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How is test tube cloning accomplished?
Easy, it's not....
"Test Tube" babies are a product of a process in which an egg and a bunch of sperm are isolated in one tube (dish) and once the egg is fertilized, it's inserted back into the female to grow. This is sometimes done with multiple eggs to increase the chances of one surviving with the sometimes unexpected result of multiple child birth. The DNA make-up of the child(ren) will be a mix of both the male chromosomes from the sperm and the female chromosomes from the egg.
"Cloning" is much different... The current process widely used in cloning is to take an egg and remove the genetic material from within, basically leaving an empty egg. You then insert the genetic material from whatever you want to clone (person, pig, etc) and shock the egg into thinking it's been fertilized and start splitting like a normal embryo. The biggest difference here is, since the only DNA / chromosomes in the egg is from the donor cells, in theory, the baby should be pretty much identical to it's donor. Furthermore, a father (sperm) is not needed in this process.
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Answer 1 Eggs are coaxed to mature in a culture dish. Each has a remnant egg cell called the polar body and cumulus cells from the ovary clinging to it. 2 … While an egg is held still with a pipette, a needle is used to drill through the zona pellucida, removing a plug. 3 After ejecting the zona plug, the needle is inserted back in the egg through the hole to withdraw and discard the polar body and the egg's genetic material. 4 A cumulus cell from another egg is taken up into the needle. Cells called fibroblasts (or their nuclei) can also be used in this step. 5 The cumulus cell is injected deep into the egg that has been stripped of its genetic material. 6 The injected egg is exposed to a mixture of chemicals and growth factors designed to activate it to divide. 7 After roughly 24 hours, the activated egg begins dividing. The cells contain genetic material only from the injected cumulus cell. 8 By the fourth or fifth day, a hollow ball of roughly 100 cells has formed. It holds a clump of cells called the inner cell mass that contains stem cells. 9 The blastocyst is broken open, and the inner cell mass is grown in a culture dish to yield stem cells. 10 The stem cells, in turn, can be coaxed to grow into a variety of cells that might one day be injected into patients. 1 Eggs are coaxed to mature in a culture dish. Each has a remnant egg cell called the polar body and cumulus cells from the ovary clinging to it. 2 While an egg is held still with a pipette, a needle is used to drill through the zona pellucida, removing a plug. 3 After ejecting the zona plug, the needle is inserted back in the egg through the hole to withdraw and discard the polar body and the egg's genetic material. 4 A cumulus cell from another egg is taken up into the needle. Cells called fibroblasts (or their nuclei) can also be used in this step. 5 The cumulus cell is injected deep into the egg that has been stripped of its genetic material. 6 The injected egg is exposed to a mixture of chemicals and growth factors designed to activate it to divide. 7 After roughly 24 hours, the activated egg begins dividing. The cells contain genetic material only from the injected cumulus cell. 8 By the fourth or fifth day, a hollow ball of roughly 100 cells has formed. It holds a clump of cells called the inner cell mass that contains stem cells. 9 The blastocyst is broken open, and the inner cell mass is grown in a culture dish to yield stem cells. 10 The stem cells, in turn, can be coaxed to grow into a variety of cells that might one day be injected into patients.
A "test tube baby" is when the parents use IVF (in-vetro fertilization). The parents have tried to reproduce, but they can't, so the doctor takes some eggs from the mother… and it is fertilized outside of the womb. A woman's egg is fertilised outside her body, and is later transplanted into her womb, for the pregnancy to develop as normal.
Difference Between a Test Tube and Cloned Baby A test tube baby is when an egg is removed from a woman and sperm from and man, and the egg is fertilized outside that mot…her's body, i.e. in a test-tube. Cloning may be carried out in a test tube, but it is the copying or duplicating of cells. If something is cloned, there will be two of them and they will be genetically identical. In cloning, there is no sperm cell used in the process. The scientists remove the nucleus of the egg cell and and "fertilize" it with another nucleus from a growing somatic cell, such as a liver cell. Using chemicals or a mild electric shock, the egg is forced to divide, creating an embryo. This fusion allows an exact DNA duplicate of the mother organism. A clone does not come out fully-grown like in the science fiction movies. It has to go through the same life stages as the original organism it was copied from. The egg and donor cell are usually taken from the same organism. This allows for an exact copy. A test tube baby is just an egg fertilized with sperm in vitro. It does not require the nucleus of a cell that is already developed. Once fertilized, it is placed back into the mother, or into a "foster mother" which is a female who carries the fertilized egg in her womb until it is completely developed. wich also makes a test tube baby. The biggest practical difference is that cloning humans has been impossible so far, and is currently illegal in many countries. Other than identical twins, there are no human clones. On the other hand, "test tube baby" produced by assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been possible since 1978 (1974?). "CDC estimates that ART accounts for slightly more than 1% of total U.S. births." ( http://www.cdc.gov/ART/ART2006/section1.htm ).
Same properties as a normally conceived baby. With a test tube one can of course choose eggs from highly intelligent females and then add sperm from highly intelligent men. T…his would most likely affect the outcome of the baby's intelligence. Same for other properties. Musicians etc. It is widely done on livestock to produce certain reproducable qualities we want. Lots of wool. lots of meat. lots of stamina. endurance. etc. Regards.
a glass one
A test tube is a glass tube used in science class for containing substances, and for containing chemical reactions.
usually to hold a fraction of material or liquid
A test tube is a piece of special glass, of different sizes, that can be heated or get cold. You can test small-sized chemical reactions in this tube, by combining chemicals o…r by heating it to see what happends at a certain temperature. You can use the test tubes in many ways, but always make sure to wear safety goggles and a lab coat! Even with testing water! If the water get's hot, it can splash right into your eye. Also make sure to point the tube's opening away from yourself and NEVER point it at other people or animals. Safety first!
First, the term "test tube" is popular, but it is not the terminology used by scientists. They instead use the latin term 'in vitro' (literal definition: in glass; but modern …definition more like 'outside the organism'; the opposite is 'in vivo'), In vitro fertilization is simply putting sperm and egg together outside the body (and it's generally done in a dish, not a test tube!). Cloning comes in two different forms: Reproductive Cloning and therapeutic cloning. Reproductive cloning is the making of copy of an organism. It can be done in different ways. A natural form of cloning is to simply split an early embryo into two. At very early stages - say when the embryo is only a couple dozen cells, splitting it in half will result in the development of two genetically identical individuals. When this happens in nature, we call the offspring 'identical twins'. Reproductive cloning can also be done by injecting the DNA from one organism into an embyronic stem cell of another, and then letting that cell divide and develop into an embryo and eventually an organism. Therapeutic cloning is a completely different thing - When scientists talk about cloning - they are almost always talking about therapeutic cloning. Therapeutic cloning is the making of a copy of a single gene, or at it's most advanced, the copying of an entire strand of DNA. This is not used to produce another organism, but rather, to make copies of genes that can be altered and then engineered back into an animals genome. For example, there might be a gene that confers a certain disease resistance, then can be cloned, and then spliced into the genome of a crop plant so that the plant is now disease-resistant. Test tube cloning is altering the embryo. Test tube fertilization is when they take a sperm and egg and join them outside of the body. Then after fertilization it is placed back into the mother.
Answer Excellent question. Clinton abolished any scientific research regarding cloning and Bush followed suit. However, parts of Europe are still doing so…me tests in this area. Members of the UN are gearing up to debate highly the banning of human cloning. The guise is really to hide behind medical research (more organs available such as hearts, kidneys for those who need them) but this is a highly dangerous area to get into. 125 scientific and patient organizations from around the world have signed and presented a letter to the UN. One country of the UN, Costa Rica is backed by nearly 60 countries, including the U.S., for comprehensive banning on cloning. This includes both reproductive cloning to make babies, and the creaton of human embryos for use in medical research. Don't sit back and relax because cloning does go on under secrecy, so who knows what governments are involved. The other group of countries, led by Belgium, and backed by over 20 countries, wants a ban on reproductive cloning only. They argue for the right of stem cells grown from cloned embryos might lead to cures for countless diseases. Span has switched away from supporting a blanket ban because of its change from a conservative to a socialist gov't., after elections in March 2004. Britain funds and supports therapeutic cloning. It may come to a point that each country could quite possibly decide if their country should agree or disagree to cloning. ARGUMENTS USED AGAINST AND IN DEFENSE OF HUMAN CLONING: AGAINST: Cloning might lead to the creation of genetically engineered groups of people for specific purposes, such as warfare or slavery. Cloning might lead to an attempt to improve the human race according to an arbitrary standard. Cloning could result in the introduction of additional defects in the human gene pool. Cloning is unsafe. There are too many unknown factors that could adversely affect the offspring. A close might have a dimished sense of individuality. A clone might have fewer rights than other people. Doctors might use clones as sources of organs for organ transplants Cloning is at odds with the traditional concept of family. Cloning is against God's will. Some aspects of human life should ge off limits to science. IN DEFENSE OF: Cloning would enable infertile couples to have children of their own. Cloning would give couples who are at risk of producing a child with a genetic defect the chance to produce a healthy child. Cloning could shed light on how genes work and lead to the discovery of new treatments for genetic diseases. A ban on cloning may be unconstitutional. It would deprive people of the right to reporduce and restrict the freedom of scientists. A clone would not really bea duplicate, because environmental factors would mold him or her into a unique individual. A clone would have as much of a sense of individuality as do twins. A clone would have the same rights as do all other people. Cloning is comparable in safety to a number of other medical procedures. Objections to cloning are similar to objections raised against previous scientific achievements, for example, heart transplants and test-tube babies, that later came to be widely accepted. As you can see Naruto, this is a complex issue. While many lives could be saved through more heart, liver, kidney transplants by cloning, in the wrong hands, armies could be created, and think of this: What if Hitler or Hussein could be cloned! Humans should be careful what they wish for. Answer The one point that seems to be missing from all of these arguments, on either side of the question, is the acknowledgment that efforts to clone human beings are going to continue, whether under governmental aegis or not. So perhaps the real question should be whether governments should remain engaged in order to control or guide the process, or whether they should simply ban cloning and leave it up to the non-participating governments or even underground laboratories? Answer No we do not need to, we just want to. Answer Cloning technology holds the key to solving a lot of the world's problems that might not otherwise be fixable. If you want a cure in the near future for lots of diseases like Parkinsons, cancer, etc, then yes we really need to study cloning.
No we do not need to, we just want to. Cloning technology holds the key to solving a lot of the world's problems that might not otherwise be fixable. If you want a cure in th…e near future for lots of diseases like Parkinsons, cancer, etc, then yes we really need to study cloning.
In DIY Projects
A vacuum tube can be tested with an array of power supplies and meters if you have detailed schematics and tube test procedures. However it is easiest to use a standard Tube T…ester. In the day there you could find self service box-like testers in certain drug stores or part supply stores. Most metropolitan areas still have electronic stores that specialize in selling Radio and Vacuum Tubes, and they would have tube testers that you can access. Ebay lists a number of vacuum tube testers but you need to make sure its working and that it has the booklet to set the many test switch positions for the particular tube you want to test.