruqi and Lois Lamya al-Faruqi (1986), The Cultural Atlas of Islam, p. 328, New York^ "fustian". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.^ Donald King in: Jonathan Alexander & Paul Binski (eds), Age of Chivalry, Art in Plantagenet England, 1200-1400, p.157, Royal Academy/Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London 1987^ David J Roxburgh (2000), Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, p. 21, Brill Publishers, Special:Booksources.^ Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p. 75, Taylor and Francis, Special:Booksources.^ David A. King (1999), World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science, p. 17, Brill Publishers, Special:Booksources.^ Rosanna Gorini (2003), "Al-Haytham the Man of Experience, First Steps in the Science of Vision", International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Rome, Italy:"According to the majority of the historians Ibn al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable." ^ (Omar 1977)^ Rüdiger Thiele (2005), "In Memoriam: Matthias Schramm", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15: 329-31, Cambridge University Press^ (Steffens 2006)^ a b c Farmer, Henry George (1988), Historical facts for the Arabian Musical Influence, Ayer Publishing, 137, Special:Booksources^ Summerfield, Maurice J. (2003). The Classical Guitar, It's Evolution, Players and Personalities since 1800(5th ed.) Blaydon on Tyne: Ashley Mark Publishing. Special:Booksources.^ [A Look At The History Of The Guitar http://www.thejazzfestival.net/showarticle?id=109580]^ Baines, Anthony (May 1976), "Reviewed work(s): Die Drehleier, ihr Bau und ihre Geschichte by Marianne Bröcker", The Galpin Society Journal 29: 140-141 [140]^ Sarton, George (1932), "Reviewed work(s): The Organ of the Ancients by Henry George Farmer", Isis 17(1): 278-282 [281]^ Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45-49^ Bridge, Robert. "Timpani Construction paper" (PDF). http://myhome.sunyocc.edu/~bridger/morepages/subpages/timpconstpaper.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-18.^ Arkenberg, Rebecca (October 2002). "Renaissance Violins". http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/renv/hd_renv.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-22.[edit] ReferencesGaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988), "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College", University of Pennsylvania Law Review136 (4): 1231-1261Hudson, A. (2003), Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.), Cavendish Publishing, Special:BooksourcesKennedy, Edward S. (1962), "Review: The Observatory in Islam and Its Place in the General History of the Observatory by Aydin Sayili", Isis 53 (2): 237-239Khaleefa, Omar (1999), "Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?", American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16 (2)McGrail, Sean (2004), Boats of the World, Oxford University Press, Special:BooksourcesMott, Lawrence V. (May 1991), The Development of the Rudder, A.D. 100-1337: A Technological Tale, Thesis, Texas A&M UniversityOmar, Saleh Beshara (1977), Ibn al-Haytham's Optics: A Study of the Origins of Experimental Science, Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, Special:BooksourcesRashed, Roshdi & Régis Morelon (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, Special:BooksourcesSteffens, Bradley (2006), Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, Special:BooksourcesRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventions_of_the_Islamic_Golden_Age"ViewsArticleDiscussionEdit this pageHistoryPersonal toolsLog in / create accountNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleSearchInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPrintable versionPermanent linkCite this pageLanguagesالعربيةفارسیBahasa Melayuاردو中文This page was last modified on 4 July 2009 at 00:46.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. 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Who are some unrecognized inventors?

AVitaly Mikhaylovich Abalakov, (1906-1986), Russia - camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor.Hovannes Adamian, (1879-1932), Armenia/Russia - tricolor principle of the color televisionRobert Adler, (1913-2007), Austria/United States - wireless remote controlTurhan Alçelik (c. 2006), Turkey - non-glaring headlampRostislav Alexeyev, (1916-1980) , Russia - Ekranoplan.Mary Anderson, (1866-1953), United States - windshield wiper bladeNicolas Appert, (1749-1841), France - canning (airtight food preservation)Archimedes, (c. 287-212 BC), Greece - Archimedes' screwAmi Argand, (1750-1803), France - Argand lampEdwin H. Armstrong,(1890-1954), U.S. - FM radioWilliam George Armstrong, (1810-1900), UK - hydraulic craneNeil Arnott, (1788-1874), UK - waterbedLev Artsimovich, (1909-1973), Russia - TokamakAl-Ashraf, (fl. 1282-1296), Yemen - dry compassJoseph Aspdin, (1788-1855), England - Portland cementJohn Vincent Atanasoff, (1903-1995), United States - modern programmable computer[edit] BCharles Babbage, (1791-1871), UK - analytical engine (semi-automatic computer)Roger Bacon, (1214-1292), England - magnifying glassLeo Baekeland, (1863-1944), Belgian-American - Velox photographic paper and BakeliteRalph H. Baer, (1922-), German born American - video game consoleAbd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, (1162-1231), Iraq/Egypt - ventilatorJohn Logie Baird, (1888-1946), Scotland - an electromechanical televisionIbn al-Baitar, (d. 1248), Islamic Spain - three hundred drugs and foods, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, Hindiba, pharmacopoeiaAbi Bakr of Isfahan, (c. 1235), Persia - mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar analog computerDonat Banki, (1859-1922), Hungary - inventor of the carburetorJohn Bardeen, (1908-1991), U.S. - co-inventor of the transistorAnthony R. Barringer Canadian - American - INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic systemEarl W. Bascom, (1906-1995), Canada and United States - side-delivery rodeo chute, hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chapsIbn Bassal, (fl. 1038-1075), Islamic Spain - flywheel, flywheel-driven noria, flywheel-driven saqiya chain pumpMuhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius), (853-929), Syria/Turkey - observation tubeEugen Baumann, (1846-1896), Germany - PVCTrevor Baylis, (1937-), UK - a wind-up radioFrancis Beaufort, (1774-1857), France - Beaufort scaleArnold O. Beckman, (1900-2004), U.S. - pH meterUlugh Beg, 1394-1449, |Persia - Fakhri sextant, mural sextantAlexander Graham Bell, (1847-1922), Canada, Scotland, and U.S. - telephoneKarl Benz, (1844-1929), Germany - the petrol-powered automobileEmile Berliner, (1851-1929), Germany and U.S. - the disc record gramophoneTim Berners-Lee, (1955-), UK - with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide WebAbu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah, (955-996), Egypt - airmail, homing pigeonBi Sheng (Chinese: 畢昇), (ca. 990-1051), China - clay movable type printingLaszlo Biro, (1899-1985), Hungary - modern ballpoint penClarence Birdseye, (1886-1956), U.S. - frozen food processAbū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, (973-1048), Persia - mechanical geared lunisolar calendar analog computer, fixed-wired knowledge processing machine, conical measure, laboratory flask, Orthographical astrolabe, hodometer, pycnometerJ. Stuart Blackton, (1875-1941), U.S. - stop-motion filmOtto Blathy (1860-1939), Hungary - co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogeneratorKatharine B. Blodgett, (1898-1979), UK - nonreflective glassNils Bohlin, (1920-2002), Sweden - the three-point seat beltJoseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907-1964), Canada - snowmobileJagdish Chandra Bose, (1858 -1937), India - CrescographRobert W. Bower, (1936-), U.S. - self-aligned-gate MOSFETSeth Boyden, (1788-1870), U.S. - nail-making machineWalter Houser Brattain, (1902-1987), U.S. - co-inventor of the transistorLouis Braille, (1809-1852), France - the Braille writing systemKarl Ferdinand Braun, (1850-1918), Germany - cathode-ray tube oscilloscopeHarry Brearley, (1871-1948), UK - stainless steelSergey Brin, (1973-), Russia/U.S. - with Larry Page invented Google web search engineRachel Fuller Brown, (1898-1980), U.S., Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibioticJohn Moses Browning, (1855-1926), U.S. - automatic handgunMaria Christina Bruhn, (1732-1802)Edwin Beard Budding, (1795-1846), UK - lawnmowerCorliss Orville Burandt, U.S. - Variable valve timing[edit] CRobert Cailliau, (1947 -), Belgium - with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide WebC`ai Lun, 蔡倫 (50 AD - 121), China - paperMarvin Camras, (1916 - 1995), U.S. - magnetic recordingChester Carlson, (1906 - 1968), U.S. - XerographyWallace Carothers, (1896 - 1937), U.S. - NylonHezarfen Ahmet Celebi, (fl. 1630-1632), long-distance flight, artificial wingsLagari Hasan Çelebi, (fl. 1633-1640), Turkey - manned rocket, artificially-powered aircraft, rocket aircraftJoseph Constantine Carpue, (1764 - 1846), France - rhinoplastic surgeryGeorge Cayley, (1773 - 1857), (UK) - glider, tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar trackRoxey Ann Caplin, (1793 - 1888) - CorsetsAdriano Cavalcanti, (1971 -), Australia - hardware architecture for nanorobotsDennis Charter, [1] [2] (1952 -), Australia - secure electronic payment system for internet PaySafeAdrian Chernoff, (1971 -), U.S. - GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber BanditsEvgeniy Chertovsky, Russia - Pressure suitNiels Christensen (1865 - 1952), U.S. - O-ringSamuel Hunter Christie, (1784 - 1865), UK - Wheatstone bridgeJuan de la Cierva, (1895 - 1936), Spain - the autogyroAlexandru Ciurcu, (1854 - 1922), Romania - Reaction engineGeorges Claude, (1870 - 1960), France - neon lampHenri Coandă, (1886 - 1972), Romania - Jet engineJosephine Cochrane, (1839 - 1913), U.S. - dishwasherChristopher Cockerell, (1910 - 1999), UK - HovercraftAeneas Coffey, (1780 - 1852), Ireland - heat exchanger, Coffey stillSamuel Colt, (1814 - 1862), U.S. - RevolverGeorge Constantinescu, (1881 - 1965), Romania - Interrupter gearLloyd Groff Copeman, (1865 - 1956), U.S. - Electric stoveCornelis Corneliszoon, (1550 - 1607), The Netherlands - sawmillJacques Cousteau, (1910 - 1997), France - co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater cameraThomas Crapper, (1836 - 1910), England - plumber.Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655 - 1731), Italy - pianoJános Csonka, (1852 - 1939), Hungary - co-inventor of carburetorNicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725 - 1804), France - first steam-powered road vehicleWilliam Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745 - 1800), UK - chlorinated waterWilliam Cullen, (1710 - 1790), UK - first artificial refrigeratorGlenn Curtiss, (1878 - 1930), U.S. - ailerons[edit] DGustaf Dalén, (1869-1937), Sweden - AGA cooker; Dalén light; AgamassanSalvino D'Armate, (?-?), Italy - credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284Jacob Davis, (1868-1908), U.S. - riveted jeansEdmund Davy, (1785-1857), Ireland - acetyleneHumphry Davy, (1778-1829), UK - Davy miners lampJoseph Day, (1855-1946), UK - the crankcase-compression two-stroke engineLee DeForest, (1873-1961), U.S. - triodeMiksa Deri (1854-1938), Hungary - co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformerJames Dewar, (1842-1923), UK - Thermos flaskWilliam Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860-1935), UK - motion picture cameraPhilip Diehl, (1847-1913), U.S. - Ceiling fan, electric sewing machineRudolf Diesel, (1858-1913), Germany - Diesel engineTaqi al-Din, (1526-1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkey - steam turbine, smoke jack, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, mechanical alarm clock, spring-powered pocket watch measured in minutes, spring-powered astronomical clock measured in minutes and seconds, framed sextantAl-Dinawari, (828-896), Persia - more than a hundred plant drugsWilliam H. Dobelle, (1943-2004), United States - first functioning artificial eyeBryan Donkin, (1768-1855), UK - print industry composition rollerHub van Doorne, (1900-1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmissionAnastase Dragomir, (1896-1966), Romania - Ejection seatKarl Drais, (1785-1851), Germany - dandy horse (Draisine)Cornelius Drebbel, (1572-1633), The Netherlands - first navigable submarineRichard Drew, (1899-1980), U.S. - Masking tapeJohn Boyd Dunlop, (1840-1921) UK - first practical pneumatic tyreJames Dyson, (1947- ) UK - Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.[edit] EGeorge Eastman, (1854-1932), U.S. - roll filmThomas Edison, (1847-1931), U.S. - phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, motion picture projector, stock ticker, etcWillem Einthoven, (1860-1927), The Netherlands - the electrocardiogramRune Elmqvist, (1857-1924), Sweden - implantable pacemakerDouglas Engelbart, (1925-), U.S. - the computer mouse [3]John Ericsson, (1803-1889), Sweden - the two screw-propellerLars Magnus Ericsson, (1846-1926), Sweden - the handheld micro telephoneOle Evinrude, (1877-1934), Norway - outboard motor[edit] FSamuel Face, (1923-2001), U.S. - concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning SwitchMichael Faraday, (1791-1867), England - electric transformerJohann Maria Farina, (1685-1766), Germany; Eau de ColognePhilo Farnsworth, (1906-1971), U.S. - electronic televisionMuhammad al-Fazari, (d. 796/806), Iraq or Persia - brass astrolabeSvyatoslav Fyodorov, (1927-2000), Russia - radial keratotomyJames Fergason, (1934-), U.S. - improved liquid crystal displayEnrico Fermi, (1901-1954), Italy - nuclear reactorHumberto Fernández Morán, (1924-1999), Venezuela - Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtomeReginald Fessenden, (1866-1932), Canada - two-way radioAdolf Eugen Fick, (1829-1901), Germany - contact lensFatima al-Fihri, (c. 859), Tunisia/Morocco - universityAbbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), (810-887), Islamic Spain - eye glasses, parachute, hang glider, artificial wings, controlled flight, watch, fused quartz and silica glass, artificial thunder and lightning, metronomeArtur Fischer, (1919-) Germany - fasteners including fischertechnik.Gerhard Fischer, Germany/U.S. - hand-held metal detectorAlexander Fleming, (1881-1955), Scotland - penicillinJohn Ambrose Fleming, (1848-1945), England - vacuum diodeSandford Fleming, (1827-1915), Canada - Universal Standard TimeTommy Flowers, (1905-1998), England - Colossus an early electronic computer.Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819-1868), France - Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy currentBenoît Fourneyron, (1802-1867), France - water turbineJohn Fowler, (1826-1864), England - steam-driven ploughing engineBenjamin Franklin, (1706-1790), U.S. - the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonicaAugustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788-1827), France - Fresnel lensWilliam Friese-Greene, (1855-1921), England - cinematographyBuckminster Fuller, (1895-1983), U.S. - geodesic dome[edit] GDennis Gabor, (1900-1979), Hungary - holographyBoris Borisovich Galitzine, (1862-1916), Russia - Electromagnetic seismograph.Elmer R. Gates, (1859-1923), USA - foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")Richard J. Gatling, (1818-1903), U.S. - wheat drill, first successful machine gunHans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882-1945), Germany - Geiger counterHenri Giffard, (1825-1882), France - powered airship, injectorHeinrich Göbel, (1818-1893), Germany - first functional incandescent lampLeonid Gobyato, (1875-1915), Russia - first modern man-portable mortarRobert Goddard, (1882-1945), U.S. - liquid fuel rocketPeter Carl Goldmark, (1906-1977), Hungary - vinyl record (LP), CBS color televisionCharles Goodyear, (1800-1860), U.S. - vulcanization of rubberGordon Gould, (1920-2005), U.S. - co-inventor of laserRichard Hall Gower, (1768-1833), England - ship's hull and riggingBette Nesmith Graham, (1924-1980), U.S. - Liquid PaperJames Henry Greathead, (1844-1896), South Africa - tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield techniqueChester Greenwood, (1858-1937), U.S. - thermal earmuffsJames Gregory, (1638-1675), Scotland - Gregorian telescopeWilliam Robert Grove, (1811-1896), Wales - fuel cellOtto von Guericke, (1602-1686), Germany - vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeterHakan Gürsu, (c. 2007), Turkey - VolitanJohann Gutenberg, (c. 1390s-1468), Germany - movable type printing pressSamuel Guthrie, (1782-1848), U.S. - discovered chloroform[edit] HJohn Hadley, (1682-1744), England - OctantWaldemar Haffkine, (1860-1930), Russia/Switzerland - first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccinesTracy Hall, (1919-2008 ), U.S. - synthetic diamondChristopher Hansteen, (1783-1873), Norway - discovery of terrestrial magnetismJames Hargreaves, (1720-1778), England - spinning jennyJohn Harrison, (1693-1776), England - marine chronometerVictor Hasselblad, (1906-1978), Sweden - invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex cameraIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen), (965-1039), Iraq - camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass, concave and convex mirrors, spherical mirrorRobert A. Heinlein, (1907-1988), U.S. - waterbedJozef Karol Hell, (1713-1789), Slovakia - the water pillarRudolf Hell, (1901-2002), Germany - the HellschreiberJoseph Henry, (1797-1878), Scotland/U.S. - electromagnetic relayHeron, (c. 10-70), Roman Egypt - aeolipileHeinrich Hertz, (1857-1894), Germany - radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiationGeorge de Hevesy, (1885-1966), Hungary - radioactive tracerRowland Hill, (1795-1879), UK - postage stampFelix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868-1949), Germany - AspirinHerman Hollerith, (1860-1929), U.S. - recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cardsNick Holonyak, (1928- ), U.S. - LED (Light Emitting Diode)Robert Hooke, (1635-1703), England - balance wheel, iris diaphragmErna Schneider Hoover, (1926-), U.S. - computerized telephone switching systemFrank Hornby, (1863-1936), England - invented MeccanoCoenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801-1887), Netherlands - cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milkElias Howe, (1819-1867), U.S. - sewing machineMuhammad Husayn, (fl. 1600s), Persia - cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compassChristiaan Huygens, (1629-1695), Netherlands - pendulum clockJohn Wesley Hyatt, (1837-1920), U.S. - celluloid manufacturing[edit] IIbn Yunus, (950-1009), Egypt - pendulumSumio Iijima, (1939- ), Japan - nanotubesGavriil Ilizarov, (1921-1992), Russia - Ilizarov apparatus and distraction osteogenesis.János Irinyi, (1817-1895), Hungary - noiseless match[edit] JJabir ibn Aflah (Geber), (c. 1100-1150), Islamic Spain - portable celestial globeJabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), (c. 721-815), Yemen/Persia - pure distillation, calcination, crystallization, filtration, liquefaction, purification, alembic, still, retort, mineral acids, nitric and sulfuric acids, uric and hydrochloric acids, aqua regia, alum, alkali, borax, pure sal ammoniac, lead carbonatic, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, pure mercury and sulfur, plated mail, artificial pearl and gemstone, lusterwareKarl Jatho, (1873-1933), Germany - aeroplaneAl-Jazari, (1136-1206), Iraq - crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkageIbn Al-Jazzar (Algizar), (c. 898-980), Tunisia - sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugsGyörgy Jendrassik, (1898-1954), Hungary - turbopropCarl Edvard Johansson, (1864-1943), Sweden - Gauge blocksJohan Petter Johansson, (1853-1943), Sweden - the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spannerNancy Johnson, U.S. - American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)Scott A. Jones, (1960-), U.S. - created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine.Whitcomb Judson, (1836-1909), U.S. - zipper[edit] KMikhail Kalashnikov, (1919-), Russia - AK-47 and AK-74 assault riflesDean Kamen, (1951-), U.S. - Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility DeviceHeike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853-1926), Netherlands - liquify heliumJamshīd al-Kāshī, (c. 1380-1429), Persia - plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computerAbu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Naser ibn Saghir ibn Khalid al-Kaysarani, (c. 1154), Syria - striking clock, clock towerJohn Harvey Kellogg, (1852-1943), cornflake breakfastsJohn George Kemeny, (1926-1992), Hungary - co-inventor of BASICAlexander Kemurdzhian, (1921-2003), Russia - first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)Kerim Kerimov, (1917-2003), Azerbaijan and Russia - human spaceflight, space dock, space stationCharles F. Kettering, (1876-1958), U.S. - invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and moreKhalid, (fl. 800s), Ethiopia - coffeeFazlur Khan, (1929-1982), Bangladesh - structural systems for high-rise skyscrapersAl-Khazini, (fl. 1115-1130), Persia - hydrostatic balanceAbu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, (c. 940-1000), Persia - astronomical sextantMuhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi), (c. 780-850), Persia - modern algebra, mural instrument, quadrant, horary quadrant, sine quadrant, Quadrans Vetus, shadow squareJack Kilby, (1923-2005), U.S. - patented the first integrated circuitAl-Kindi (Alkindus), (801-873), Iraq/Yemen - ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysisFritz Klatte, (1880-1934), Germany - vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chlorideMargaret E. Knight, (1838-1914), U.S. - machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bagsIvan Knunyants, (1906-1990), Armenia/Russia - invented Nylon-6Robert Koch, (1843-1910), Germany - method for culturing bacteria on solid mediaWillem Johan Kolff, (1911-2009), Netherlands - artificial kidney hemodialysis machineRudolf Kompfner, (1909-1977), U.S. - Traveling-wave tubeSergey Korolyov, (1907-1966), Ukraine/Russia - invented R-7 rocket family, designed Sputniks (including first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), supervised Vostok program (including first human spaceflight)Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872-1944), Russia - knapsack parachuteIvan Kulibin, (1735-1818), Russia - Elevator using screw mechanisms. Also invented an automobile that featured a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing.[1]Igor Kurchatov, (1903-1960), Russia - first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface shipsRaymond Kurzweil, (1948-), Optical character recognition; flatbed scannerStephanie Kwolek, (1923-), U.S. - KevlarJohn Howard Kyan (1774-1850), Ireland - The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation[edit] LRené Laënnec, (1781-1826), France - stethoscopeLala Balhumal Lahuri, (c. 1842), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe, lost-wax castingGeorges Lakhovsky, (1869-1942), Russia - Multiple Wave Oscillator.Hedy Lamarr, (1913-2000), Austria and U.S. - Spread spectrum radioEdwin H. Land, (1909-1991), U.S. - Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land CameraSamuel P. Langley, (1834-1906), U.S. - bolometerIrving Langmuir, (1851-1957), U.S. - gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen weldingLewis Latimer, (1848-1928), - worked with Thomas Edison and patented an improved lightbulb manufacturing processGustav de Laval, (1845-1913), Sweden - invented the milk separator and the milking machineJohn Bennet Lawes, (1814-1900), England - superphosphate or chemical fertilizerSergei Vasiljevich Lebedev, (1874-1934), Russia - synthetic rubberTim Berners-Lee, (1955- ) England - World Wide WebAntoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632-1723), Netherlands - development of the microscopeJean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822-1900), Belgium - internal combustion engine, motorboatR. G. LeTourneau, (1888-1969), U.S.- electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapersWillard Frank Libby, (1908-1980), U.S. - radiocarbon datingJustus von Liebig, (1803-1873), Germany - nitrogen-based fertilizerOtto Lilienthal, (1848-1896), Germany - hang gliderFrans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862-1931), Sweden - Kerosene stove operated by compressed airHans Lippershey, (1570-1619), Netherlands - telescopeWilliam Howard Livens, (1889-1964), England - chemical warfare - Livens Projector.Alexander Lodygin, (1847-1923), Russia - Electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament.Oleg Losev, (1903-1942), Russia - Light-emitting diode.Archibald Low, (1882-1956), Britain - Pioneer of radio guidance systemsAuguste and Louis Lumière, France - CinématographeIgnacy Łukasiewicz, (1822-1882), Poland - modern kerosene lampGiovanni Luppis, (1813-1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) - self-propelled torpedoAli Kashmiri ibn Luqman, (fl. 1589-1590), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe, lost-wax casting[edit] MMa Jun, (c. 200-265), China - South Pointing Chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk loomsCharles Macintosh, (1766-1843), Scotland - waterproof raincoat, life vestSake Dean Mahomet, (c. 1759), India - shampooDmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, (1896-1964), Russia - Maksutov telescopeAl-Ma'mun, (786-833), Iraq - singing bird automata, terrestrial globeGeorge William Manby, (1765-1854), England - Fire extinguisherGuglielmo Marconi, (1874-1937), Italy - radio telegraphyJohn Landis Mason, (1826-1902), U.S. - Mason jarsHenry Maudslay, (1771-1831), England - screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometerHiram Maxim, (1840-1916), USA born, England - First self-powered machine gunJames Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and Thomas Sutton Scotland - colour photographyAmmar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, (9th century), Iraq - syringe, hypodermic needle, cataract extraction, injection, suctionJohn McAdam, (1756-1836), Scotland - improved "macadam" road surfaceElijah McCoy, (1843-1929), Canada - Displacement lubricatorHippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817-1880), France - margarineDmitri Mendeleev, (1834-1907), Russia - Periodic table, pyrocollodion.Antonio Meucci, (1808-1889), Italy - telephone (prototype)Edouard Michelin, (1859-1940), France - pneumatic tyreAnthony Michell, (1870 - 1959), Australia - tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless enginePavel Molchanov, (1893-1941), Russia - Radiosonde.Jules Montenier, (c. 1910), U.S. - modern anti-perspirant deodorantMontgolfier brothers, (1740-1810) and (1745-1799), France - hot-air balloonJohn J. Montgomery, (1858-1911), U.S. - heavier-than-air glidersNarcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819-1885), Spain - steam powered submarineRobert Moog, (1934-2005), U.S. - the Moog synthesizerSamuel Morey, (1762-1843), U.S. - internal combustion engineGarrett A. Morgan, (1877-1963), U.S. - inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.Samuel Morse, (1791-1872), U.S. - telegraphIbn Khalaf al-Muradi, (fl. 1000s), Islamic Spain - geared mechanical clock, segmental gear, epicyclic gearingWilliam Murdoch, (1754-1839), Scotland - Gas lightingJozef Murgas, (1864-1929), Slovakia - inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)Al-Muqaddasi, (c. 946-1000), Palestine - restaurantBanū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800-873), Ahmad (803-873), Al-Hasan (810-873), Iraq - valve, float valve, feedback controller, automatic control, float chamber, mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, grab, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machinePieter van Musschenbroek, (1692-1761), Netherlands - Leyden jar, pyrometer[edit] NIbn al-Nafis, (1213-1288), Syria/Egypt - circulatory physiology, otolaryngology, theological novel, science fiction novelJohn Napier, (1550-1617), Scotland - logarithmsJames Naismith, (1861-1939), Canadian born, USA - invented basketball and American football helmetYoshiro Nakamatsu, (b. 1928), Japan - floppy disk, "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meterJames Nasmyth, (1808-1890), Scotland - steam hammerNebuchadrezzar II, (c. 630-562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) - screw, screwpumpJohn von Neumann, (1903-1957), Hungary - Von Neumann computer architectureIsaac Newton,(1642-1727), England - reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765-1833), France - photographyJun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926-), Japan - Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diodeAlfred Nobel, (1833-1896), Sweden - dynamiteCarl Rickard Nyberg, (1858-1939), Sweden - the blowtorch[edit] OTheophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845-1903), Sweden - the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculatorJ. Robert Oppenheimer, (1904-1967), United States - Atomic bombHans Christian Ørsted, (1777-1851), Denmark - electromagnetism, aluminiumElisha Otis, (1811-1861), U.S. - passenger elevator with safety deviceWilliam Oughtred, (1575-1660), England - slide rule[edit] PLarry Page, (1973-), U.S. - with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engineHelge Palmcrantz, (1842-1880), Sweden - the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gunDaniel David Palmer, (1845-1913), Canada - ChiropracticLuigi Palmieri, (1807-1896), Italy - seismometerAlexander Parkes, (1831-1890), England - celluloidCharles Algernon Parsons, (1854-1931), British - steam turbineSpede Pasanen, (1930-2001), Finland - The ski jumping slingBlaise Pascal, (1623-1662), France - barometerLes Paul, (1915-), U.S. - Multitrack recordingNicolae Paulescu, (1869 - 1931), Romania - InsulinGustaf Erik Pasch, (1788-1862), Sweden - the safety matchArthur Paul Pedrick, England - chromatically selective cat flap and othersJohn Pemberton, (1831-1888), U.S. - Coca-ColaSlavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871-1922), Croatia - mechanical pencilHenry Perky, (1843-1906), U.S. - Shredded wheatStephen Perry, England - rubber bandPeter Petroff, (1919-2004), Bulgaria - digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instrumentsFritz Pfleumer, (1881-1945), Germany - Magnetic TapeArthur Pitney, (1871-1933), United States - Postage meterJoseph Plateau, (1801-1883), Belgium - phenakistiscope (stroboscope)Baltzar von Platen, (1898-1984), Sweden - refrigeratorJames Leonard Plimpton, U.S. - roller skatesPetrache Poenaru, (1799 - 1875), Romania - Fountain penChristopher Polhem, (1661-1751), Sweden - the modern padlockIvan Polzunov, (1728-1766), Russia - first two-cylinder motorOlivia Poole, (1889-1975), U.S., - the Jolly Jumper baby harnessAlexander Stepanovich Popov, (1859-1906), Russia - Lightning detector.George Pullman, (1831-1897), U.S. - Pullman sleep wagonMichael I. Pupin, (1858-1935), Serbia - pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillatorTivadar Puskas, (1844-1893), Hungary - telephone exchange[edit] RMario Rabinowitz, (1936-), U.S. - solar concentrator with tracking micromirrorsHasan al-Rammah, (fl. 1270s), Syria - purified potassium nitrate, explosive gunpowder, torpedoHarun al-Rashid, (763-809), Iraq/Persia - public hospital, medical schoolMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), (865-965), Persia - distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap, kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, red lead, copper acetate, lead sulfide, zinc oxide, bismuth oxide, iron acetate, cinnabar, arsenic trioxide, sodium hydroxide, aludel, rose water, heated bath, funnel, sieveKarl von Reichenbach, (1788-1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenolIra Remsen, (1846-1927), U.S. - saccharinRalf Reski, (* 1958), Germany - Moss Bioreactor 1998Josef Ressel, (1793-1857), Czechoslovakia - ship propellerCharles Francis Richter, (1900-1985), U.S. - Richter magnitude scaleHyman George Rickover, (1900-1986), U.S. - Nuclear submarineJohn Roebuck, (1718-1794) England - lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesisWilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845-1923), Germany - the X-ray machineErnő Rubik, (1944-), Hungary - Rubik's cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's ClockErnst Ruska, (1906-1988), Germany - electron microscope[edit] SAlexander Sablukov, (1783-1857), Russia - centrifugal fanŞerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, (1385-1468), Turkey - illustrated surgical atlasAndrei Sakharov, (1921-1989), Russia - invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, developed tokamaks for controlled nuclear fusionIbn Samh, (c. 1020), Middle East - mechanical geared astrolabeIbn Sina (Avicenna), (973-1037), Persia - thermometer, thermoscope, steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blockerAlberto Santos-Dumont, (1873-1932), Brazil - non-rigid airship and airplaneThomas Savery, (1650-1715), England - steam engineAdolphe Sax, (1814-1894), Belgium - saxophoneBela Schick, (1877-1967), Hungary - diphtheria testChristian Schnabel (1878-1936), German - simplistic food cutleriesKees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands - Major contributor to development of Compact DiscAugust Schrader, U.S. - Schrader valve for Pneumatic tireDavid Schwarz, (1852-1897), Croatia, - rigid ship, later called ZeppelinMarc Seguin, (1786-1875), France - wire-cable suspension bridgeSennacherib, (705-681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) - screw pumpIwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/U.S. - inventor of the Moviola for film editing.Mark Serrurier, (190?-1988), U.S. - Serrurier truss for Optical telescopesGerhard Sessler, (1931-), Germany - foil electret microphone, silicon microphoneAlexander Procofieff de Seversky, 1894-1974, Russia/United States of America - Air-to-air refuelingIbn al-Shatir, (1304-1375), Syria - astrolabic clock, compendium instrument, polar-axis sundial, compass dialShen Kuo, (1031-1095), China - improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tubePavel Schilling, (1780-1836), Estonia/Russia - first electromagnetic telegraphMurasaki Shikibu, (c. 973-1025), - novel, psychological novelFathullah Shirazi, (c. 1582), Mughal India - autocannon, multi-barrel gunAl-Sijzi, (c. 945-1020), Persia - heliocentric astrolabeWilliam Bradford Shockley, (1910-1989), U.S. - co-inventor of transistorHenry Shrapnel, (1761-1842), England - Shrapnel shell ammunitionSheikh Muszaphar Shukor, (b. 1972), Malaysia - cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in spaceVladimir Shukhov, (1853-1939), Russia - Shukhov cracking process, thin-shell structure, tensile structure, built one of the first pipelinesAugustus Siebe, (1788-1872), Germany/England - Inventor of the standard diving dressWerner von Siemens, (1816-1892), Germany - an electromechanical "dynamic"Sir William Siemens, (1823-1883), Germany - regenerative furnaceIgor Sikorsky, (1889-1972), Russia/U.S. - helicopterCharles Simonyi, (1948-), Hungary - Hungarian notationIsaac Singer, (1811-1875), U.S. - sewing machineElmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860-1930), U.S. - gyroscope-guided automatic pilotGeorge Stephenson, (1781-1848), England - steam locomotiveSimon Stevin, (1548-1620), Netherlands - land yachtAurel Stodola, (1859-1942), Slovakia - gas turbinesReverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790-1878), Scotland - Stirling engineLevi Strauss, (1829-1902), U.S. - blue jeansJohn Stringfellow, (1799-1883), England - airplaneAlmon Strowger, (1839-1902), U.S. - automatic telephone exchangeSu Song, (1020-1101), China - first chain driveSimon Sunatori, (1959-), Canada - inventor of MagneScribe and Magic SpicerSushruta, (600 BC), Vedic India - inventor of Platic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, RhinoplastyJoseph Swan, (1828-1914), England - Incandescent light bulbPercy Spencer, (1894-1970), U.S. - microwave ovenAbd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), (903-986), Persia - timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabeRobert Swanson, (1905-1994), Canada - Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotivesLeó Szilárd, (1898-1964), Hungary/U.S. - Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project[edit] TSalih Tahtawi, (fl. 1659-1660), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe, lost-wax castingIgor Tamm, (1895-1971), Russia - with Andrey Sakharov, developed first tokamakMardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi, (c. 1187), Middle East - counterweight trebuchet, mangonelBernard Tellegen, (1900-1990), Netherlands - pentodeEdward Teller, (1908-2003), Hungary - hydrogen bombNikola Tesla, (1856-1943), Serbian-Croatian-American - Tesla Coil, induction motor, wireless communicationEric Tigerstedt, (1887-1925), Finland - triode vacuum tubeKalman Tihanyi, (1897-1947), Hungary - co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscopeBenjamin Chew Tilghman, (1821-1897), U.S. - sandblastingTipu Sultan, (1750-1799), India - iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocketAlfred Traeger, (1895-1980), Australia - the pedal radioFranc Trkman, (1903-1978), Slovenia - electrical switches, accessories for opening windowsKonstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857-1935), Russia - spaceflightMikhail Tsvet, (1872-1919), Russia - adsorption chromatographyIbn Tufail, (c. 1105-1185), Islamic Spain - philosophical novelNasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1201-1274), Persia - observatory, research instituteSharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1135-1213), Persia - linear astrolabe[edit] ULewis Urry, (1927-2004), Canada - long-lasting alkaline battery[edit] VTheophilus Van Kannel, (1841-1919), United States - revolving door (1888)Louis R. Vitullo, (1924?-2006), United States - developed the first sexual assault evidence kitAlessandro Volta, (1745-1827), Italy - batteryFaust Vrančić, (1551-1617), Croatia - parachute[edit] WBarnes Wallis, (1887-1979), England - bouncing bombRobert Watson-Watt, (1892-1973), Scotland - microwave radarJames Watt, (1736-1819), Scotland - improved Steam engineThomas Wedgwood, (1771-1805), England - first (not permanent) photographJonas Wenström, (1855-1893), Sweden - three-phase electrical powerGeorge Westinghouse, (1846-1914), U.S. - Air brake (rail)Charles Wheatstone, (1802-1875), England - concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipherEli Whitney, (1765-1825), U.S. - the cotton ginFrank Whittle, (1907-1996), England - co-inventor of the jet engineOtto Wichterle, (1913-1989), Czechoslovakia - invented modern contact lensesPaul Winchell, (1922-2005), U.S. - the artificial heartA. Baldwin Wood, (1879-1956), U.S. - high volume pumpGranville Woods, (1856-1910), U.S. - the Synchronous Multiplex Railway TelegraphWright brothers, Orville (1871-1948) and Wilbur (1867-1912) - U.S. - powered airplaneArthur Wynne, (1862-1945), England - creator of crossword puzzle[edit] YPavel Yablochkov, (1847-1894), Russia - Yablochkov candle.Hidetsugu Yagi, (1886-1976), Japan - Yagi antennaKhalid ibn Yazid, (635-704), Syria/Egypt - potassium nitrateYi Xing, (683-727), ChinaArthur M. Young, (1905-1995), U.S. - the Bell HelicopterMuhammad Yunus, (b. 1940), Bangladesh - microcredit, microfinanceAbu Yaqub Yusuf, (c. 1274), Morocco/Spain - siege cannon[edit] ZAbu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), (936 - 1013), Islamic Spain - cosmetic dentistry, tooth bleaching, hair care, hair dye, solid lipstick, Hand cream and lotion, suntan lotion,[disambiguation needed] roll-on deodorant, epilepsy and seizure medications, nasal spray, topical cream, adhesive bandage and plaster, bone saw, catgut, cotton dressing and bandage, curette, retractor, sound, surgical spoon, surgical hook and rod, ligatureAbū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel), (1028-1087), Islamic Spain - almanac, equatorium, universal astrolabeNikolay Zelinsky, (1861-1953), Russia - the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the worldZhang Heng, (78-139), China - invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphereZheng He, (1371-1433), China - treasure shipZiryab, (789-857), Iraq/Syria/Tunisia/Spain - bangs, beauty parlour, cosmetology school, chemical depilatory, toothpaste, under-arm deodorant, three-course mealIbn Zuhr (Avenzoar), (1091-1161), Islamic Spain - general anaesthesia, general anaesthetic, oral anesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, narcotic-soaked sponge, tracheotomy, parasitology, pharmacopoeiaKonrad Zuse, (22. June 1910 - 18. December 1995), Germany - invented the first Computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)Vladimir Zworykin, (1889-1982), Russia/U.S. - Iconoscope, kinescope.


List of inventors and their inventions?

A* Bruno Abakanowicz, (1852-1900), Poland/Lithuania/Russia/France - Integraph, spirograph, parabolagraph* Vitaly Abalakov, (1906-1986), Russia - camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor* Hovannes Adamian, (1879-1932), Armenia/Russia - tricolor principle of the color television* Robert Adler, (1913-2007), Austria/United States - wireless remote control* Turhan Alçelik (c. 2006), Turkey - non-glaring headlamp* Anatoly Alexandrov, (1903-1994), Russia - anti-mine demagnetising of ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)* Alexandre Alexeieff, (1901-1982) Russia/France - pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)* Rostislav Alexeyev, (1916-1980), Russia - ekranoplan* Zhores Alferov, (1930), Russia - heterotransistor, continuous-wave-operating diode laser (together with Dmitri Garbuzov)* Genrich Altshuller, (1926-1998), Russia - TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")* Mary Anderson, (1866-1953), United States - windshield wiper blade* Vasily Andreyev, (1861-1918), Russia - standard balalaika* Oleg Antonov, (1906-1984), Russia - An-series aircraft, including A-40 winged tank and An-124 (the largest serial cargo, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft An-225)* Nicolas Appert, (1749-1841), France - canning (airtight food preservation)* Archimedes, (c. 287-212 BC), Greece - Archimedes' screw* Ami Argand, (1750-1803), France - Argand lamp* Edwin H. Armstrong,(1890-1954), U.S. - FM radio* William George Armstrong, (1810-1900), UK - hydraulic crane* Neil Arnott, (1788-1874), UK - waterbed* Lev Artsimovich, (1909-1973), Russia - tokamak* Al-Ashraf, (fl. 1282-1296), Yemen - dry compass* Joseph Aspdin, (1788-1855), England - Portland cement* John Vincent Atanasoff, (1903-1995), United States - modern programmable computerB* Georgy Babakin, (1914-1971), Russia - first soft landing space vehicle (Luna 9)* Charles Babbage, (1791-1871), UK - analytical engine (semi-automatic computer)* Roger Bacon, (1214-1292), England - magnifying glass* Leo Baekeland, (1863-1944), Belgian-American - Velox photographic paper and Bakelite* Ralph H. Baer, (1922-), German born American - video game console* Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, (1162-1231), Iraq/Egypt - ventilator* John Logie Baird, (1888-1946), Scotland - an electromechanical television, electronic color television* Ibn al-Baitar, (d. 1248), Islamic Spain - three hundred drugs and foods, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, Hindiba, pharmacopoeia* Abi Bakr of Isfahan, (c. 1235), Persia/Iran - mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar analog computer* Donat Banki, (1859-1922), Hungary - inventor of the carburetor* Vladimir Baranov-Rossine, (1888-1944), Ukraine/Russia/France - Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage* John Bardeen, (1908-1991), U.S. - co-inventor of the transistor* Vladimir Barmin, (1909-1993), Russia - first rocket launch complex (spaceport)* Anthony R. Barringer, Canada/U.S. - INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system* Earl W. Bascom, (1906-1995), Canada/U.S. - side-delivery rodeo chute, hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chaps* Nikolay Basov, (1922-2001), Russia - co-inventor of laser and maser* Ibn Bassal, (fl.1038-1075), Islamic Spain - flywheel, flywheel-driven noria, flywheel-driven saqiya chain pump* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius), (853-929), Syria/Turkey - observation tube* Eugen Baumann, (1846-1896), Germany - PVC* Trevor Baylis, (1937-), UK - a wind-up radio* Francis Beaufort, (1774-1857), France - Beaufort scale* Ernest Beaux, (1881-1961), Russia/France - Chanel No. 5* Arnold O. Beckman, (1900-2004), U.S. - pH meter* Ulugh Beg, 1394-1449, Persia/Iran - Fakhri sextant, mural sextant* Vladimir Bekhterev, (1857-1927), Russia - Bekhterev's Mixture* Alexander Graham Bell, (1847-1922), Canada, Scotland, and U.S. - telephone* Karl Benz, (1844-1929), Germany - the petrol-powered automobile* Alexander Bereznyak, (1912-1974), Russia - first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)* Georgy Beriev, (1903-1979), Georgia/Russia - Be-series amphibious aircraft* Emile Berliner, (1851-1929), Germany and U.S. - the disc record gramophone* Nikolay Benardos, (1842-1905), Russia - arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)* Tim Berners-Lee, (1955-), UK - with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web* Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah, (955-996), Egypt - airmail, homing pigeon* Bi Sheng (Chinese: 畢昇), (ca. 990-1051), China - clay movable type printing* Laszlo Biro, (1899-1985), Hungary - modern ballpoint pen* Clarence Birdseye, (1886-1956), U.S. - frozen food process* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, (973-1048), Persia/Iran - mechanical geared lunisolar calendar analog computer, fixed-wired knowledge processing machine, conical measure, laboratory flask, Orthographical astrolabe, hodometer, pycnometer* J. Stuart Blackton, (1875-1941), U.S. - stop-motion film* Otto Blathy (1860-1939), Hungary - co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator* Fyodor Blinov, (1827-1902), Russia - first tracked vehicle, steam-powered continuous track tractor* Katharine B. Blodgett, (1898-1979), UK - nonreflective glass* Alan Blumlein, (1903-1942), England - stereo* Nils Bohlin, (1920-2002), Sweden - the three-point seat belt* Joseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907-1964), Canada - snowmobile* Sam Born, Russia/U.S. - lollipop-making machine* Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858-1937), India - Crescograph* George de Bothezat, (1882-1940), Russia/U.S. - quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)* Robert W. Bower, (1936-), U.S. - self-aligned-gate MOSFET* Seth Boyden, (1788-1870), U.S. - nail-making machine* Walter Houser Brattain, (1902-1987), U.S. - co-inventor of the transistor* Louis Braille, (1809-1852), France - the Braille writing system* Karl Ferdinand Braun, (1850-1918), Germany - cathode-ray tube oscilloscope* Harry Brearley, (1871-1948), UK - stainless steel* Sergey Brin, (1973-), Russia/U.S. - with Larry Page invented Google web search engine* Mikhail Britnev, (1822-1889), Russia - first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)* Rachel Fuller Brown, (1898-1980), U.S., Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic* John Moses Browning, (1855-1926), U.S. - automatic handgun* Maria Christina Bruhn, (1732-1802), Sweden* Nikolay Brusentsov, (born 1925), Russia - ternary computer (Setun)* Edwin Beard Budding, (1795-1846), UK - lawnmower* Gersh Budker, (1918-1977), Russia - electron cooling, co-inventor of collider* Corliss Orville Burandt, U.S. - Variable valve timing* Henry Burden,(1791-1871) Scotland and U.S.- Horseshoe machine (made 60 horse shoes in a minute), first usable Iron Railed road spike, and builder of the most powerful waterwheel in history "Niagara of Water-Wheels"* Richard James Burgess, U.K. - Simmons (electronic drum company), co-inventor of SDS5 drum synthesizer* Aleksandr Butlerov, (1828-1886), Russia - hexamine, formaldehydeC* Robert Cailliau, (1947-), Belgium - with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web* C`ai Lun, 蔡倫 (50-121 AD), China - paper* Marvin Camras, (1916-1995), U.S. - magnetic recording* Chester Carlson, (1906-1968), U.S. - Xerography* Wallace Carothers, (1896-1937), U.S. - Nylon* Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, (fl.1630-1632), Turkey - long-distance flight, artificial wings* Lagari Hasan Celebi, (1633), Turkey - first manned rocket flight* Joseph Constantine Carpue, (1764-1846), France - rhinoplastic surgery* George Cayley, (1773-1857), UK - glider, tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar track* Roxey Ann Caplin, (1793-1888), UK - Corsets* Dennis Charter, (1952-), Australia - secure electronic payment system for internet PaySafe* Vladimir Chelomey, (1914-1984), Russia - first space station (Salyut), Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)* Pavel Cherenkov, (1904-1990), Russia - Cherenkov detector* Adrian Chernoff, (1971-), U.S. - GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber Bandits* Evgeniy Chertovsky, (1902-), Russia - pressure suit* Alexander Chizhevsky, (1897-1964), Russia - air ionizer* Andrey Chokhov, (c. 1545-1629), Russia - Tsar Cannon* Niels Christensen (1865-1952), U.S. - O-ring* Samuel Hunter Christie, (1784-1865), UK - Wheatstone bridge* Juan de la Cierva, (1895-1936), Spain - the autogyro* Alexandru Ciurcu, (1854-1922), Romania - Reaction engine* Georges Claude, (1870-1960), France - neon lamp* Henri Coandă, (1886-1972), Romania - Jet engine* Josephine Cochrane, (1839-1913), U.S. - dishwasher* Christopher Cockerell, (1910-1999), UK - Hovercraft* Aeneas Coffey, (1780-1852), Ireland - heat exchanger, Coffey still* Sir Henry Cole, (1808-1882), England - Christmas card* Samuel Colt, (1814-1862), U.S. - Revolver* George Constantinescu, (1881-1965), Romania - Interrupter gear* Lloyd Groff Copeman, (1865-1956), U.S. - Electric stove* Cornelis Corneliszoon, (1550-1607), The Netherlands - sawmill* Jacques Cousteau, (1910-1997), France - co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera* Thomas Crapper, (1836-1910), England - ballcock (toilet valve)* Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655-1731), Italy - piano* János Csonka, (1852-1939), Hungary - co-inventor of carburetor* Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725-1804), France - first steam-powered road vehicle* William Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745-1800), UK - chlorinated water* William Cullen, (1710-1790), UK - first artificial refrigerator* Glenn Curtiss, (1878-1930), U.S. - aileronsD* Gustaf Dalén, (1869-1937), Sweden - AGA cooker; Dalén light; Agamassan* Salvino D'Armate, (1258-1312), Italy - credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284* Corradino D'Ascanio, (1891-1981), Italy - D'AT3 helicopter; Vespa scooter* Jacob Davis, (1868-1908), U.S. - riveted jeans* Edmund Davy, (1785-1857), Ireland - acetylene* Humphry Davy, (1778-1829), UK - Davy miners lamp* Joseph Day, (1855-1946), UK - the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine* Lee DeForest, (1873-1961), U.S. - triode* Vasily Degtyaryov, (1880-1949), Russia - first self-loading carbine, Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat* Akinfiy Demidov, (1678-1745), Russia - co-developer of rebar, cast iron dome, lightning rod (all found in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk)* Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk, (1927-2006), Russia - 3D holography* Miksa Deri (1854-1938), Hungary - co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer* James Dewar, (1842-1923), UK - Thermos flask* Aleksandr Dianin, (1851-1918), Russia - Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound* William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860-1935), UK - motion picture camera* Philip Diehl, (1847-1913), U.S. - Ceiling fan, electric sewing machine* Rudolf Diesel, (1858-1913), Germany - Diesel engine* Al-Dinawari, (828-896), Persia/Iran - more than a hundred plant drugs* William H. Dobelle, (1943-2004), United States - first functioning artificial eye* Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, (1862-1919),Poland/Russia - three-phase electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)* Nikolay Dollezhal, (1899-2000),Russia - AM-1 reactor for the 1st nuclear power plant, other RBMK reactors, VVER pressurized water reactors* Bryan Donkin, (1768-1855), UK - print industry composition roller* Hub van Doorne, (1900-1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmission* Anastase Dragomir, (1896-1966), Romania - Ejection seat* Karl Drais, (1785-1851), Germany - dandy horse (Draisine)* Cornelius Drebbel, (1572-1633), The Netherlands - first navigable submarine* Richard Drew, (1899-1980), U.S. - Masking tape* John Boyd Dunlop, (1840-1921) UK - first practical pneumatic tyre* Cyril Duquet, (1841-1922) Canada - Telephone handset* Alexey Dushkin, (1904-1977), Russia - deep column station* James Dyson, (1947- ) UK - Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.E* George Eastman, (1854-1932), U.S. - roll film* Thomas Edison, (1847-1931), U.S. - phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, stock ticker, ticker-tape machine etc.* Willem Einthoven, (1860-1927), The Netherlands - the electrocardiogram* Ivan Elmanov, Russia - first monorail (horse-drawn)* Rune Elmqvist, (1906-1996), Sweden - implantable pacemaker* Douglas Engelbart, (1925-), U.S. - the computer mouse [1]* John Ericsson, (1803-1889), Sweden - the two screw-propeller* Lars Magnus Ericsson, (1846-1926), Sweden - the handheld micro telephone* Ole Evinrude, (1877-1934), Norway - outboard motorF* Peter Carl Fabergé, (1846-1920), Russia - Fabergé Eggs* Samuel Face, (1923-2001), U.S. - concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch* Michael Faraday, (1791-1867), England - electric transformer, electric motor* Johann Maria Farina, (1685-1766), Germany; Eau de Cologne* Philo Farnsworth, (1906-1971), U.S. - electronic television* Muhammad al-Fazari, (d. 796/806), Persia/Iran/Iraq - brass astrolabe* James Fergason, (1934-), U.S. - improved liquid crystal display* Enrico Fermi, (1901-1954), Italy - nuclear reactor* Humberto Fernández Morán, (1924-1999), Venezuela - Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtome* Reginald Fessenden, (1866-1932), Canada - two-way radio* Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick, (1829-1901), Germany - contact lens* Fatima al-Fihri, (c. 859), Tunisia/Morocco - university* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), (810-887), Al-Andalus - eye glasses, artificial wings, watch, fused quartz and silica glass, artificial thunder and lightning, metronome* Artur Fischer, (1919-) Germany - fasteners including fischertechnik.* Gerhard Fischer, Germany/U.S. - hand-held metal detector* Nicolas Florine, (1891-1972), Georgia/Russia/Belgium - first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely* Robert Fulton, (1765-1815), United States - first commercially successful steamboat, first practical submarine* Alexander Fleming, (1881-1955), Scotland - penicillin* John Ambrose Fleming, (1848-1945), England - vacuum diode* Sandford Fleming, (1827-1915), Canada - Universal Standard Time* Tommy Flowers, (1905-1998), England - Colossus an early electronic computer.* Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819-1868), France - Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current* Benoît Fourneyron, (1802-1867), France - water turbine* John Fowler, (1826-1864), England - steam-driven ploughing engine* Benjamin Franklin, (1706-1790), U.S. - the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica* Augustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788-1827), France - Fresnel lens* William Friese-Greene, (1855-1921), England - cinematography* Buckminster Fuller, (1895-1983), U.S. - geodesic dome* Ivan Fyodorov, (c. 1510-1583), Russia/Poland-Lithuania - invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia* Svyatoslav Fyodorov, (1927-2000), Russia - radial keratotomy* Vladimir Fyodorov, (1874-1966), Russia - Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)G* Dennis Gabor, (1900-1979), UK - holography* Boris Borisovich Galitzine, (1862-1916), Russia - electromagnetic seismograph* Dmitri Garbuzov, (1940-2006), Russia/U.S. - continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers* Elmer R. Gates, (1859-1923), USA - foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")* Richard J. Gatling, (1818-1903), U.S. - wheat drill, first successful machine gun* Georgy Gause, (1910-1986), Russia - gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics* E. K. Gauzen, Russia - three bolt equipment (early diving costume)* Hans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882-1945), Germany - Geiger counter* Andrey Geim, (born 1958), Russia/United Kingdom - graphene* Nestor Genko, (1839-1904), Russia - Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)* Henri Giffard, (1825-1882), France - powered airship, injector* Valentyn Glushko, (1908-1989), Russia - hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)* Heinrich Göbel, (1818-1893), Germany - incandescent lamp* Leonid Gobyato, (1875-1915), Russia - first modern man-portable mortar* Robert Goddard, (1882-1945), U.S. - liquid fuel rocket* Igor Gorynin, (1926), Russia - weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminum alloys, radiation-hardened steels* Peter Carl Goldmark, (1906-1977), Hungary - vinyl record (LP), CBS color television* Charles Goodyear, (1800-1860), U.S. - vulcanization of rubber* Gordon Gould, (1920-2005), U.S. - co-inventor of laser* Richard Hall Gower, (1768-1833), England - ship's hull and rigging* Boris Grabovsky, (1901-1966), Russia - cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube* Bette Nesmith Graham, (1924-1980), U.S. - Liquid Paper* James Henry Greathead, (1844-1896), South Africa - tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique* Chester Greenwood, (1858-1937), U.S. - thermal earmuffs* James Gregory, (1638-1675), Scotland - Gregorian telescope* William Robert Grove, (1811-1896), Wales - fuel cell* Otto von Guericke, (1602-1686), Germany - vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter* Mikhail Gurevich, (1893-1976), Russia - MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)* Hakan Gürsu, (c. 2007), Turkey - Volitan* Johann Gutenberg, (c. 1390s-1468), Germany - movable type printing press* Samuel Guthrie, (1782-1848), U.S. - discovered chloroformH* John Hadley, (1682-1744), England - Octant* Waldemar Haffkine, (1860-1930), Russia/Switzerland - first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccines* Tracy Hall, (1919-2008 ), U.S. - synthetic diamond* Christopher Hansteen, (1783-1873), Norway - discovery of terrestrial magnetism* James Hargreaves, (1720-1778), England - spinning jenny* John Harington, (1561-1612), England - the flush toilet* John Harrison, (1693-1776), England - marine chronometer* Victor Hasselblad, (1906-1978), Sweden - invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), (965-1039), Iraq - camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass* Robert A. Heinlein, (1907-1988), U.S. - waterbed* Jozef Karol Hell, (1713-1789), Slovakia - the water pillar* Rudolf Hell, (1901-2002), Germany - the Hellschreiber* Joseph Henry, (1797-1878), Scotland/U.S. - electromagnetic relay* Heron, (c. 10-70), Roman Egypt - usually credited with invention of the aeolipile, although it may have been described a century earlier* John Herschel, (1792-1871), England - photographic fixer (hypo)* William Herschel, (1738-1822), England - infrared* Heinrich Hertz, (1857-1894), Germany - radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation* George de Hevesy, (1885-1966), Hungary - radioactive tracer* Rowland Hill, (1795-1879), UK - postage stamp* Maurice Hilleman (1919-2005) vaccines agains childhood diseases* Felix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868-1949), Germany - Aspirin* Herman Hollerith, (1860-1929), U.S. - recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cards* Nick Holonyak, (1928- ), U.S. - LED (Light Emitting Diode)* Robert Hooke, (1635-1703), England - balance wheel, iris diaphragm* Erna Schneider Hoover, (1926-), U.S. - computerized telephone switching system* Frank Hornby, (1863-1936), England - invented Meccano* Coenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801-1887), Netherlands - cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk* Elias Howe, (1819-1867), U.S. - sewing machine* Muhammad Husayn, (fl.17th century), Persia/Iran - cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass* Christiaan Huygens, (1629-1695), Netherlands - pendulum clock* John Wesley Hyatt, (1837-1920), U.S. - celluloid manufacturing.I* Sumio Iijima, (1939- ), Japan - Carbon nanotubes* Gavriil Ilizarov, (1921-1992), Russia - Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis* Sergey Ilyushin, (1894-1977), Russia - Il-series aircraft, including Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history)* János Irinyi, (1817-1895), Hungary - noiseless match* Aleksei Isaev, (1908-1971), Russia - first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)J* Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber), (c. 1100-1150), Islamic Spain - portable celestial globe* Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), (c. 721-815), Persia/Iran - pure distillation, liquefaction, purification, retort, mineral acids, nitric and sulfuric acids, hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, alum, alkali, borax, pure sal ammoniac, lead carbonatic, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, pure mercury and sulfur, plated mail* Moritz von Jacobi, (1801-1874), Germany/Russia - electrotyping, electric boat* Karl Jatho, (1873-1933), Germany - aeroplane* Al-Jazari, (1136-1206), Iraq - crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage* Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar), (c. 898-980), Tunisia - sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs* György Jendrassik, (1898-1954), Hungary - turboprop* Charles Francis Jenkins, (1867-1934) - television and movie projector (Phantoscope)* Carl Edvard Johansson, (1864-1943), Sweden - Gauge blocks* Johan Petter Johansson, (1853-1943), Sweden - the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner* Nancy Johnson, U.S. - American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)* Scott A. Jones, (1960-), U.S. - created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine.* Whitcomb Judson, (1836-1909), U.S. - zipper[edit] K* Mikhail Kalashnikov, (1919-), Russia - AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)[1]* Dean Kamen, (1951-), U.S. - Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device* Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853-1926), Netherlands - liquify helium* Nikolay Kamov, (1902-1973), Russia - armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters* Pyotr Kapitsa, (1894-1984), Russia - first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions* Georgii Karpechenko, (1899-1941), Russia - rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)* Jamshīd al-Kāshī, (c. 1380-1429), Persia/Iran - plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer* Yevgeny Kaspersky, (1965-), Russia - Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products* Adolphe Kégresse, (1879-1943), France/Russia - Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission* Mstislav Keldysh, (1911-1978), Latvia/Russia - co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov* John Harvey Kellogg, (1852-1943), cornflake breakfasts* John George Kemeny, (1926-1992), Hungary - co-inventor of BASIC* Alexander Kemurdzhian, (1921-2003), Russia - first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)* Kerim Kerimov, (1917-2003), Azerbaijan and Russia - co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station* Charles F. Kettering, (1876-1958), U.S. - invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more* Khalid, (fl.9th century), Ethiopia - coffee* Fazlur Khan, (1929-1982), Bangladesh - structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers* Yulii Khariton, (1904-1996), Russia - chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb* Anatoly Kharlampiev, (1906-1979), Russia - Sambo (martial art)* Al-Khazini, (fl.1115-1130), Persia/Iran - hydrostatic balance* Konstantin Khrenov, (1894-1984), Russia - underwater welding* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, (c. 940-1000), Persia/Iran - astronomical sextant* Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi), (c. 780-850), Persia/Iran - modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant, shadow square* Erhard Kietz, (1909-1982), Germany & U.S.A. - patented signal improvements for video transmissions Erhard Kietz Patents* Jack Kilby, (1923-2005), U.S. - patented the first integrated circuit* Al-Kindi (Alkindus), (801-873), Iraq/Yemen - ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis* Fritz Klatte, (1880-1934), Germany - vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride* Margaret E. Knight, (1838-1914), U.S. - machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags* Ivan Knunyants, (1906-1990), Armenia/Russia - capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6* Robert Koch, (1843-1910), Germany - method for culturing bacteria on solid media* Willem Johan Kolff, (1911-2009), Netherlands - artificial kidney hemodialysis machine* Rudolf Kompfner, (1909-1977), U.S. - Traveling-wave tube* Konstantin Konstantinov, (1817 or 1819-1871), Russia - device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine* Sergey Korolyov, (1907-1966), Ukraine/Russia - first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)* Nikolai Korotkov, (1874-1920), Russia - auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement* Semen Korsakov, (1787-1853), Russia - punched card for information storage* Mikhail Koshkin, (1898-1940), Russia - T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[2]* Ognjeslav Kostović, (1851-1916), Serbia/Russia - arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)* Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872-1944), Russia - knapsack parachute, drogue parachute* Alexei Krylov, (1863-1945), Russia - gyroscopic damping of ships* Ivan Kulibin, (1735-1818), Russia - egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical telegraph* Igor Kurchatov, (1903-1960), Russia - first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships* Raymond Kurzweil, (1948-), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner* Stephanie Kwolek, (1923-), U.S. - Kevlar* John Howard Kyan (1774-1850), Ireland - The process of Kyanization used for wood preservationL* Dmitry Lachinov, (1842-1902), Russia - mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, elecrolyser* René Laënnec, (1781-1826), France - stethoscope* Lala Balhumal Lahuri, (c. 1842), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe* Georges Lakhovsky, (1869-1942), Russia/U.S. - Multiple Wave Oscillator* Hedy Lamarr, (1913-2000), Austria and U.S. - Spread spectrum radio* Edwin H. Land, (1909-1991), U.S. - Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera* Samuel P. Langley, (1834-1906), U.S. - bolometer* Irving Langmuir, (1851-1957), U.S. - gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding* Lewis Latimer, (1848-1928), - Invented the modern day light bulb* Gustav de Laval, (1845-1913), Sweden - invented the milk separator and the milking machine* Semyon Lavochkin, (1900-1960), Russia - La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut* John Bennet Lawes, (1814-1900), England - superphosphate or chemical fertilizer* Nikolai Lebedenko, Russia - Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history* Sergei Lebedev, (1874-1934), Russia - commercially viable synthetic rubber* Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632-1723), Netherlands - development of the microscope* Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822-1900), Belgium - internal combustion engine, motorboat* R. G. LeTourneau, (1888-1969), U.S.- electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers* Willard Frank Libby, (1908-1980), U.S. - radiocarbon dating* Justus von Liebig, (1803-1873), Germany - nitrogen-based fertilizer* Otto Lilienthal, (1848-1896), Germany - hang glider* Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862-1931), Sweden - Kerosene stove operated by compressed air* Hans Lippershey, (1570-1619), Netherlands - telescope* Lisitsyn brothers, Ivan Fyodorovich and Nazar Fyodorovich, Russia - samovar (the first documented makers)* William Howard Livens, (1889-1964), England - chemical warfare - Livens Projector.* Alexander Lodygin, (1847-1923), Russia - electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament* Mikhail Lomonosov, (1711-1765), Russia - night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt* Yury Lomonosov, (1876-1952), Russia/United Kingdom - first successful mainline diesel locomotive* Aleksandr Loran, (1849 - after 1911), Russia - fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher* Oleg Losev, (1903-1942), Russia - light-emitting diode, crystadine* Archibald Low, (1882-1956), Britain - Pioneer of radio guidance systems* Auguste and Louis Lumière, France - Cinématographe* Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy, (1909-2001), Russia - Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project* Ignacy Łukasiewicz, (1822-1882), Poland - modern kerosene lamp* Giovanni Luppis, (1813-1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) - self-propelled torpedo* Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman, (fl.1589-1590), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe* Arkhip Lyulka, (1908-1984), Russia - first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft enginesM* Ma Jun, (c. 200-265), China - South Pointing Chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms* Aleksandr Makarov, Russia/Germany - Orbitrap mass spectrometer* Stepan Makarov, (1849-1904), Russia - Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice* Nestor Makhno, (1888-1934), Ukraine/Russia - tachanka* Charles Macintosh, (1766-1843), Scotland - waterproof raincoat, life vest* Victor Makeev, (1924-1985), Russia - first submarine-launched ballistic missile* Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, (1896-1964), Russia - Maksutov telescope* Sergey Malyutin, (1859-1937), Russia - designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)* Al-Ma'mun, (786-833), Iraq - singing bird automata, terrestrial globe* Boris Mamyrin, (1919-2007), Russia - reflectron (ion mirror)* George William Manby, (1765-1854), England - Fire extinguisher* Guglielmo Marconi, (1874-1937), Italy - radio telegraphy* John Landis Mason, (1826-1902), U.S. - Mason jars* Henry Maudslay, (1771-1831), England - screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer* Hiram Maxim, (1840-1916), USA born, England - First self-powered machine gun* James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and Thomas Sutton Scotland - color photography* Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, (9th century), Iraq - syringe, hypodermic needle, cataract extraction, injection, suction* John McAdam, (1756-1836), Scotland - improved "macadam" road surface* Elijah McCoy, (1843-1929), Canada - Displacement lubricator* Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, (1845-1916), Russia - probiotics* Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817-1880), France - margarine* Dmitri Mendeleev, (1834-1907), Russia - Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as 38% (later rounded to 40%)* Antonio Meucci, (1808-1889), Italy - telephone (prototype)* Edouard Michelin, (1859-1940), France - pneumatic tire* Anthony Michell, (1870-1959), Australia - tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine* Artem Mikoyan, (1905-1970), Armenia/Russia - MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)* Alexander Mikulin, (1895-1985), Russia - Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank* Mikhail Mil, (1909-1970), Russia - Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)* Pavel Molchanov, (1893-1941), Russia - radiosonde* Jules Montenier, (c. 1910), U.S. - modern anti-perspirant deodorant* Montgolfier brothers, (1740-1810) and (1745-1799), France - hot-air balloon* John J. Montgomery, (1858-1911), U.S. - heavier-than-air gliders* Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819-1885), Spain - steam powered submarine* Robert Moog, (1934-2005), U.S. - the Moog synthesizer* Samuel Morey, (1762-1843), U.S. - internal combustion engine* Garrett A. Morgan, (1877-1963), U.S. - inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.* Samuel Morse, (1791-1872), U.S. - telegraph* Alexander Morozov, (1904-1979), Russia - T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34* Sergei Ivanovich Mosin, (1849-1902), Russia - Mosin-Nagant rifle* Motorins, Ivan Feodorovich (1660s - 1735) and his son Mikhail Ivanovich (?-1750), Russia - Tsar Bell* Vera Mukhina, (1889-1953), Russia - welded sculpture* Al-Muqaddasi, (c. 946-1000), Palestine - restaurant* Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi, (fl.11th century), Islamic Spain - geared mechanical clock, segmental gear, epicyclic gearing* William Murdoch, (1754-1839), Scotland - Gas lighting* Jozef Murgas, (1864-1929), Slovakia - inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)* Evgeny Murzin, (1914-1970), Russia - ANS synthesizer* Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800-873), Ahmad (803-873), Al-Hasan (810-873), Iraq - mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine* Pieter van Musschenbroek, (1692-1761), Netherlands - Leyden jar, pyrometer* Eadweard Muybridge, (1830-1904), England - motion pictureN* Alexander Nadiradze, (1914-1987), Georgia/Russia - first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)* John Napier, (1550-1617), Scotland - logarithms* James Naismith, (1861-1939), Canadian born, USA - invented basketball and American football helmet* Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (b. 1928), Japan - floppy disk, "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meter* Andrey Nartov, (1683-1756), Russia - first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight* James Nasmyth, (1808-1890), Scotland - steam hammer* Nebuchadrezzar II, (c. 630-562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) - screw, screwpump* Sergey Nepobedimiy, (1921-), Russia - first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry* John von Neumann, (1903-1957), Hungary - Von Neumann computer architecture* Isaac Newton,(1642-1727), England - reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)* Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765-1833), France - photography* Nikolai Nikitin, (1907-1973), Russia - prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)* Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, (1860-1940), Germany - Nipkow disk* Jun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926-), Japan - Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode* Alfred Nobel, (1833-1896), Sweden - dynamite* Ludvig Nobel, (1831-1888), Sweden/Russia - first successful oil tanker* Carl Rickard Nyberg, (1858-1939), Sweden - the blowtorchO* Theophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845-1903), Sweden/Russia - the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator* Lucien Olivier, (1838-1883), Belgium or France / Russia - Russian salad (Olivier salad)* J. Robert Oppenheimer, (1904-1967), United States - Atomic bomb* Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II, (1858-1923) American - weapon sights & mining* Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777-1851), Denmark - electromagnetism, aluminum* Elisha Otis, (1811-1861), U.S. - passenger elevator with safety device* William Oughtred, (1575-1660), England - slide ruleP* Larry Page, (1973-), U.S. - with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engine* Alexey Pajitnov, (born 1956), Russia/U.S. - Tetris* Helge Palmcrantz, (1842-1880), Sweden - the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun* Daniel David Palmer, (1845-1913), Canada - chiropractic* Luigi Palmieri, (1807-1896), Italy - seismometer* Alexander Parkes, (1831-1890), England - celluloid* Charles Algernon Parsons, (1854-1931), British - steam turbine* Spede Pasanen, (1930-2001), Finland - ski jumping sling* Blaise Pascal, (1623-1662), France - barometer, Pascal's calculator* Gustaf Erik Pasch, (1788-1862), Sweden - safety match* Les Paul, (1915-2009), U.S. - multitrack recording* Nicolae Paulescu, (1869-1931), Romania - insulin* Ivan Pavlov, (1849-1936), Russia, - classical conditioning* Arthur Paul Pedrick, England - chromatically selective cat flap and others* John Pemberton, (1831-1888), U.S. - Coca-Cola* Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871-1922), Croatia - mechanical pencil* Henry Perky, (1843-1906), U.S. - shredded wheat* Stephen Perry, England - rubber band* Vladimir Petlyakov, (1891-1942), Russia - heavy bomber* Peter Petroff, (1919-2004), Bulgaria - digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments* Fritz Pfleumer, (1881-1945), Germany - magnetic tape* Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, (1810-1881), Russia - early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations* Fyodor Pirotsky, (1845-1898), Russia - electric tram* Arthur Pitney, (1871-1933), United States - postage meter* Joseph Plateau, (1801-1883), Belgium - phenakistiscope (stroboscope)* Baltzar von Platen, (1898-1984), Sweden - gas absorption refrigerator* James Leonard Plimpton, U.S. - roller skates* Ivan Plotnikov, (1902-1995), Russia - kirza leather* Petrache Poenaru, (1799-1875), Romania - fountain pen* Christopher Polhem, (1661-1751), Sweden - the modern padlock* Nikolai Polikarpov, (1892-1944), Russia - Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)* Ivan Polzunov, (1728-1766), Russia - first two-cylinder steam engine* Mikhail Pomortsev, (1851-1916), Russia - nephoscope* Olivia Poole, (1889-1975), U.S., - the Jolly Jumper baby harness* Alexander Popov, (1859-1906), Russia - lightning detector (the first lightning prediction system and radio receiver), co-inventor of radio* Nikolay Popov, (1931-2008), Russia - first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)* Aleksandr Porokhovschikov, (1892-1941), Russia - Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first caterpillar amphibious ATV)* Joseph Priestley, (1733-1804), England - soda water* Alexander Procofieff de Seversky, 1894-1974, Russia/United States of America - first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, ionocraft, also developed air-to-air refueling* Alexander Prokhorov, (1916-2002), Russia - co-inventor of laser and maser* Petro Prokopovych, (1775-1850), Ukraine/Russia - early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties* Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, (1863-1944), Russia/France - early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures* George Pullman, (1831-1897), U.S. - Pullman sleep wagon* Michael I. Pupin, (1858-1935), Serbia - pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator* Tivadar Puskas, (1844-1893), Hungary - telephone exchange[edit] R* Mario Rabinowitz, (1936-), U.S. - solar concentrator with tracking micromirrors* Hasan al-Rammah, (fl.1270s), Syria - purified potassium nitrate, explosive gunpowder, torpedo* Harun al-Rashid, (763-809), Persia/Iran - public hospital, medical school* Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), (865-965), Persia/Iran - distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide* Karl von Reichenbach, (1788-1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenol* Ira Remsen, (1846-1927), U.S. - saccharin* Ralf Reski, (* 1958), Germany - Moss Bioreactor 1998* Josef Ressel, (1793-1857), Czechoslovakia - ship propeller* Charles Francis Richter, (1900-1985), U.S. - Richter magnitude scale* Hyman George Rickover, (1900-1986), U.S. - Nuclear submarine* John Roebuck, (1718-1794) England - lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis* Peter I the Great, Tsar and Emperor of Russia, (1672-1725), Russia - decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)* Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845-1923), Germany - the X-ray machine* Ida Rosenthal, (1886-1973), Belarus/Russia/United States - modern brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)* Boris Rosing, (1869-1933), Russia - CRT television (first TV system using CRT on the receiving side)* Eugene Roshal, (born 1972), Russia - FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver* Ernő Rubik, (1944-), Hungary - Rubik's cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock* Ernst Ruska, (1906-1988), Germany - electron microscopeS* Alexander Sablukov, (1783-1857), Russia - centrifugal fan* Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, (1385-1468), Turkey - illustrated surgical atlas* Andrei Sakharov, (1921-1989), Russia - invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak* Ibn Samh, (c. 1020), Middle East - mechanical geared astrolabe* Franz San Galli, (1824-1908), Poland/Russia (Italian and German descent) - radiator, modern central heating* Alberto Santos-Dumont, (1873-1932), Brazil - non-rigid airship and airplane* Arthur William Savage, (1857-1938) - radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle* Thomas Savery, (1650-1715), England - steam engine* Adolphe Sax, (1814-1894), Belgium - saxophone* Bela Schick, (1877-1967), Hungary - diphtheria test* Pavel Schilling, (1780-1836), Estonia/Russia - first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse* Christian Schnabel (1878-1936), German - simplistic food cutleries* Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands - Major contributor to development of Compact Disc* August Schrader, U.S. - Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire* David Schwarz, (1852-1897), Croatia, - rigid ship, later called Zeppelin* Marc Seguin, (1786-1875), France - wire-cable suspension bridge* Henry White Seeley, (1832-1903), US-pressing iron* Sennacherib, (705-681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) - screw pump* Iwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/U.S. - inventor of the Moviola for film editing* Mark Serrurier, (190?-1988), U.S. - Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes* Gerhard Sessler, (1931-), Germany - foil electret microphone, silicon microphone* Guy Severin, (1926-2008), Russia - extra-vehicular activity supporting system* Leonty Shamshurenkov, (1687-1758), Russia - first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge* Ibn al-Shatir, (1304-1375), Syria - "jewel box" device which combined a compass with a universal sundial* Shen Kuo, (1031-1095), China - improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube* Murasaki Shikibu, (c. 973-1025), Japan - novel, psychological novel* Pyotr Shilovsky, (1871 - after 1924), Russia/United Kingdom - gyrocar* Fathullah Shirazi, (c. 1582), Mughal India - autocannon, multi-barrel gun* William Bradford Shockley, (1910-1989), U.S. - co-inventor of transistor* Henry Shrapnel, (1761-1842), England - Shrapnel shell ammunition* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, (b. 1972), Malaysia - cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space* Vladimir Shukhov, (1853-1939), Russia - thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot* Augustus Siebe, (1788-1872), Germany/England - Inventor of the standard diving dress* Werner von Siemens, (1816-1892), Germany - an electromechanical "dynamic"* Sir William Siemens, (1823-1883), Germany - regenerative furnace* Al-Sijzi, (c. 945-1020), Persia/Iran - heliocentric astrolabe* Igor Sikorsky, (1889-1972), Russia/U.S. - first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters* Kia Silverbrook, (1958-), Australia - Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor* Vladimir Simonov, (born 1935), Russia - APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol* Charles Simonyi, (1948-), Hungary - Hungarian notation* Ibn Sina (Avicenna), (973-1037), Persia/Iran - steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker* Isaac Singer, (1811-1875), U.S. - sewing machine* Nikolay Slavyanov, (1854-1897), Russia - shielded metal arc welding* Alexander Smakula, (1900-1983), Ukraine/Russia/U.S. - anti-reflective coating* Yefim Smolin, Russia - table-glass (stakan granyonyi)* Igor Spassky, (1926-), Russia - Sea Launch platform* Elmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860-1930), U.S. - gyroscope-guided automatic pilot* Ladislas Starevich, (1882-1965), Russia/France - puppet animation, live-action/animated film* Boris Stechkin, (1891-1969), Russia - co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines* George Stephenson, (1781-1848), England - steam railway* Simon Stevin, (1548-1620), Netherlands - land yacht* Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790-1878), Scotland - Stirling engine* Aurel Stodola, (1859-1942), Slovakia - gas turbines* Aleksandr Stoletov, (1839-1896), Russia - first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect* Levi Strauss, (1829-1902), U.S. - blue jeans* John Stringfellow, (1799-1883), England - airplane* Almon Strowger, (1839-1902), U.S. - automatic telephone exchange* Su Song, (1020-1101), China - first chain drive* Pavel Sukhoi, (1895-1975), Russia - Su-series fighter aircraft* Simon Sunatori, (1959-), Canada - inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer* Sushruta, (600 BC), Vedic India - inventor of Platic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty* Joseph Swan, (1828-1914), England - Incandescent light bulb* Percy Spencer, (1894-1970), U.S. - microwave oven* Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), (903-986), Persia/Iran - timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe* Robert Swanson, (1905-1994), Canada - Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives* Andrei Sychra, (1773-76 - 1850), Lithuania/Russia, Czech descent - Russian seven-string guitar* Vladimir Syromyatnikov, (1933-2006), Russia - Androgynous Peripheral Attach System