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Analyzing the composition of lok sabha study the current composition of lok sabha no. of representatives who studied till 10th or 12th graduates post gra?
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Constituency and Name of the Member [2009 onwards] Kasaragode - Mr. P. KarunakaranKannur - Mr. K. SudhakaranVadakara - Mr. Mullappally RamachandranWayanad - Mr. M.I. ShanavasK…ozhikkode - Mr. M.K. RaghavanMalappuram - Mr. E. AhamedAlathur - Mr. P.K. BijuPonnani - Mr. E. T. Mohammed BasheerPalakkad - Mr. M.B. RajeshThrissur - Mr. P.C. ChackoChalakkudi - Mr. K.P. DhanapalanErnakulam - Prof. K.V. ThomasIdukki - Adv. P.T. ThomasAlappuzha - Mr. K. C. VenugopalKottayam - Mr. Jose K.ManiPathanamthitta - Mr. Anto AntonyMavelikkara - Mr. Kodikkunnil SureshKollam - Mr. N. Peethambara KurupAttingal - Mr. Adv. A.SampathThiruvananthapuram - Dr. Shashi TharoorNominated Anglo-Indian - Mr. Charles Dias (MORE)
1. Composition of House: The Lok Sabha is the popular House. Its members are directly elected by the people. But the members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected. This di…fference in the process of election of the members of both Houses gives an edge to the Lok Sabha over the Rajya Sabha. 2. Cabinet Responsibility: Another factor which makes the Lok Sabha more important than the Rajya Sabha is cabinet responsibility. The members of the Council of Ministers at the centre are responsible to the Lok Sabha and not to the Rajya Sabha. If the government loses majority in the Rajya Sabha, it is bad for the government. This will be considered a political defeat for the government. But the government will not be required to resign. However, the government will have to resign if it loses a vote of confidence in the Lok Sabha. 3. Financial Power: In democracies, the popular House is normally given more powers in financial matters and in this respect India is not an exception. In India, the Money Bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha; it cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. After a Money Bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha for its consideration. Within 14 days, the Rajya Sabha has to return the bill. If it is not returned to the Lok Sabha within 14 days, it will be deemed to have been approved by the Rajya Sabha. 4. Amendment: In other matters like impeachment, constitutional amendment and approval of proclamation of emergencies etc. both Houses enjoy equal powers. But even in these matters, the Lok Sabha has an in built advantage over the Rajya Sabha. This is due to the provision of joint sitting for resolving any conflict between the two Houses on any matters other than Money Bills. 5. Joint Session: If there is disagreement between the Lok Sabha and the Ra Sabha, on any bill other than a Money Bill, then the two Houses are required to sit joint to resolve the conflict and in a joint sitting, the decision would be taken by simple majority. The Lok Sabha, having more members, would prevail over the Rajya Sabha in such ma of conflict between the two Houses. 6. Special powers of Rajya Sabha: The Rajya Sabha, however, has three special powers. First, according to Article 249, the Rajya Sabha has power to authorize Parliament to make law on the State List if it feels that such legislation is necessary national interest. Second, by a resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting, it can authorize the Parliament, to create one or more Al India Service, if that is necessary in national interest (Article 312). Third, for the removal of the Vice-President of India, the action has to be initiated by the Rajya Sabha. A resolution for the removal of the Vice-President has to be passed first by the majority of the members of the Rajya Sabha. If it is then adopted by the Lok Sabha, the Vice-President stands removed. These three exclusive powers, vested in the Council of States, give it some advantage, but, in the overall context, the Lok Sabha is clearly superior to the Rajya Sabha The Lok Sabha enjoys more influence and prestige than the other House of the Parliament 7. Miscellaneous Powers: (a) Both houses have equal powers in respect impeachment, amendment of constitution and approval of emergency proposal, (b) The members of both houses take part in the election of President of India, and in the election of Vice-President of India, (c) The members of both houses work together in some Parliamentary committees including the Public Accounts Committee. Nehru, India's first Prime Minister, did not like the view, believed to be true by man that the Lok Sabha is superior to the Rajya Sabha. He called this view erroneous. I considered both Houses of the Parliament equal except on some financial matters. Hew perhaps right insofar as the theory is concerned. But, in practice, the higher status enjoy by the Lok Sabha is quite evident. (MORE)
In June, 2014, Customs and Immigration Canada will introduce new regulations for international students studying in Canada. Read an overview of these changes.… (MORE)
Attending graduate school can be an entirely different experience than pursuing a Bachelor's degree. Not only are you choosing to focus on a more specific area of study and wo…rk more closely with experts in the field, but it can be more difficult to transfer credits if you are unhappy after a semester or two. Therefore, it is important to select your graduate school carefully. You can assess a program and college best by taking a campus tour. Here are some things to look for when visiting a potential graduate school.It may sound cliche, but when you visit a prospective campus, take a few moments to recognize simply how the environment makes you feel. You should be energized, enthused, and invigorated by your surroundings. If you have doubts or concerns, trust your instincts. Depending on the graduate degree you plan to pursue, you could take anywhere from one to six years to complete it. You should be comfortable with the campus, the department, and the general feel of the program. It should feel like a good fit. If it does not, ask yourself why and evaluate your other options.If you feel you are not getting enough information about a program, ask the graduate coordinator if you can meet with or contact current students. Graduate students can answer questions more candidly, and they can provide a student perspective of the program (as well as the university as a whole).Although faculty played an important role in shaping your undergraduate experience, they can play an even greater role in graduate school. Undergraduate classes are often taught by teaching assistants, junior faculty, or faculty more interested in teaching than in research. As a graduate student, you have more time to work one-on-one with faculty who will provide mentorship for your scholarly interests. For this reason, a beneficial graduate experience involves high quality professors who care about and are involved in your academic interests and research. When touring a graduate school, schedule a meeting with a potential advisor - one or more faculty members whose interests are close to yours and who can take on students as advisees - and discuss shared interests, your goals, and the program's focus areas. This will help you determine if the school if a good match for you.It is crucial that you feel valued and receive support through your graduate school experience. While on your campus tour, take note of how you are treated. Are you rushed? Do you get the impression you are inconveniencing the admissions or program representatives? If so, this should be a red flag. Colleges typically bend over backwards for prospective graduate students. If you are not being treated with care now, why would this improve later?Instead, find a college that values you and your potential contribution to the department and institution. In addition to quality pre-enrollment services, ask about student resources you can take advantage of as an actual graduate student. Any worthwhile graduate school will provide career services, library services, and teaching and/or research opportunities.Did the college brochure or website showcase brand new facilities or state-of-the-art equipment? While you are on campus, verify that the facilities are high quality, appropriately maintained, and easily accessible to graduate students. Certain university marketing materials can sometimes be misleading, so it is helpful to evaluate the amenities in person. After all, the condition of your campus facilities can greatly impact your educational experience. Ask about facilities related to your area of study, from research labs and studios to libraries and classrooms.Touring graduate school campuses is a must to ensure you select - and can commit to - the best program for you. Make sure the faculty, resources, and facilities meet your expectations. Also, ensure you feel comfortable on the campus that may be your new home for the next few years. (MORE)
"Undergraduate" and "graduate" may sound similar, but these two levels of education are actually quite unique. Undergraduate and graduate programs may differ in class size, go…als, instructional techniques, etc. So - if you are considering an advanced degree in history, here are several things to keep in mind:Graduate classes heavily emphasize reading assignments. However, very few of these assignments are textbooks. Instead, most are monographs. Expect to finish a book every other week in most courses, though some classes may move more slowly depending on the type of book and the professor's style. Either way, it is crucial that graduate students be able to read, process, and discuss the content of these assignments. Note-taking strategies will become very important.It is also important to remember that you will need to read everything - including the footnotes and endnotes. Course discussion may focus on the points made there (or on the sources used), rather than on the text itself. If you have not read these notes, you will be ill-prepared for class.Graduate courses are generally seminars with a great deal of discussion. Your professor may ask questions to try and guide the conversation, but it is the students' familiarity with and opinion about the readings that drive each class session. Ultimately, graduate school is about understanding the "why" and the "how," and seminars will ask you to recognize and speak to the themes and philosophies that govern the study of history.As a graduate-level professor once said, "There are textbooks so I can look up dates." Graduate students generally do not need to know when exactly Event A took place. Instead, they should know why it happened (as mentioned above), and what it can teach us about the time period. You will spend time looking at the same event from multiple perspectives - or discussing why there are not multiple perspectives to examine. Oral histories, word choice in sources, and so on will be examined in graduate courses, but specific dates will almost never be a focus.While participating in class discussions and reading course assignments is important, what truly matters in graduate school is your writing ability. Why? This is often how your grades will be determined. Few graduate history courses have exams, and fewer still use any sort of multiple-choice format. Most assign papers, and those papers will require you to analyze class topics. Instead of focusing on one book, you will need to compare the themes of two or more texts, or examine how they all describe different parts of the same or similar events. You may also find yourself being asked to explain the philosophical underpinnings of the arguments that the books make.Graduate study can be a bit of a culture shock for new students. A graduate program can be very different from an undergraduate one, as history students working toward an MA or a PhD focus on the overall study of history, instead of its minutiae. This can be a difficult distinction to make, but it is an important one, and it is a necessary transition for students interested in earning an advanced degree. (MORE)
For adults who are considering a career change, or who want to boost their income, a graduate degree might be the best route to a new job and increased earnings. Data shows th…at those with a master's degree earn on average $500,000 more over a lifetime than someone with just a bachelor's degree, and $1.3 million more than those without any college degree. If you are considering applying to graduate school, here are several links to get you started on your research.The National Center for Education Statistics has provided this website to help prospective students search for programs - including graduate studies - based on a wide range of criteria, such as the cost of tuition, location, etc. There are even search criteria for evening and weekend programs - a big plus for working adults.The Graduate Record Exam is a requirement for application to a wide range of graduate programs. Similar to the SAT in format, it is written and administered by the Educational Testing Service. The ETS website provides lots of free information, including locations of testing centers, preparation materials, interpreting scores, and lists of schools accepting the test results. The test is available in both paper and electronic versions.The publication reviewed 1,200 programs around the country, and ranked them by a range of criteria. The rankings are broken down by subject areas, such as health, business, engineering, social science, etc., but not every graduate study area is covered.While this website is geared to students from the University of California-Berkeley who are applying to graduate school, the advice on essay writing would be helpful for anyone. It also contains links to other informative websites.This website from the U.S. Department of Education provides an overview of the various kinds of federal aid available to students in graduate schools and professional programs.To be eligible for any financial aid from the federal government, state agencies and even private aid from universities, you will need to fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. This website has the application form online, along with information on deadlines for aid application, the details of the student aid report, etc.The website finaid.org has been offering information on financial aid for more than a decade, and while its main focus is on undergraduate study, it does have information and links that are helpful for grad students too.This information from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics outlines the employment prospects for those with bachelor's and graduate degrees. Postsecondary teachers and general managers are among the fastest growing career fields for those with advanced education.Data shows that those with a master's degree earn on average $500,000 more over a lifetime than someone with just a bachelor's degree, and $1.3 million more than those without any college degree.Study after study has shown that the more education an individual has the better off they will be financially and their job will also be more secure. (MORE)
Whether you are certain that you want to go to graduate school or on the fence about it, there are many things you should think about before you begin the application process.… By considering each of the five questions below, you can get a clear picture of your personal and academic goals and what you should be looking for in a graduate program.If you majored in art history in college, how many courses did you take in the area you want to specialize in at the graduate level? Undergraduate coursework, research papers, senior theses, and independent studies are all beneficial in demonstrating your knowledge of art history. In your applications, emphasize any art historical research you have done. Graduate school can also give you the opportunity to take courses in subjects that you may not have studied during your undergraduate career. In your graduate school applications, if you were not an art history major in college, emphasize any independent art history studying you have done and any related coursework or professional experience you might have.As a graduate student in art history, you will be expected to conduct research related to your field of study in languages other than English. Your seminar readings may also occasionally be in another language. Soon after entering a graduate program, you will be expected to prove your language proficiency by taking a language exam. These exams vary in scope and length by program, but they are often timed tests asking you to translate a passage into English.Art history is not a financially lucrative area of study, so having a clear picture of your financial position is important. Applying to graduate programs can be expensive. Applications can cost anywhere from $50 to $100 USD or more, and the more programs you apply to, the more expensive this process will be. You may also have to pay to send graduate schools your official transcripts, GRE scores, or writing samples. If you choose to visit potential programs, you may incur transportation and lodging costs as well. Graduate school itself is expensive if the program you are attending does not provide you with tuition reimbursement, assistantships, or fellowships. You may have to pay out-of-pocket for any student life, health care, or sustaining fees that the university requires. Finally, living expenses have to be considered. Are you single or married? Do you want to live alone or with roommates? Do you want an apartment or house? If your potential program is in a large city, do you want to live in a suburb and commute? Will you have a car? Does your potential university provide graduate students with health insurance? These are just a small sampling of the logistical items you should consider before attending a graduate program.You will have different career options available to you depending on the academic and professional experience you gain during your graduate career and on the degree you obtain. A Master's degree may be enough for you to fulfill your career goals. If you want to teach, a Master's degree should be sufficient for a position at a community college, while teaching at the university level usually requires a Ph.D. If you would like to work in a museum, look at job listings in the area you would like to work in (e.g., curatorial or conservation) to see what their education and experience requirements are. You may also want to consider tangential programs, such as art conservation or curatorial track doctoral programs.As a graduate student, you will spend a large amount of your time with your classmates and professors. If you can visit your potential program, do so in order to get an idea of the social aspects of the department. You don't want to end up surprised by your potential program's competition, social interactions, academic support, or lack thereof. Observe how the current graduate students interact with each other and with their professors. Do they speak favorably about their program? Do they openly discuss their research topics and progress with each other, or are they guarded about their academic progress? Does this fit in with your personality and working method? While visiting is certainly not necessary, it can be beneficial in choosing a program.Apply to as many graduate programs as your interests and finances will allow. Gather a list of schools and rank them on desirability. Your chance of being accepted to a graduate program is slightly increased by applying to multiple schools. Each school should offer you something unique, so in your letter of intent, state what that specific program offers you financially, academically, or professionally.Applying to graduate school is an important decision that can impact your academic, personal, and professional future. Thus, before applying, it is necessary that you think about what your career goals are and how to achieve those goals. You should also contemplate whether or not graduate programs would consider you a competitive candidate based on your art history coursework, languages, and research experience. Just as these programs will be evaluating you, you should evaluate them: how do these programs fit your academic, social, and professional needs? (MORE)
If you are considering pursuing a graduate degree, now is a great time to explore various programs, visit open houses, and compile your transcripts, letters of recommendation …and any other records. Applications are generally due in the winter or early spring, although some schools have rolling or staggered admissions. One of the biggest concerns for adults considering graduate school is figuring out how they will pay for their studies. Financial aid is available for adult students pursuing graduate degrees, and many universities have financial support or merit aid available to adult graduate students. It is a good idea not rule out any program without investigating the typical financial aid packages awarded. Whether or not you qualify for a scholarship, all graduate students are eligible for federal student loans. These loans generally have the more favorable rates and terms than the loans from private lenders. To be eligible for a federal loan, you will need to fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and you can complete that document as early as Jan. 1 for the following fall. Here is a summary at the most important federal student loan programs open to graduate students:These loans are called "Direct" because they are available directly from the U.S. Department of Education for all graduate students, and one of the big advantages of these loans is that you do not have to demonstrate financial need. Also, no credit check is required for a Direct Subsidized Loan. However, you must be enrolled at least half-time to qualify for one on these loans, which typically means for five or six credits during a one-semester term in a graduate program. After filling out your FASFA and gaining admission to a qualified program, your school will determine the amount you can borrow based on the cost of attendance and any other financial aid that you receive. In 2013-14, the maximum amount that an individual could borrow under this program was $20,500, although students enrolled in certain health profession programs could receive additional loan amounts each academic year. Interest on the loans accumulates while you are enrolled in school, but you have a six-month grace period after graduation before you need to start paying back the loan.These loans are available from the U.S. Department of Education for graduate and professional students enrolled at least half-time, and they are generally used in addition to any Direct Unsubsidized Loans to help pay for expenses other aid does not cover. These students must go through a credit check and cannot have an adverse credit history. The amount of loan awarded is determined by the college as part of an overall financial aid package. But generally, the maximum PLUS loan amount is the cost of attendance minus any other financial assistance received. Unlike the Direct Unsubsidized Loans, Direct PLUS Loans do not have a grace period following graduation from graduate or professional school. You need to start making payments on the loans immediately.These loans from the federal government are low-interest loans for undergraduate and graduate students with exceptional financial need. The school you are enrolled in must participate in the Perkins program, and the school determines which of its students receive the funds. The school becomes the lender for this loan, rather than the U.S. Department of Education. For eligible graduate students, the total amount you can borrow through Perkins Loans is up to $8,000 per year. Remember, private loans for large banks, credit unions and other financial institutions are also available. Most financial aid experts suggest borrowing first through the federal loan programs, and only turning to private lenders when the fund for these other programs are exhausted. Because the federal government backs these loans, the terms and interest rates on the loans tend to be much more favorable than those offered by private banks.To be eligible for a federal loan, you will need to fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and you can complete that document as early as Jan. 1 for the following fall.By combining loans, scholarships, tuition reimbursement, and finding programs that are discounted for adult graduate students, many non-traditional students are able to find a way to pay for graduate school. The key is to explore all options and keep moving forward. (MORE)
Quorum is the minimum number of members of a legislature that must be present to make the proceedings valid. In case of the Parliament, the quorum of either House shall be one…-tenth of the total number of members of the House. (MORE)
Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim are the States which has only one representative each in Lok Sabha.