How can a case be thrown out of court?

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The correct terminology is "dismissed." Only a judge can legally dismiss a case, and it is usually done when, in their opinion, there are insufficient legal grounds to proceed against the defendant.
Actually, there is another method by which a case may not go forward, and that is if the Prosecutor files a Nolle Prosequi which in plain English means that the prosecutor's office declines to prosecute the case. This may also be due to legal insufficiency of the probable cause, the evidence needed to convict, or some other (occasionaly 'political') reason.
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If you got a seat belt ticket in California and you want to fight it and the cop does not show up for court does the case get thrown out of court?

No the officer doesn't always have to be there and if you weren't wearing seat belts then pay the fine. If you were, then it comes down to your word against the police officer

Can a ticket thrown out in court still raise your insurance rates?

Answer . If a ticket is thrown out in court your insurance will not go up. The ticket will not appear on your driving record wich is used to help set your rate. Insurance

My lawyer err twice in my case 1 County Location of court 2 Translation of the law was wrong so case thrown out twice I am custodial parent how do I get reprieve from her not showing due diligence?

You don't get a reprieve unless you can prove that your lawyer did not show due diligence. That will be very hard to prove and the location issue is probably not valid. The tr