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What are Urwick 10 principles of organization?
10 Principles of Organisation by Lyndall Urwick. According to Urwick (Notes on the Theory of Organization, 1952), an organisation is built on ten principles: 1. The principle of the objective - Every organisation and every part of the organisation must be an expression of the purpose of the undertaking concerned, or it is eaningless and therefore redundant. 2. The principle of specialisation - The activities of every member of any organised group should be confined, as far as possible, to the performance of a single function. 3. The principle of co-ordination - The purpose of organising per se, as distinguished from the purpose of the undertaking, is to facilitate co-ordination: unity of effort. 4. The principle of authority - In every organised group the supreme authority must rest somewhere. There should be a clear line of authority to every individual in the group 5. The principle of responsibility - The responsibility of the superior for the acts of the subordinate is absolute. 6. The principle of definition - The content of each position, both the duties involved, the authority and responsibility contemplated and the relationships with other positions should be clearly defined in writing and published to all concerned. 7. The principle of correspondence - In every position, the responsibility and the authority should correspond. 8. The principle of span of control - No person should supervise more than five, or at most, six direct subordinates whose work interlocks. 9. The principle of balance - It is essential that the various units of an organisation should be kept in balance. 10. The principle of continuity - Re-organisation is a continuous process: in every undertaking specific provision should be made for it."
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People Face Tradeoffs. The Cost of Something is What You Give Up to Get It. Rational People Think at the Margin. People Respond to Incentives.Trade Can Make Everyone Better O…ff. Markets Are Usually a Good Way to Organize Economic Activity. Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes. A Country's Standard of Living Depends on Its Ability to Produce Goods and Services. Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money. Society Faces a Short-Run Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment.
Unity of ObjectiveSpan of ControlSpecialisation or division of WorkException PrincipleScalar PrincipleFunctional DefinationUnity of CommandContinuityFlexibilityBalanceEfficien…cyCoordination
SPORTS MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZING SPORTS ACTIVITIES Organization and management of sports at the school level is an application of knowledge and skills… learned from the 1st to 4th year. Its success is dependent upon the cooperation of the over-all chairman and co-chairman, who assigns the different committee chairmen and plan all the rules prescribed for the said sport activities. There are different types of sports program in schools that the students can participate in. These activities develop different skills of the students and one is leadership skill. TYPES OF SPORTS PROGRAM A. INTRAMURAL It is an athletic competition within four walls of the school. The word "intramural came from the word "intra' which means "within" and "murus, meaning walls. In this program activities are done within the school and all the students participate with these event. This sports program serves as the culminating activity or application of knowledge and skills learned during the lower year in physical education. B. EXTRAMURALS It is a higher level athletic competition done outside the school. Examples of extramural are division or district level, unit or congressional level, city or provincial meet, regional meet, national meet or palarong pambansa and international competitions. C. PLAY DAY OR FUN DAY These are recreational activities that are done during free time of students to showcase talents and relax their minds from their academic activities. Examples of these are activities done during MAPEH Week, Foundation day and feasts day. Examples of activities are dance competitions and showcase, laro ng lahi, parlor games, etc. TYPES OF SPORTS LEADERS A. SPORTS PROGRAM ORGANIZATION LEADERS a. General Manager - The highest official of a sports competition. b. Athletic Manager - assist the general manager. c. Technical Officials - students or teachers who have the knowledge to officiate a certain sports event. d. Tournament Managers - assists the athletic manager in running the different sports event. e. Tournament Coordinators - sees to it that the ground facilities and equipment are ready before the schedule of games f. Recorders - in-charge of all official records and results of the sports competition. Things the organization leaders should consider carefully: Scheduling Eligibility Financing Points distribution Awards Protest and forfeitures Publicity Officiating officials Other activities B. COMMITTEES TYPE OF COMMITTEES a. Finance and Resources Committee - raises funds for the expenses of all the committees and prepares statements of accounts at the end of the meet. b. Program and Invitation Committee - in-charge of preparing the program of activities and invitations and sending them to all concern in due time. c. Peace and Order Committee- provides and maintains round - the - clock general order and security in all the venues. d. Physical Facilities - prepares the necessary facilities and venues needed in the sports events e. Equipment - makes sure that all equipment for the sports events is available and distributed before the competitions. f. Prizes and Awards - prepares medals, trophies, plaques, certificates,, etc. and awards the same to the winners g. Technical Committees - investigates and decides all protests, appeals or violations regarding the conduct of the games. h. Accommodation Committee - prepares the necessary communication and approval of the use and readiness of the facilities and venues needed for the different events. i. Discipline and Protest - solve technical problems and decides for appropriate action. C. OFFICIATING OFFICIALS Officiating officials should have undergone rigid training in sports facilitating and referees course that control and manage the conduct of games. Each official have different duties and responsibilities depending on the sports he or she is responsibilities. TYPES OF OFFICIALS a. Field or Court Officials - are those who run on the floor, court and field during the game / play. They take charge of the team or an individual who infracts rules and violates the laws. Examples are referees, umpire, linesmen, timer and judge. b. Table Officials - take care of the score sheet, game clock, stop clock and other equipments used during the game. Examples are scorer, timekeeper, announcer and recorder. QUALITIES OF AN OFFICIAL 1. Knowledge of the rules 2. Experience and mastery of the game 3. Physical condition of official 4. Has presence of mind 5. Good rapport with the players, coaches and co-referee 6. Good judgment 7. Practices good mechanics as signals, plays and teamwork 8. Hustles or works with fitness and comfort ability CODE OF ETHICS FOR OFFICIALS 1. Avoid talking with the crowd any time before, during or after the game and during intermission. 2. Don't choose or request officiating assignments. 3. Be prompt. 4. Be in good physical condition 5. Don't show off 6. Avoid an intimate relationship with coaches or teams 7. Don't criticize or explain a fellow official's decision to either coach or team 8. Don't argue with players 9. Be impartial in administering the rules 10. Sit properly on the chair while officiating and be alert and attentive all the time. 11. Dress simply, neatly, cleanly, and approximately during the match 12. See to it that the playing area is tidy and free from obstructions. 13. Adhere enthusiastically to the ideals of good sportsmanship 14. Call out the scorers clearly in an even tone of voice 15. Always have a rulebook during tournament. D. COACHING AND COACHING STAFF They are responsible for the development and improvement of the athletes skills. A good coaching make a successful and champion team. TYPES OF CAOCH 1. Strict 2. Bossy 3. Business type-coach QUALITIES OF A GOOD AND EFFECTIVE COACH 1. Knowledge of the sports / rules 2. Communicator - good speaker or listener 3. Ability to understand and handle the athletes a. Knowledge of training and conditioning methods b. Fair evaluation of athlete PLANNING, DEVELOPING, IMPLIMENTING AND EVALUATING SPORTS PROGRAMS STAGES OF PLANNING SPORTS COMPETITION 1. Planning 2. Execution 3. Evaluation PRE-GAME ACTIVITIES · Prepare the lists of sports event to be played · List down available facilities and equipment · Prepare the entry forms of participants · Prepare the different forms to be used in each event · Prepare the guidelines for the participating team · Prepare the format for the team gallery SCHEDULING This is one of the most important parts in staging a sports competition is scheduling and this should be well developed to avoid confusion. To have an organized schedule of games we use the types of elimination. This is usually computed and done by the tournament managers. When the number of entries is not one of the even power of 2 (ex. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc..) some teams become BYE. To determine the number of byes this formula is used BYE=P2 -N; where in P2 is next power of 2 N is the number of entries and B is the number of byes. POWER OF 2 2=2 2.2=4 2.2.2=8 126.96.36.199=16 188.8.131.52.2=32 Example: 11 entries 16 next power of 2 B= P2 - N B=16-11 B= 5 TYPES OF ELIMINATION A. Single elimination - this elimination tournament determines the winner by eliminating the looser in every game until there is only one contestant left. Its advantage is it is ideal for competitions with limited allotted time and budget and there are a lot of team entries. But it is not a fair method in determining the winner because all of the teams did not get a chance to compete with each other. The formula is G = N-1 where N= is the number of entries and G is the number of games. Example 1 N= 4 No. of byes: 0 G = N-1 G = 4 - 1 G = 3 A. Double Elimination - in this elimination every team should be defeated twice before they are declared out of the competition. Formula used is G = 2(N-1) where in G is no. of games and N is no. of entries. Its advantage is, it is ideal when the skills of the players are needed to consider and there is an allotted length of time good for small number of entries. Its disadvantage it is not ideal for many entries and limited time allotted for the competition and it is not a fair method in determining the winner because all of the teams did not get a chance to compete with each other. Example 1 N = 4 No. of Bye = 0 G=2(N-1) G=2(4-1) G=6 A. 2Round Robin - in this elimination every team has the opportunity to play with each other and it is ideal if there is enough time, facilities and budget available. It provides opportunity for each team to compete with each other and it is a fair method in determining the winner because all the teams had played against each other, these are the advantages of the round robin. Its disadvantages are: not ideal if the numbers of teams are big, no sufficient time, facilities and budget. The formula for this is G= N(N-1) Example 1 N= 4 No. of Byes = 0 G= N(N-1) 2 G=4(4-1) = 4(3) =12 2 2 2 G= 6 ROUND 1 ROUND 2 ROUND 3 G1 1 VS 2 G3 1 VS 4 G5 1 VS 3 G2 3 VS 4 G4 2 VS 3 G6 4 VS 2 To determine the winner, there would be a record of the most wins of a team. The team who has the most wins is the Champion Team. Steps to break the tie in round robin 1. In case of a tie between 2 teams, the "win-over-the-other" rule shall apply; where in we consider the last game between the same team and who ever won their match is considered as champion. 2. In case of a triple tie, the quotient system shall apply. Only the scores of the three teams are considered. Example: A. Team A vs Team B B. Add the score of each team 68 65 Team A - 68+70 = 138 Team A vs Team C Team B - 65+70=135 70 68 Team C - 76+68 = 144 Team C vs Team B 76 70 B. TEAM D TEAM C TEAM B TEAM ALadder Tournament - this elimination is challenge elimination where in the names of teams are placed on a ladder-like slots where in if the participants defeat their opponents 1 or 2 places above them they advances until only two remains to compete with each other. It is ideal if there is a limited time and resources available. Its advantage is this can continue without any coach, no one is eliminated and a true champion can be chosen over a period of time. Its disadvantage is that the players end up competing with the same people much of the time and the excitement of the challenge is lost.
The important of organisation is accepts by all, without organisation, human actions cannot be planned, systematic and purpose achievement oriented, for every human acti…vity organisation is necessary pre condition (without organisation planned human actions are impossible).
There are 14 Principle of Organization. . Unity of objective . Efficiency . Span of control . Scalar Principle . Delegation . Parity of Authority and Responsibility . … Absolute Responsibility . Level of authority . Unity of command . Departmentation . Balance . Flexibility . Continuity . Leadership Facilitation
Triage - Learn how to prioritize and eliminate non necessary items. Make lists and deal with issues that are closest to YOUR deadline first.
A "rule" to follow in setting up a company, business, or group.
school organization is dynamic process
Orthographic projection is 3-D objects portrayed on a 2-D plane. The principles include; 1. top view is directly over the front view, 2. side view is either inline with to…p or side view, 3. lines parallel to a plane will be shown as a line, 4. A surface parallel to a plane is shown on that plane, 5. a line perpendicular to a plane shows as a point, and 6. A surface perpendicular to a plane shows as a line.
To maintain centralized control in an organization where it is necessary to complete work in an orderly, logical, and precise manner. A perfect example of a bureaucratic organ…ization is any Military command.
Lyndall Urwick identified eight principles of administration applicable to all organisations. The principles are 1. The principle of the objective - Every organisation and e…very part of the organisation must be an expression of the purpose. 2. The principle of correspondence - states that in every position, the responsibility and the authority should correspond (equal). 3. The principle of responsibility - The responsibility of the superior for the acts of the subordinate is absolute. 4. The principle of span of control - (refers to how many subordinates can work under one head). No person should supervise more than five, or at most, six direct subordinates whose work interlocks. 5. The principle of specialisation - The activities of every member of any organised group should be confined, as far as possible, to the performance of a single function. 6. The principle of co-ordination - The unity of effort- all employees co-ordinate with each other to achieve the set goal of the organisation. 7. The principle of definition - The content of each position, both the duties involved, the authority and responsibility contemplated and the relationships with other positions should be clearly defined in writing and published to all concerned. 8. The principle of authority - In every organised group the supreme authority must rest somewhere. There should be a clear line of authority to every individual in the group. 9. The principle of balance - It is essential that the various units of an organisation should be kept in balance. 10. The principle of continuity - Re-organisation is a continuous process: in every undertaking specific provision should be made for it."
Cause and effect
One principle of community organizing is to inspire and motivateperson around a common cause. You also need to be a selflessleader, have a positive attitude, and be able to wo…rk well withseveral different personality types.
The principles of remuneration plans in an organization include the rewards one receives for employment. This includes wages, medical plans, pension plans, benefits, and allow…ances.
According to Bill Bernbach, the 10 principles of advertising are: 1. Go to the essence of the product. State the product's essence in the simplest terms of its basic advanta…ge. And state this both tangibly and memorably. 2. Where possible, make your product an actor in the scene; not just a prop. This makes for a tremendously effective method of getting your product remembered. Because the provocative element in your advertising is also the element that sells your product. This is so simply stated, so difficult to execute. 3. Art and copy must be fully integrated. They must be conceived as a unit, developed as a unit. 4. Advertising must have vitality. This exuberance is sometimes called "personality". When advertising has a personality, it is persuasively different; and it is the one because of the other. You must fight to get "bounce" in your advertising. 5. It is little less than useless to employ a so-called gimmick in advertising ---- unless the gimmick itself tells the product story. 6. Tell the truth. First, it's a great gimmick. Second, you go to heaven. Third, it moves merchandise because people will trust you. 7. Be relevant. A wonderfully creative execution will get the big "So what" if it isn't meaningful to their life, family, business etc. And always opt for an ad that's relevant over one that's exciting and irrelevant. 8. Be simple. Not simpleminded, but single minded. Who has the time or the desire to listen to advertising? 9. Safe ideas can kill you. If it's been done before, your competition will be ready for it. Your only chance of beating the competition is with advertising they've never seen before. Which means you've never seen it before either! Be brave. 10. Stand out. If your advertising goes unnoticed, everything has been wasted.