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Can 20-amp circuits use number 12 and number 10 Romex wire?

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12 guage wire israted for 20 amps and 10 guage is rated for thirty amps!
12 gauge is what is required, as it is rated for 20 amps. 10 gauge is rated for 30 and will be more then enough. Oversizing wire in your case isn't necessary. The thicker 10 gauge wire is harder to work with and will more then likely cost more.
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