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How does a virus make a person sick?

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A virus enters a cell by first attaching to a specific structure on the cell's surface via a specific structure on the virus surface. Depending on the virus, either the entire virus enters the cell, or perhaps only the genetic material of the virus is injected into the cell. In either case however, the ultimate result of viral infection is the exposure of virus genetic material inside the entered cell. Then, the virus material essentially "takes over" the cell and nothing but viral parts are made, which assemble into many complete viruses. These viruses are mature and leave the cell either by a process called "budding" (just one or a few viruses at a time leave the cell) or by a process called lysis (the cellular membrane ruptures and releases all of the virus particles at once). You get sick from viruses because of the immune response to the virus. When you get a cold, a virus has infected your body and is multiplying in your body by taking over the cells of your body to reproduce. In response to this your body activates the inflammatory process, which involves many processes like increased blood flow to the area of infection, extravasation of fluids(fluid from your blood leaves the blood stream to the sight of infection), white blood cells migrate to the site of infection, and fever.
To keep this simple, you can relate that alone to the symptoms of any cold or flu. If you think about a chest cold, you get the coughs and congestion in your lungs. In relation to the inflammatory process you have more fluid going to that area and more white blood cells in the area of infection. The phlegm you cough up when you have a chest cold is actually white blood cells that collected at the site and gathered up the dead virus cells, coughing is your bodies way of eliminating the virus cells.
It sounds funny, but the feeling sick part about being sick is actually caused by our own bodies and not from the virus itself. When people die from a virus, they are dying from their bodies immune response to the virus. Pneumonia, a build up of fluid in the lungs, cause of thousands of deaths a year is related to the cycle spoken about earlier. But, you can only imagine what would happen without the response of your body to the virus, it would continue to use your cells to reproduce until you reached a catastrophic failure due to cell damage.
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