once you beat every single temple (Forest, Fire, Water, Shadow, Spirit), and once the princess is kidnapped (you have to enter the temple of time) you should be able to walk up to the gap between the cliff edge and the door to the castle. The Sages should build a rainbow bridge of light you can cross the lava on.
Fire an Arrow of Light at it.
sadly no you can't for all of the temples you need weapons you can't use as a kid like the bow and hookshot, and the only way to get into ganons castle is to be an adult.
if you mean on Zelda Ocarina of Time, then go to Ganondorf's castle
You never meet Zelda's father in Ocarina of Time.
Zelda Ocarina of time is rated E 10+
Two, fairy ocarina you get as a child by Saria, and the Ocarina of time you get from Princess Zelda
The Legend of Zelda Ocarina of Time does not have a remake on DS but it does on 3DS.
There is no such thing as a shovel in Ocarina of Time.
you place a bomb west of the castle near the lone tree
You get the Golden Gauntlet in Gannon's Castle, the last dungeon in the game.
Princess Zelda is actually Sheik during your adult life, but after meeting Sheik in the Temple of Time when recovering your medallions, she is trapped in the castle with Gannondorf.