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often complement one another

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About how many different pieces of information can a person hold in working memory at one time

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Q: What are the various theoretical perspectives employed by psychologists?
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What are the various perspectives employed by psychologist?

the various perspectives employed by psychologists

Psychology as a profession?

Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in health service fields provide mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods vary with the topic under study. Psychologists sometimes gather information through controlled laboratory experiments or by administering personality, performance, aptitude, or intelligence tests. Other methods include observation, interviews, questionnaires, clinical studies, and surveys. Psychologists apply their knowledge to a wide range of endeavors, including health and human services, management, education, law, and sports. They usually specialize in one of a number of different areas. Clinical psychologists-who constitute the largest specialty-work most often in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally distressed clients adjust to life and may assist medical and surgical patients in dealing with illnesses or injuries. Some clinical psychologists work in physical rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, arthritis, or neurological conditions. Others help people deal with personal crisis, such as divorce or the death of a loved one. Clinical psychologists often interview patients and give diagnostic tests. They may provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy and may design and implement behavior modification programs. Some clinical psychologists collaborate with physicians and other specialists to develop and implement treatment and intervention programs that patients can understand and comply with. Other clinical psychologists work in universities and medical schools, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health and behavioral medicine services. Some administer community mental health programs. Areas of specialization within clinical psychology include health psychology, neuropsychology, and geropsychology. Health psychologists study how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness. They promote healthy living and disease prevention through counseling, and they focus on how patients adjust to illnesses and treatments and view their quality of life. Neuropsychologists study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs. Geropsychologists deal with the special problems faced by the elderly. The emergence and growth of these specialties reflects the increasing participation of psychologists in direct services to special patient populations. Often, clinical psychologists consult with other medical personnel regarding the best treatment for patients, especially treatment that includes medication. Clinical psychologists generally are not permitted to prescribe medication to treat patients; only psychiatrists and other medical doctors may prescribe most medications. (See the statement on physicians and surgeons elsewhere in the Handbook.) However, two States-Louisiana and New Mexico-currently allow appropriately trained clinical psychologists to prescribe medication with some limitations. Counseling psychologists use various techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living, including career or work problems and problems faced in different stages of life. They work in settings such as university counseling centers, hospitals, and individual or group practices. (See also the statements on counselors and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) School psychologists work with students in early childhood and elementary and secondary schools. They collaborate with teachers, parents, and school personnel to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments for all students. School psychologists address students' learning and behavioral problems, suggest improvements to classroom management strategies or parenting techniques, and evaluate students with disabilities and gifted and talented students to help determine the best way to educate them. They improve teaching, learning, and socialization strategies based on their understanding of the psychology of learning environments. They also may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, prevention programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in the school setting. Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of worklife. They also are involved in research on management and marketing problems. They screen, train, and counsel applicants for jobs, as well as perform organizational development and analysis. An industrial psychologist might work with management to reorganize the work setting in order to improve productivity or quality of life in the workplace. Industrial psychologists frequently act as consultants, brought in by management to solve a particular problem. Developmental psychologists study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life. Some specialize in behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, or changes that occur during maturity or old age. Developmental psychologists also may study developmental disabilities and their effects. Increasingly, research is developing ways to help elderly people remain independent as long as possible. Social psychologistsexamine people's interactions with others and with the social environment. They work in organizational consultation, marketing research, systems design, or other applied psychology fields. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and perception. Experimental or research psychologists work in university and private research centers and in business, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. They study the behavior of both human beings and animals, such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of study in experimental research include motivation, thought, attention, learning and memory, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance abuse, and genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior. Work environment. Psychologists' work environments vary by subfield and place of employment. For example, clinical, school, and counseling psychologists in private practice frequently have their own offices and set their own hours. However, they usually offer evening and weekend hours to accommodate their clients. Those employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care facilities may work shifts that include evenings and weekends, and those who work in schools and clinics generally work regular daytime hours. Most psychologists in government and industry have structured schedules. Psychologists employed as faculty by colleges and universities divide their time between teaching and research and also may have administrative responsibilities; many have part-time consulting practices. Increasingly, many psychologists work as part of a team, consulting with other psychologists and professionals. Many experience pressures because of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required in order to attend conferences or conduct research.Source: U.S. Department of Labor

What is the modern definition of psychology?

Modern psychology is divided into several subdisciplines, each based on differing models of behavior and mental processes. Psychologists work in a number of different settings, including universities and colleges, primary and secondary schools, government agencies, private industry, hospitals, clinics, and private practices. Recent years have seen a rise in the significance of applied psychology-as can be seen from the areas contemporary psychologists concern themselves with-with an attendant decline in the importance of psychology in academia. In the United States, clinical psychology has become a significant focus of the discipline, largely separate from psychological research. Clinical psychologists are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of various psychological problems. Read more: psychology: Modern Psychology -

What are the different fields of specialization in psychology?

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: Clinical psychologists assess and treat people with psychological problems. They may act as therapists for people experiencing normal psychological crises (e.g., grief) or for individuals suffering from chronic psychiatric disorders. Some clinical psychologists are generalists who work with a wide variety of populations, while others work with specific groups like children, the elderly, or those with specific disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). They are trained in universities or professional schools of Psychology. They may be found working in academic settings, hospitals, community health centers, or private practice. The homepage of Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) can be found here.COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY: Counseling psychologists do many of the same things that clinical psychologists do. However, counseling psychologists tend to focus more on persons with adjustment problems rather than on persons suffering from severe psychological disorders. The homepage of Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) can be found here.DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: Developmental psychologists study how we develop intellectually, socially, and emotionally over the lifespan. Some of the areas they are interested in are: Children's peer relations, language comprehension, computational models of cognitive development, parent-infant interactions, social and communicative behavior in infants, and language acquisition across languages and cultures. The homepage of Division 7 (Developmental Psychology) can be found here.EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: Educational psychologists conduct research and develop theories about teaching and learning. They attempt to understand the basic aspects of learning and then develop materials and strategies for enhancing the learning process. Their efforts are applied to improve teacher training and help students learn more efficiently. The homepage of Division 15 (Educational Psychology) can be found here.EVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: Evironmental psychologists focus on the relationship between people and the physical environment they live in. As such, they are interested in the effects of the physical environment on a person's behavior and mental processes. For example, they examine how environmental stimuli such as noise, temperature, and weather affect a person's emotions, cognitive processes, performance, and social interactions; the effects of the social environment, crowding, personal space; and the psychological effects of environmental disasters The homepage of Division 34 (Population and Environmental Psychology) can be found here.EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: This area includes a diverse group of psychologists who do research in the most basic areas of psychology (e.g., learning, memory, cognition, perception, motivation, and language). Their research may be conducted with animals instead of humans. Most of these psychologists work in academic settings. The homepage of Division 3 (Experimental Psychology) can be found here.FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY: Forensic psychologists study of questions and issues relating to law and the legal system. A forensic psychologist offers an expert psychological opinion in a way that it impacts one of the adversarial arenas, typically the courts. Forensic psychologists evaluate various areas, such as expert testimony, jury selection, child testimony, pretrial publicity, repressed memories, the death penalty, battered woman syndrome, domestic violence, drug dependence, and sexual disorders. Although many people think of forensic psychologists as focussing on criminal matters, this is certainly not always the case. The American Academy of Forensic Society website can be found here.HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: Health psychologists are concerned with psychology's contributions to the promotion and maintenance of good health and the prevention and treatment of illness. They They recognize the importance of life style and behavioral factors that contribute to physical disease, the search for ways to contain health care costs, and potential of health-oriented psychological interventions. They may design and conduct programs to help individuals stop smoking, lose weight, manage stress, and stay physically fit. They are employed in hospitals, medical schools, rehabilitation centers, public health agencies, academic settings, and private practice. The homepage of Division 38 (Health Psychology) can be found here.HUMAN FACTORS PSYCHOLOGY: Human Factors psychologists study the human/machine interface. They may help make appliances such as cameras user-friendly, or they may do studies of safety-related issues in the design of machinary, airplane controls and instrument layouts, or they may do basic research on human perceptual and motor abilities as they relate to the operation of machines, computers, and other mechanical devices. Human Factors information can be found here.INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:Industrial/organizational psychologists are primarily concerned with the relationships between people and their work environments. They may develop new ways to increase productivity or be involved in personnel selection. They are employed in business, government agencies, and academic settings. The homepage of Division 14 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) can be found here.NEUROPSYCHOLOGY / PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY: These psychologists are concerned with brain/behavior relationships. They may be involved in clinical work, in the assessment of brain-damaged pateints, or in research, such as attempts to relate cognitive activity to brain activity as seen in brain scans. The homepage of Division 6 (Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology) can be found here.SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY: School psychologists are involved in enhancing the development of children and adults in educational settings. They assess children's psychoeducational abilities and recommend actions to facilitate student learning. They are typically trained in Schools of Education and work in public school systems. They often act as consultants to parents, teachers, and administrators to optimize the learning environments of specific students. The homepage of Division 16 (School Psychology) can be found here.SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: Social psychologists study how our beliefs, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other persons. Some topics of interest to social psychologists are attitude formation and change, aggression, prejudice, and interpersonal attraction. Most social psychologists work in academic settings, but some work in federal agencies and businesses doing applied research. The homepage of Division 8 (Social Psychology) can be found here.SPORT PSYCHOLOGY: Sports psychologists study the psychological factors associated with participation and performance in sport, exercise, and other types of physical activity. Sport psychologists focus primarily on two areas. First, they focus on helping athletes use psychological principles and skills to achieve optimal mental health and to improve performance. Second, theyseek further understanding of how an individuals' participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity affects their psychological development, health, and well-being.

What are the various approaches of behavior modification?

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