Analyzing the composition of lok sabha study the current composition of lok sabha no. of representatives who studied till 10th or 12th graduates post gra?
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1. Composition of House: The Lok Sabha is the popular House. Its members are directly elected by the people. But the members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected. This di…fference in the process of election of the members of both Houses gives an edge to the Lok Sabha over the Rajya Sabha. 2. Cabinet Responsibility: Another factor which makes the Lok Sabha more important than the Rajya Sabha is cabinet responsibility. The members of the Council of Ministers at the centre are responsible to the Lok Sabha and not to the Rajya Sabha. If the government loses majority in the Rajya Sabha, it is bad for the government. This will be considered a political defeat for the government. But the government will not be required to resign. However, the government will have to resign if it loses a vote of confidence in the Lok Sabha. 3. Financial Power: In democracies, the popular House is normally given more powers in financial matters and in this respect India is not an exception. In India, the Money Bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha; it cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. After a Money Bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha for its consideration. Within 14 days, the Rajya Sabha has to return the bill. If it is not returned to the Lok Sabha within 14 days, it will be deemed to have been approved by the Rajya Sabha. 4. Amendment: In other matters like impeachment, constitutional amendment and approval of proclamation of emergencies etc. both Houses enjoy equal powers. But even in these matters, the Lok Sabha has an in built advantage over the Rajya Sabha. This is due to the provision of joint sitting for resolving any conflict between the two Houses on any matters other than Money Bills. 5. Joint Session: If there is disagreement between the Lok Sabha and the Ra Sabha, on any bill other than a Money Bill, then the two Houses are required to sit joint to resolve the conflict and in a joint sitting, the decision would be taken by simple majority. The Lok Sabha, having more members, would prevail over the Rajya Sabha in such ma of conflict between the two Houses. 6. Special powers of Rajya Sabha: The Rajya Sabha, however, has three special powers. First, according to Article 249, the Rajya Sabha has power to authorize Parliament to make law on the State List if it feels that such legislation is necessary national interest. Second, by a resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting, it can authorize the Parliament, to create one or more Al India Service, if that is necessary in national interest (Article 312). Third, for the removal of the Vice-President of India, the action has to be initiated by the Rajya Sabha. A resolution for the removal of the Vice-President has to be passed first by the majority of the members of the Rajya Sabha. If it is then adopted by the Lok Sabha, the Vice-President stands removed. These three exclusive powers, vested in the Council of States, give it some advantage, but, in the overall context, the Lok Sabha is clearly superior to the Rajya Sabha The Lok Sabha enjoys more influence and prestige than the other House of the Parliament 7. Miscellaneous Powers: (a) Both houses have equal powers in respect impeachment, amendment of constitution and approval of emergency proposal, (b) The members of both houses take part in the election of President of India, and in the election of Vice-President of India, (c) The members of both houses work together in some Parliamentary committees including the Public Accounts Committee. Nehru, India's first Prime Minister, did not like the view, believed to be true by man that the Lok Sabha is superior to the Rajya Sabha. He called this view erroneous. I considered both Houses of the Parliament equal except on some financial matters. Hew perhaps right insofar as the theory is concerned. But, in practice, the higher status enjoy by the Lok Sabha is quite evident. (MORE)
Quorum is the minimum number of members of a legislature that must be present to make the proceedings valid. In case of the Parliament, the quorum of either House shall be one…-tenth of the total number of members of the House. (MORE)
Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim are the States which has only one representative each in Lok Sabha.
In June, 2014, Customs and Immigration Canada will introduce new regulations for international students studying in Canada. Read an overview of these changes.… (MORE)
If you are deciding to attend school and do some graduate study in psychology, you probably wonder what your career options are after graduation. Although many people who purs…ue graduate study in psychology go on to obtain a doctorate degree, others do enter the workforce. The following is a short list of possible careers to look into when you finish school.A mental health therapist is someone who provides individual, group, family, couples or marital counseling (or any combination of those) to people in need of services. Most agencies now require therapists to hold at least a graduate degree in order to provide therapy. You may also choose a specialization in your graduate study in psychology, such as drug and alcohol or applied behavior analysis.Most community colleges allow someone with a graduate degree to teach undergraduate or introductory courses at a community college. Teach introductory psychology classes, or act as a teaching assistant to someone with a doctorate degree in psychology. Check with local colleges to see if they are looking for someone to teach introductory courses.Although some agencies require a specific degree in social work, many others allow you to become a social worker with a graduate degree in psychology. As a social worker, you are responsible for the well-being of children, youth and families of the agency, hospital or group home you are employed by. You assist others in obtaining community resources, teach self-help skills and get people enrolled in programs that aid them in achieving a more fulfilling life.Graduate study in psychology opens up many doors and working as a human resources manager is one of them. People want to know they are hiring quality candidates, and someone with psychology experience is able to provide insight and advice in the hiring process. This job allows you to work with people, but in a different context than the helping professions, such as therapy or social work, do.Graduate studies in psychology are very beneficial and help you gain fulfilling employment. Learning about the human mind and human behavior is helpful over a wide variety of settings, from a residential group home to a CEO board room. Obtaining this degree allows you to work in many fields, depending upon your interest.If you choose to move on with a doctorate in psychology in the hopes of becoming a university professor, be careful. There are only a few hundred university psychology positions open every year, and many of these are adjunct positions. Due to the limited jobs available, only a handful of doctoral students go on to become university faculty. (MORE)
Psychologically can be considered an art as well as a science. It is an intellectually stimulating field, yet it also has a sense of personal attachment to it. As a psych stud…ent, you will realize that although you learn about analyzing human behavior and emotions in class, the practical applications of your knowledge are only realized on real-world individuals. Still, your coursework will be tough. To overcome the demands of these courses, it is important to develop an effective study plan. The following article will cover the best study tips for a psychology student.A focused student will be able to account for every hour of the day. This practice will help you keep track of any activities that waste your time or need to be avoided in the future. It is ideal to spend two hours of self-studying for every hour of classroom time. This will not only reinforce the material, but also gives you sufficient time to practice problems and clarify any doubts. A lack of time management may cause you to spend too much time on tasks and activities that can be detrimental to your education.Studying just a week or two before the exams will in no way assist you in effectively grasping the fundamentals of the course. As such, you must stipulate study times throughout the week, all throughout the semester. This will allow you to revise the concepts covered in your psychology lectures. This practice will be of immense help during the exam period. Instead of learning new information, you can breeze through your notes, and focus on past papers and problems. Regularly studying will put you in a much better position.If you are serious about a career in psychology, you should review as many past term papers as possible. Most of them can be found at your campus bookstore. Some faculties even maintain an online database of these old exams. By practicing the problems set forth in these old tests, you will enhance your grasp on the concepts. Additionally, you will also gain an in-depth understanding of the layout of the exam and the format of the questions that could appear on your test. Practicing past term papers is a highly effective study technique that has delivered quality results to innumerable students. However, before implementing this technique, it is imperative that you study regularly, to obtain optimum results.Procrastination is a vice that has plagued a vast majority of students. This desire to put off work for later, or replacing high-priority work with low-priority tasks, often arises due to the overwhelming nature of a student's academic commitment. If you want to secure high grades on your exams, get rid of this habit. Avoiding procrastination can be difficult. However, it is possible. Make a serious effort to study a little every day and when you are studying, get away from distractions like technology and friends. This will significantly improve your work output, and improve your efficiency in the process.Without a study table, you will get almost no work done. Most students try to study on their beds, or while watching television. This can be very distracting and may cause you to lose focus very easily. Instead, establish a workstation that is free from all distractions. This will improve your concentration and consequently, it will help you get more studying done. It is essential to create a workstation that will keep you comfortable, but alert. Furthermore, it is also essential to keep this place as clean as possible. If your table is cluttered in mess, you will obviously be less inclined to study.Obtaining a psychology degree requires dedication, time, and commitment on your part. You must study regularly. If you are successful in doing so, your grades will improve significantly and so will your career prospects upon graduation. To maximize your success, it is essential to enjoy learning. This may seem like an impossible task to many. However, it is possible if you possess a genuine passion for the subject. If you want to ace your next psychology test, be genuinely interested in the subject and reap the dividends in the form of exceptional grades. The aforementioned best studying tips will also assist you in attaining academic success.As the popular adage goes, "All work and no play make Jack a dull boy." This applies to all forms of education. Not only does work-overload lead to depression, it also greatly affects your physical health. Allocate time for physical activities and socializing. Also, give your body optimum rest. Overburdening your mind and body can significantly affect your academics. In short, learn how to balance work and play to be successful in your endeavors. (MORE)
You've probably heard the term "case study," but you may not know exactly what a case study is. In psychology, a case study is defined as an in-depth study of one person. The …study analyzes every aspect of the person's life to determine patterns and causes of their behaviors. Case studies are often highly subjective, and the results cannot be generally applied to a larger population as a whole.Researchers in several fields, such as psychology, anthropology, and ecology, may conduct case studies. While these are broad fields, there is any number of case studies that can be done in each area. Criminal behavior or a person's childhood may be explored by psychologists. Anthropologists may explore someone's ancestry and how it influences them.The six types of case studies are: * Explanatory - These studies are used in casual observations. * Exploratory - These studies help researchers collect information before developing questions and hypotheses. * Descriptive - This includes observing the subject and using information to compare pre-existing theories. * Intrinsic - This is a type of case study in which the researcher has a personal interest. * Collective - This is a study of a group of individuals. * Instrumental - This occurs when an individual or group allows the researcher to learn more than initially obvious to observers.Data is often collected by observing an individual, usually in a natural setting. Researchers may also observe by participating in situations or events to analyze a subject or subjects. A person's letters, diaries, and other documents may be examined, including archival records such as census reports and name lists. Subject interviews may be conducted, and a subject's personal belongings may also be examined.Case studies can be used for many reasons, especially in social and life sciences. They are used to answer questions that usually begin with "How" and "Why." Researchers may want to find out why a person acted a way that they did, such as someone who went on a shooting rampage. There may be questions as to how someone was able to survive a traumatic experience, whether mentally or physically, or how someone was able to achieve something in their life despite certain circumstances. There are many questions that can be explored by conducting case studies.The use of case studies has been criticized as a research method, because findings cannot be generally applied. Since case studies are about individuals, or a group of individuals, it is difficult to generalize the findings. Some critics see case study as an exploratory tool only. However, case studies are still widely conducted by many research fields. Knowing what a case study is can help you further understand why they are used and their importance to research.It is believed that the case study method was first used for social science research in 1829, when Frederic Le Play used it in his statistical studies of family budgets. (MORE)
If you are considering pursuing a graduate degree, now is a great time to explore various programs, visit open houses, and compile your transcripts, letters of recommendation …and any other records. Applications are generally due in the winter or early spring, although some schools have rolling or staggered admissions. One of the biggest concerns for adults considering graduate school is figuring out how they will pay for their studies. Financial aid is available for adult students pursuing graduate degrees, and many universities have financial support or merit aid available to adult graduate students. It is a good idea not rule out any program without investigating the typical financial aid packages awarded. Whether or not you qualify for a scholarship, all graduate students are eligible for federal student loans. These loans generally have the more favorable rates and terms than the loans from private lenders. To be eligible for a federal loan, you will need to fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and you can complete that document as early as Jan. 1 for the following fall. Here is a summary at the most important federal student loan programs open to graduate students:These loans are called "Direct" because they are available directly from the U.S. Department of Education for all graduate students, and one of the big advantages of these loans is that you do not have to demonstrate financial need. Also, no credit check is required for a Direct Subsidized Loan. However, you must be enrolled at least half-time to qualify for one on these loans, which typically means for five or six credits during a one-semester term in a graduate program. After filling out your FASFA and gaining admission to a qualified program, your school will determine the amount you can borrow based on the cost of attendance and any other financial aid that you receive. In 2013-14, the maximum amount that an individual could borrow under this program was $20,500, although students enrolled in certain health profession programs could receive additional loan amounts each academic year. Interest on the loans accumulates while you are enrolled in school, but you have a six-month grace period after graduation before you need to start paying back the loan.These loans are available from the U.S. Department of Education for graduate and professional students enrolled at least half-time, and they are generally used in addition to any Direct Unsubsidized Loans to help pay for expenses other aid does not cover. These students must go through a credit check and cannot have an adverse credit history. The amount of loan awarded is determined by the college as part of an overall financial aid package. But generally, the maximum PLUS loan amount is the cost of attendance minus any other financial assistance received. Unlike the Direct Unsubsidized Loans, Direct PLUS Loans do not have a grace period following graduation from graduate or professional school. You need to start making payments on the loans immediately.These loans from the federal government are low-interest loans for undergraduate and graduate students with exceptional financial need. The school you are enrolled in must participate in the Perkins program, and the school determines which of its students receive the funds. The school becomes the lender for this loan, rather than the U.S. Department of Education. For eligible graduate students, the total amount you can borrow through Perkins Loans is up to $8,000 per year. Remember, private loans for large banks, credit unions and other financial institutions are also available. Most financial aid experts suggest borrowing first through the federal loan programs, and only turning to private lenders when the fund for these other programs are exhausted. Because the federal government backs these loans, the terms and interest rates on the loans tend to be much more favorable than those offered by private banks.To be eligible for a federal loan, you will need to fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and you can complete that document as early as Jan. 1 for the following fall.By combining loans, scholarships, tuition reimbursement, and finding programs that are discounted for adult graduate students, many non-traditional students are able to find a way to pay for graduate school. The key is to explore all options and keep moving forward. (MORE)
For adults who are considering a career change, or who want to boost their income, a graduate degree might be the best route to a new job and increased earnings. Data shows th…at those with a master's degree earn on average $500,000 more over a lifetime than someone with just a bachelor's degree, and $1.3 million more than those without any college degree. If you are considering applying to graduate school, here are several links to get you started on your research.The National Center for Education Statistics has provided this website to help prospective students search for programs - including graduate studies - based on a wide range of criteria, such as the cost of tuition, location, etc. There are even search criteria for evening and weekend programs - a big plus for working adults.The Graduate Record Exam is a requirement for application to a wide range of graduate programs. Similar to the SAT in format, it is written and administered by the Educational Testing Service. The ETS website provides lots of free information, including locations of testing centers, preparation materials, interpreting scores, and lists of schools accepting the test results. The test is available in both paper and electronic versions.The publication reviewed 1,200 programs around the country, and ranked them by a range of criteria. The rankings are broken down by subject areas, such as health, business, engineering, social science, etc., but not every graduate study area is covered.While this website is geared to students from the University of California-Berkeley who are applying to graduate school, the advice on essay writing would be helpful for anyone. It also contains links to other informative websites.This website from the U.S. Department of Education provides an overview of the various kinds of federal aid available to students in graduate schools and professional programs.To be eligible for any financial aid from the federal government, state agencies and even private aid from universities, you will need to fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. This website has the application form online, along with information on deadlines for aid application, the details of the student aid report, etc.The website finaid.org has been offering information on financial aid for more than a decade, and while its main focus is on undergraduate study, it does have information and links that are helpful for grad students too.This information from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics outlines the employment prospects for those with bachelor's and graduate degrees. Postsecondary teachers and general managers are among the fastest growing career fields for those with advanced education.Data shows that those with a master's degree earn on average $500,000 more over a lifetime than someone with just a bachelor's degree, and $1.3 million more than those without any college degree.Study after study has shown that the more education an individual has the better off they will be financially and their job will also be more secure. (MORE)
Mrs. Meera Kumar- Speaker of Lok Sabha Mr. Hamid Ansari- Speaker of Rajya Sabha.
The current chairman of the Rajya Sabha is Mohammad Hamid Ansari who has occupied that position since 2007.