Secularism is the political philosophy of separating the institutions of government from those of religion. There are two main ways that secularism has been practiced: the "Uninvolved Model" as seen in the United States and Australia and the "Exclusivist Model" as seen in France and Turkey. In the former, the government takes no opinions on matters of religion and leaves each individual completely free to express his religion in the public forum. In the latter, religious institutions are progressively weakened by the state with the intent of allowing a non-religious pubic sphere to emerge.

1,514 Questions
The Difference Between

What is the difference between a spiritual and secular ruler?

good question. A secular ruler uses sacred texts to determine what is prayed upon. He also carries the word of God in his notebook.

Ethics and Morality

What are some distinctions between Islamic ethics and secular ethics?

There are several key and important distinctions between Islamic Ethics and Secular Ethics.

1) Deontology vs. Consequentialism:
Probably the most fundamental difference between Islamic Ethics and Secular Ethics is that the Islamic Ethics is a deontological ethical system while most forms of Secular Ethics are described in consequentialist terms. In deontology, whether an action is right or wrong is based on the nature of the action itself. Conversely, in consequentialism, whether an action is right or wrong depends on what consequences will arise from the action. A perfect example of the difference between deontology and consequentialism is on the "ticking-time-bomb torture scenario". According to the anti-torture deonotologists, torture is an evil in and of itself and cannot be performed. According to consequentialists, if torturing the terrorist is likely to save the lives of hundreds of people, that positive consequence can outweigh the negative consequence can outweigh the hurt and pain inflicted by way of torture.

In Islamic Ethics, actions are good or evil because God declared it to be so (or the scholars/jurists argue that God or Muhammad declared it to be so by analogy or comparison) and human perspectives on these moral values are irrelevant. In Secular Ethics, actions are good or evil by comparing them to values that should be maximized or minimized in the consequences. Islamic Jurists will often argue that Secular Ethics is immoral because under Secular Ethics, as long as the balance is achieved, thoroughly immoral acts can be performed. (A famous incident in this vein was when Atheist and Secular Ethicist Lawrence Krauss justified conditions under which incest could be permissible.) Conversely, Secular Ethical leaders will argue that Islamic Ethics is completely inflexible and will not respond to new evidence that will change moral opinions. (A famous issue in this vein is the continued insistence by Islamic Jurists that homosexuality is immoral, even though science has shown that homosexuality is a natural part of epigenetic human development.)

2) Equality of People:
Secular Ethics is based on the fundamental principle that all individuals are valued equally by the ethical apparatus, without regard to any unchanging characteristics. For example, if a gay person murders a straight person, it is no more or less criminal than if a straight person murders a straight person, a gay person murders a gay person, or a straight person murders a gay person. The only differences that can apply are situational. It is permitted to use violence against a person resisting arrest to a degree not permitted in general interpersonal interaction.

Conversely, Islam tends to split along three lines on this issue. (1) There is a modern view that all people should be treated as equals and be subject to secular law while demonstrating Islamic Ethics as an interpersonal relationship mechanism. Most Islamic Apologists take this tone. (2) There is a prevalent view that the law and ethical systems should be religiously segregated, namely that Muslims should be subject to Islamic Ethical Norms and Laws while Non-Muslims should be subject to Secular Laws. (However, this view has never been successfully developed with any clarity for what Secular Laws Non-Muslims should be subject to and all Muslim Apostates – like Ex-Muslim Atheists and Ex-Muslim Christians – are usually considered Muslims under this rubric, even though they would personally reject this. (3) Finally, the most historically consistent view, and the one that seems most supported by the Qur’an, but especially the Hadiths and early Islamic Jurists, is the idea that Muslims are superior to other Monotheists (Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, etc.) and those Monotheists are superior to Polytheists and Atheists. There are a number of onerous regulations that Non-Muslims had to follow to show their lesser status. Additionally, their lives were seen to be less valuable, as indicated by the lower amount of blood money due to their families if they were murdered. (For example, if a Muslim was killed, the murderer’s family could pay a certain amount to the victim’s family in lieu of his punishment. If a Christian was killed, the amount that the murderer’s family would have to pay would be half as much as in the case of the Muslim.)

3) Precendential Case Law vs. Amendable Statute:
In Islamic Law, no previously decided ethical decision can be undone and current decisions must be made in accordance with previous precedent. The only way of “removing” an ethical belief would be to place it under a conditional moratorium. This means that while the act would not change from immoral to moral, the punishment mechanism would not come into play because the requirements to make the case are too onerous for the prosecutor. Secular Ethics allows complete replacement and alteration of ethical precepts if conditions warrant.

Politics and Government
Sentence and Word Structure
The Difference Between

What is secular realignment?

Secular realignment is one of two concepts given by political science scholars which describe the process of voters shifting from one party to another over a gradual period of time, such as a decade or two. This is opposed to critical realignment, which signifies that there has been a major shift in voting patterns in a single election or two.

History of the United States
Politics and Government
Slogans and Mottos

Is the US secular?

Yes, the US polity is indeed secular. There is no state religion and all are free to preach, practice, and propagate any religion subject to public morality. Unlike India, however, where special laws have been made for people of particular religions, US laws are the same for all.

History of Science
Forensic Science

Compared to a creation scientist what is a secular scientist?

From the dictionary: sec·u·lar - adjective

Denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.

cre·a·tion - noun

2. The bringing into of existence of the universe, especially when regarded as an act of God.

Therefore, a secular scientist is one who works without an attitude of religious basis.

A creation scientist is one who works with an attitude of religious basis (that God is the Creator).

The two most widely-known contexts for the above, are the tradition of Creation, and the theory of Evolution. According to the theory of Evolution, life developed by random processes, especially mutations.

The narrative of Divine Creation, which is contained in Genesis ch.1 and 2, states that God created the universe. This teaches us that God exists, that our lives and the world are not random, and that the created things may be assumed to contain vast wisdom in their beautiful and purposeful design. (In recent decades, this wisdom has indeed been partially revealed, through increasingly powerful microscopes.)Evolution through random mutations, on the other hand, may be understood as implying that life is an accident, that perceived beauty and wisdom are ultimately purposeless, and that our instinctive yearning for the Eternal is just an electrical impulse in our brain.


What do you understand by secularism?

Secularism means that a nation accomodates all the religion and can't go into favour with a single religion.the nation have to do welfare for all the people of all the religion.E.g-government have to build temples ,masjid and also do work for the minority religion.

Native American History

What is the Difference in Indian and American secularism?

in Indian secularism the govt. can interfere btw the matters of the people although there is sepration of religion from us securlarism govt. cannot interfere in any case.


Is there any type of weekly nonreligious communal gatherings that teach science but are set up more similarly to a church than a class?

There are secular "churches" which might be that kind of thing; they have been described as non-religious church meetings which provide the social meeting and singing associated with churches, but without the religious element.


What secular performance technique is similar to responsorial psalmody?

Call and respond


Why is India called as a Secular State?

India is a country with about 30 states within. old India as the british gave the name. before the british it was called Hindustan. Hindustan included India,Pakistan and Bangladesh. the british divide and conqour, as they did in Hindustan. Hindu's and Muslim's were divided by the britishers and after 200yrs there independence came with Gondi in the forfront, could not come together as one nation under god like the U.S. the country was run by a Muslim minority before the british came some 250 years ago. the Muslim minority wanted to rule again. this was not possible so they divided Hindustan into three parts. India later helped Bangladesh win its independence from Pakistan. India is much like the U.S. in that it gives there people the freedom of religion. Hindu's, Muslim's and Christians are working together in India and hold gov't posts. Hence India is secular from Hindustan.


What is the assumption of knowledge to secular humanism?

Knowledge is not assumed, secular or otherwise.


What is a secular king or ruler is also known as?



What is secularism in Islam in urdu?

dunyavi..or wordly

not specific to one religion but rather to entire humanity


Is France a non-secular country?

No it is NOT

Tanakh and Talmud

Did the Hebrews write religious secular?

Yes. The books of Tobit and Sirach are examples. However, the Torah-sages spoke against reading such books (Mishna, Sanhedrin ch.11).

Religion & Spirituality
Politics and Government

What does secular content in education mean?

Secular is non-religious.

Literature and Language

What is secular literature?

In brief, secular literature is Literature that is not religious in nature.

Some examples of authors of secular literature are:

  • Sinclair Lewis
  • Eugene O'Neill
  • Pearl S. Buck
  • T. S. Eliot
  • William Faulkner
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • John Steinbeck
  • Saul Bellow
  • Isaac Bashevis Singer
  • CzesÅ�aw MiÅ�osz
  • Joseph Brodsky
  • Toni Morrison
Business & Finance
Politics and Government
International Government

Does Cuba have a secular government?

The republic of Cuba is a secular state... yes!

Turkey (Country)

Is Turkey a secular state?

It's complicated, but the common answer is YES.

When Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the modern Republic of Turkey, he created an irreligious state that he labeled as secular. An irreligious state is a state that is actively hostile to some or all forms of religion, like the Soviet Union and the P.R. China are. He created the Diyanet or Religious Affairs Ministry that actively regulated Islam inside of Turkey. The Diyanet did a number of things such as making official translations of the Qur'an into Turkish, writing the Friday sermons so they could be standardized across the country, and making sure that the various Imams in Turkey were following particular theological guidelines. Repeated disregarding of the Diyanet's authority would lead to detentions and arrests and this went for Islamists and Jihadists on the one hand and more liberal Sufi-inspired leaders on the other hand. This suppression of religious freedom for Muslims continued under Ataturk's successor, Inonu.

After World War II, Turkey became a lot less irreligious and much more secular in the American conception, e.g. where religion and state stand apart. The military saw its role as removing any overt religious influence on the state, but the Diyanet's authority was also relaxed to allow for more religious diversity in the country. This is the period in Turkish History that was the most secular in the Western conception of the term.

With the Rise of Conservatism in the Islamic World in the 1970s and 1980s, Islamist Parties in Turkey began to play a part in politics. In 2003, Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his Islamist Party, the AKP, finally came to power and began shifting Turkey towards an indirect theocracy. Sunni Islamic dialogue is turning more to religious ascendance than equality and the Alevis (which are the largest Non-Sunni minority at roughly 15% of the Turkish population) are targeted for persecution with the government's acceptance. Anti-Semitism is also rampant in Turkey and endorsed by the AKP. Christians in Turkey are finding their situation similarly worsen, but not to the degree that Alevis and Jews are facing. Although it will take a much stronger shift to make Turkey the kind of indirect theocracy that Saudi Arabia is, Turkey is slowly moving in that direction.


What are secular lies?

Secular lies are either untruths having to do with non-religious topics (Beethoven did not write any symphonies), or beliefs/theories that can't be shown to be based in religious teaching (natural processes can explain the beginning of life).

The latter is really the special class of 'lie', since they are lies only from a religious point of view. From a secular point of view, they may or may not be held as accurate or true, or they may be held by some groups and not by others, but followers of religion take them to be statements that undercut religious teachings and/or authority, and are therefore considered toxic and classed as lies.


Secular music was not specifically concerned with religion spirtuality and matters of the?



What does secular mean?

Secular means "of the age," as opposed to eternal, which means "of all time." By extension it also means "not necessarily pertaining to religion," and '' concerning the here-and-now, not the hereafter."

Secular can also mean non religious. For example secular funerals, or secular celebrations. :)

It means 'worldly' as opposed to 'religious'. In the past, a Bishop or Cardinal often had secular power, being the ruler of a city or province, and at the same time religious power as the highest cleric and religious judge in that same area. Music can also either be religious ('as sung in church') or secular (written for entertainment). A 'secular' country is a country where State and religion are clearly separated and where religion does not in any way dictate State policy or practices.


What is the difference between a secular and non-secular?

It depends on the usage of these words.

As concerns governments and politics, a secular government is one that either maintains a wall of separation between religion and politics or one that actively regulates religion (although the latter is more properly called irreligious). Under this definition, a non-secular government would be a direct theocracy (like the Papacy in Vatican City or the Islamic Republic of Iran) where clerics of the religion wield primary political authority, indirect theocracies (like Saudi Arabia) where clerics have a strong advisory authority without having direct power, and states where religion is completely banned (like Hoxha's Albania).

As concerns personal life and life-cycle events, secular means "having nothing to do with religion" and non-secular means "having to do with religion". For example, a secular marriage is one officiated by the state exclusively and a non-secular marriage is one officiated by a cleric, usually in a religious building.

There is also the increasing tendency for people to identify as secular in place of identifying as atheist because of the stigma around the word atheist, even though this is a misappropriation of the word. Under this context, non-secular would ostensibly mean "religious".

Politics and Government

Should religious leaders run for political office?

Religious leaders can and do run for political office. They may add a new perspective to political debate, although occasional scandals involving religious leaders show that we should not elect them in the expectation of higher moral standards.

Iran is an example of a theocracy, in which religious beliefs are paramount. This would give us warning to ensure that religious leaders do not, on election to political office, try to impose religion onto the political process.


What are secular humanist assumptions on reality?

The secular humanist assumes nothing. We make assessments based on tangible or observable facts; things that can be objectively verified as real are included within the common perception of reality.


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