Gotham is set when Bruce Wayne is a kid. What does the city look like without Batman around to save it?View Full Interview
People Face Tradeoffs. The Cost of Something is What You Give Up to Get It. Rational People Think at the Margin. People Respond to Incentives.Trade Can Make Everyone Better O…ff. Markets Are Usually a Good Way to Organize Economic Activity. Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes. A Country's Standard of Living Depends on Its Ability to Produce Goods and Services. Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money. Society Faces a Short-Run Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment. (MORE)
A sound organizing can be stated by keeping in view some basic principles. The major principles of organizing are : 1) Unity of objectives: there must be a common goal goal in… an organization. and every employee should contribute their effort to achieve that goal.2) Specialization: work should be assigned to employee on the basis of their skill and experience.3) Coordination: coordination integrates efforts of all members to meet common goals.4) Authority and responsibility: there must be balance between authority and responsibility in an organization.5) Unity of command: a subordinate must receive instruction only from one superior at a time. (MORE)
The Baptist religion traces its roots back to the "separatist" movement in 1609. Baptists set themselves apart from other denominations at the time primarily because they disa…greed with the idea of infant baptism. One of the primary tenets of the Baptist church is that a person is only baptized after (MORE)
There's nothing like having a mentor to turn to for ideas or belonging to a group for building professional contacts. Project management organizations are a good way to benefi…t from mentoring and for networking opportunities. Such opportunities ease uncertainties for new managers and expand the reach of seasoned managers. Professional (MORE)
SPORTS MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIPPRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZING SPORTS ACTIVITIESOrganization and management of sports at the school level is an application of knowledge and skills l…earned from the 1st to 4th year. Its success is dependent upon the cooperation of the over-all chairman and co-chairman, who assigns the different committee chairmen and plan all the rules prescribed for the said sport activities. There are different types of sports program in schools that the students can participate in. These activities develop different skills of the students and one is leadership skill.TYPES OF SPORTS PROGRAMA. INTRAMURALIt is an athletic competition within four walls of the school. The word "intramural came from the word "intra' which means "within" and "murus, meaning walls. In this program activities are done within the school and all the students participate with these event. This sports program serves as the culminating activity or application of knowledge and skills learned during the lower year in physical education.B. EXTRAMURALSIt is a higher level athletic competition done outside the school. Examples of extramural are division or district level, unit or congressional level, city or provincial meet, regional meet, national meet or palarong pambansa and international competitions.C. PLAY DAY OR FUN DAYThese are recreational activities that are done during free time of students to showcase talents and relax their minds from their academic activities. Examples of these are activities done during MAPEH Week, Foundation day and feasts day. Examples of activities are dance competitions and showcase, laro ng lahi, parlor games, etc.TYPES OF SPORTS LEADERSA. SPORTS PROGRAM ORGANIZATION LEADERSa. General Manager - The highest official of a sports competition.b. Athletic Manager - assist the general manager.c. Technical Officials - students or teachers who have the knowledge to officiate a certain sports event.d. Tournament Managers - assists the athletic manager in running the different sports event.e. Tournament Coordinators - sees to it that the ground facilities and equipment are ready before the schedule of gamesf. Recorders - in-charge of all official records and results of the sports competition.Things the organization leaders should consider carefully:Scheduling Eligibility Financing Points distribution Awards Protest and forfeituresPublicity Officiating officials Other activitiesB. COMMITTEESTYPE OF COMMITTEESa. Finance and Resources Committee - raises funds for the expenses of all the committees and prepares statements of accounts at the end of the meet.b. Program and Invitation Committee - in-charge of preparing the program of activities and invitations and sending them to all concern in due time.c. Peace and Order Committee- provides and maintains round - the - clock general order and security in all the venues.d. Physical Facilities - prepares the necessary facilities and venues needed in the sports eventse. Equipment - makes sure that all equipment for the sports events is available and distributed before the competitions.f. Prizes and Awards - prepares medals, trophies, plaques, certificates,, etc. and awards the same to the winnersg. Technical Committees - investigates and decides all protests, appeals or violations regarding the conduct of the games.h. Accommodation Committee - prepares the necessary communication and approval of the use and readiness of the facilities and venues needed for the different events.i. Discipline and Protest - solve technical problems and decides for appropriate action.C. OFFICIATING OFFICIALSOfficiating officials should have undergone rigid training in sports facilitating and referees course that control and manage the conduct of games. Each official have different duties and responsibilities depending on the sports he or she is responsibilities.TYPES OF OFFICIALSa. Field or Court Officials - are those who run on the floor, court and field during the game / play. They take charge of the team or an individual who infracts rules and violates the laws. Examples are referees, umpire, linesmen, timer and judge.b. Table Officials - take care of the score sheet, game clock, stop clock and other equipments used during the game. Examples are scorer, timekeeper, announcer and recorder.QUALITIES OF AN OFFICIAL1. Knowledge of the rules2. Experience and mastery of the game3. Physical condition of official4. Has presence of mind5. Good rapport with the players, coaches and co-referee6. Good judgment7. Practices good mechanics as signals, plays and teamwork8. Hustles or works with fitness and comfort abilityCODE OF ETHICS FOR OFFICIALS1. Avoid talking with the crowd any time before, during or after the game and during intermission.2. Don't choose or request officiating assignments.3. Be prompt.4. Be in good physical condition5. Don't show off6. Avoid an intimate relationship with coaches or teams7. Don't criticize or explain a fellow official's decision to either coach or team8. Don't argue with players9. Be impartial in administering the rules10. Sit properly on the chair while officiating and be alert and attentive all the time.11. Dress simply, neatly, cleanly, and approximately during the match12. See to it that the playing area is tidy and free from obstructions.13. Adhere enthusiastically to the ideals of good sportsmanship14. Call out the scorers clearly in an even tone of voice15. Always have a rulebook during tournament.D. COACHING AND COACHING STAFFThey are responsible for the development and improvement of the athletes skills. A good coaching make a successful and champion team.TYPES OF CAOCH1. Strict2. Bossy3. Business type-coachQUALITIES OF A GOOD AND EFFECTIVE COACH1. Knowledge of the sports / rules2. Communicator - good speaker or listener3. Ability to understand and handle the athletesa. Knowledge of training and conditioning methodsb. Fair evaluation of athletePLANNING, DEVELOPING, IMPLIMENTING AND EVALUATING SPORTS PROGRAMSSTAGES OF PLANNING SPORTS COMPETITION1. Planning2. Execution3. EvaluationPRE-GAME ACTIVITIES· Prepare the lists of sports event to be played· List down available facilities and equipment· Prepare the entry forms of participants· Prepare the different forms to be used in each event· Prepare the guidelines for the participating team· Prepare the format for the team gallerySCHEDULINGThis is one of the most important parts in staging a sports competition is scheduling and this should be well developed to avoid confusion. To have an organized schedule of games we use the types of elimination. This is usually computed and done by the tournament managers.When the number of entries is not one of the even power of 2 (ex. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc..) some teams become BYE. To determine the number of byes this formula is used BYE=P2 -N; where in P2 is next power of 2 N is the number of entries and B is the number of byes.POWER OF 2 2=2 2.2=4 2.2.2=8 188.8.131.52=16 184.108.40.206.2=32Example: 11 entries16 next power of 2B= P2 - NB=16-11B= 5TYPES OF ELIMINATIONA. Single elimination - this elimination tournament determines the winner by eliminating the looser in every game until there is only one contestant left. Its advantage is it is ideal for competitions with limited allotted time and budget and there are a lot of team entries. But it is not a fair method in determining the winner because all of the teams did not get a chance to compete with each other. The formula is G = N-1 where N= is the number of entries and G is the number of games.Example 1 N= 4No. of byes: 0G = N-1 G = 4 - 1G = 3A. Double Elimination - in this elimination every team should be defeated twice before they are declared out of the competition. Formula used is G = 2(N-1) where in G is no. of games and N is no. of entries. Its advantage is, it is ideal when the skills of the players are needed to consider and there is an allotted length of time good for small number of entries. Its disadvantage it is not ideal for many entries and limited time allotted for the competition and it is not a fair method in determining the winner because all of the teams did not get a chance to compete with each other.Example 1 N = 4No. of Bye = 0G=2(N-1)G=2(4-1)G=6A. 2Round Robin - in this elimination every team has the opportunity to play with each other and it is ideal if there is enough time, facilities and budget available. It provides opportunity for each team to compete with each other and it is a fair method in determining the winner because all the teams had played against each other, these are the advantages of the round robin. Its disadvantages are: not ideal if the numbers of teams are big, no sufficient time, facilities and budget. The formula for this is G= N(N-1)Example 1 N= 4No. of Byes = 0G= N(N-1)2G=4(4-1) = 4(3) =122 2 2G= 6ROUND 1 ROUND 2 ROUND 3G1 1 VS 2 G3 1 VS 4 G5 1 VS 3G2 3 VS 4 G4 2 VS 3 G6 4 VS 2To determine the winner, there would be a record of the most wins of a team. The team who has the most wins is the Champion Team.Steps to break the tie in round robin1. In case of a tie between 2 teams, the "win-over-the-other" rule shall apply; where in we consider the last game between the same team and who ever won their match is considered as champion.2. In case of a triple tie, the quotient system shall apply. Only the scores of the three teams are considered.Example: A. Team A vs Team B B. Add the score of each team68 65 Team A - 68+70 = 138Team A vs Team C Team B - 65+70=13570 68 Team C - 76+68 = 144Team C vs Team B76 70B. TEAM DTEAM CTEAM BTEAM ALadder Tournament - this elimination is challenge elimination where in the names of teams are placed on a ladder-like slots where in if the participants defeat their opponents 1 or 2 places above them they advances until only two remains to compete with each other. It is ideal if there is a limited time and resources available. Its advantage is this can continue without any coach, no one is eliminated and a true champion can be chosen over a period of time. Its disadvantage is that the players end up competing with the same people much of the time and the excitement of the challenge is lost. (MORE)
PRINCIPLES OF SOUND ORGANISATION There are some general guiding principles, which help to form a good organization. There principles are. 1. Principle of Organization Objecti…ve: It should be same, consistent, defined and clear. It should aim at achieving high production with customer focus, growth and survival. At the core, there should be unity of objective. 2. Principle of Division of Work and Specialization: Every unit or person of an organization is assigned to a specific task and accomplishment. For this, there is a need to focus on specialization and assignment of specific work to individual. 3. Principle of Parity of Responsibility and Authority: Responsibility is the obligation on the path of a person towards the boss for completing the assigned task. It is also called as accountability. A person at a higher position in the organization exercises authority or power over his subordinates for getting the task done. Authority is vested in the superior of the organization so as to extract work from subordinates. Therefore, authority is always associated with responsibility to get things done. There should be a balance between authority and responsibility. 4. Principle of Functional Definition: Each employee must be assigned specific task, role, relationship and job-related activities. What is expected of him, must be defined in the organization. 5. Principle of Scalar Chain: Scalar chain, chain of command or line of authority, means that there should be a continuous line of authority (or scalar chain) from top of the organizational pyramid to the lower levels. The chain provides a superior-subordinate relationship. Levels above in the chain are superiors while lower levels in the scalar chain are subordinates. Scalar chain is useful in the delegation of authority down the chain. It is also useful in maintaining effective communication between different layers of the organization. 6. Principle of Unity of Command: Unity of command means that there should be only one source of authority for each subordinate. This also means: one subordinate-one boss. The principle of unit of command is important for maintaining discipline and for fixing responsibility for the result. 7. Principle of Balance: All the techniques and values of the organizations must be effectively balanced. Many issues have divergent focus in organization. These are: line vs. staff; centralization vs. decentralization, unity of command vs. specialization, vertical hierarchy vs. span of control, etc. Proper balance between these issues must be maintained. 8. Principle of Flexibility: Flexibility means adaptability to change. This is needed due to uncertainty, scope for diversification and growth, new opportunity, and competitive forces in the environment. Organization-design should have some in-built flexibility to withstand the rebaptism, excessive control, complicated procedure, etc. 9. Principle of delegation: Authority needs to be delegated in the organization. Delegation is for empowering the subordinates to achieve results. 10. Principle of Efficiency: Organization structure should be useful in achieving the optimum utilization of resources at least cost and least effort. Considering system view of the organization (which is input-processing-output framework), the maximization of output and minimization of inputs will improve the efficiency. 11. Principle of Continuity: Continuity means survival and existence despite turbulence in market forces. Therefore, the organization must look at long-term goals rather than mere profit-making and short-terms goals. 12. Principle of Cooperation: Cooperation means involvement as a team and solving the functional goal of the organization as one unit. This can be achieved by evolving a proper code of conduct, rule of business, conflict resolution mechanism and cooperation. 13. Principle of Coordination: There are many functions, such as marketing, finance, HRD, etc., in an organization. Different groups have different priorities and local level objectives. Proper coordination is needed to work in one direction and for achieving the overall (global) corporate goals. Proper communication, meetings, news-letters, etc., are helpful to achieve this. 14. Principle of Span of Control: Any superior can handle only limited numbers of subordinates. Narrow span of control is useful for complex jobs while wider span of control is useful for routine type of jobs. By span of control, we mean how many subordinates a manager (or, superior) can handle (MORE)
Organisms are mostly made up of water, they also obtain DNA. the chemical that controls all the activities of the cell.