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What are the 3 classifications for cranial nerves?
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# | Name | Sensory, Motor or Both | Origin | Nuclei | Function / 0 | Cranial nerve zero (CN0 is not traditionally recognized.) | Sensory | olfactory trigone, medial olf…actory gyrus, and lamina terminalis | Still controversial New research indicates CN0 may play a role in the detection of pheromones  / I | Olfactory nerve | Purely Sensory | Anterior olfactory nucleus | Transmits the sense of smell; Located in olfactory foramina of ethmoid / II | Optic nerve | Purely Sensory | Ganglion cells of retina | Transmits visual information to the brain; Located in optic canal / III | Oculomotor nerve | Mainly Motor | Midbrain | Oculomotor nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus | Innervates levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique, which collectively perform most eye movements; Located in superior orbital fissure / IV | Trochlear nerve | Mainly Motor | Midbrain | Trochlear nucleus | Innervates the superior oblique muscle, which depresses, rotates laterally (around the optic axis), and intorts the eyeball; Located in superior orbital fissure / V | Trigeminal nerve | Both Sensory and Motor | Pons | Principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, Spinal trigeminal nucleus, Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, Trigeminal motor nucleus | Receives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication; Located in superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic nerve - V1), foramen rotundum (maxillary nerve - V2), and foramen ovale (mandibular nerve - V3) / VI | Abducens nerve | Mainly Motor | Posterior margin of Pons | Abducens nucleus | Innervates the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye; Located in superior orbital fissure / VII | Facial nerve | Both Sensory and Motor | Pons (cerebellopontine angle) above olive | Facial nucleus, Solitary nucleus, Superior salivary nucleus | Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, and stapedius muscle, receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, and provides secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland; Located and runs through internal acoustic canal to facial canal and exits at stylomastoid foramen / VIII | Vestibulocochlear nerve (or auditory-vestibular nerve or statoacoustic nerve) | Mostly sensory | Lateral to CN VII (cerebellopontine angle) | Vestibular nuclei, Cochlear nuclei | Senses sound, rotation and gravity (essential for balance & movement). More specifically. the vestibular branch carries impulses for equilibrium and the cochlear branch carries impulses for hearing.; Located in internal acoustic canal / IX | Glossopharyngeal nerve | Both Sensory and Motor | Medulla | Nucleus ambiguus, Inferior salivary nucleus, Solitary nucleus | Receives taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, provides secretomotor innervation to the parotid gland, and provides motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus (essential for tactile, pain, and thermal sensation). Some sensation is also relayed to the brain from the palatine tonsils. Sensation is relayed to opposite thalamus and some hypothalamic nuclei. Located in jugular foramen / X | Vagus nerve | Both Sensory and Motor | Posterolateral sulcus of Medulla | Nucleus ambiguus, Dorsal motor vagal nucleus, Solitary nucleus | Supplies branchiomotor innervation to most laryngeal and all pharyngeal muscles (except the stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal); provides parasympathetic fibers to nearly all thoracic and abdominal viscera down to the splenic flexure; and receives the special sense of taste from the epiglottis. A major function: controls muscles for voice and resonance and the soft palate. Symptoms of damage: dysphagia (swallowing problems), velopharyngeal insufficiency. Located in jugular foramen / XI | Accessory nerve (or cranial accessory nerve or spinal accessory nerve) | Mainly Motor | Cranial and Spinal Roots | Nucleus ambiguus, Spinal accessory nucleus | Controls sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, overlaps with functions of the vagus. Examples of symptoms of damage: inability to shrug, weak head movement; Located in jugular foramen / XII | Hypoglossal nerve | Mainly Motor | Medulla | Hypoglossal nucleus | Provides motor innervation to the muscles of the tongue (except for the palatoglossus, which is innervated by the vagus) and other glossal muscles. Important for swallowing (bolus formation) and speech articulation. Located in hypoglossal canal (MORE)
There are two cranial nerves that are involved with your sense of taste. Facial nerve (CN VII), more specifically chorda tympani branch is responsible for the anterior 2/3 of …your tongue. Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) is responsible for the posterior 1/3 of your tongue. Olfactory nerve (CN I) is responsible for your sense of smell. (MORE)
Every aspect of geography, whether you are researching mountain vegetation or speaking with urban communities in southeast Asia, involves a great deal of information. Geograph…ers usually use some form of a classification chart to properly document this information for future review and speculation. The type of chart you use for this purpose needs to be logical and easy to understand. The following tips can help you craft your own classification charts to use during university or during your independent or funded geographic research.The more research you do, the more charts will be needed. To make sure that they are easily identifiable for review, give each a title, a date, and if applicable a number. Give the charts simple titles to avoid confusion, such as "Ocean Currents" or "Interviews". For numerous charts for the same project, give them corresponding numbers.Think about what you are researching and what kind of information you will be dealing with, and use this to prepare titled sections on your chart. If you are researching the types of rocks on different shorelines, then your sections could be "Location", "Samples Collected", and "Type of Rock". In these sections you can input your information piece by piece. For example: "San Marino Beach; 10; Sedimentary".In a space above the sections reserved for new information, add a section in which you can specify your research questions before inputting information. This helps you clarify how to use the following informational sections best. It also keeps you on track so you don't waste time on other aspects of the subject that have no relevance to your study.Include one or two blank sections that are not titled or designated for any specific purpose. This way, if you have a great idea for an additional category or method of data compilation, you can simply write it in with your existing information. It is also a good idea to have a "Notes" section under your chart to keep track of your thought processes as you proceed.Although proper testing and analysis will be performed on your samples or notes after the initial session of data collection, it is useful to make one or two conclusions immediately following the collection. These can pertain not only to your project's end results, but to further research within the same project. In a section at the bottom of your chart, make one or two statements that will remind you of the research you just performed so that it can be expanded upon later.A classification chart is the best way to document your research information so it can be easily understood and used in future projects. University science classes rely on classification charts such as the Periodic Table and the table of rock classification to undergo further research into certain topics. You may or may not be required to create your own charts for scientific classes or research facilities, but successful peers and colleagues likely use them. Using this method saves you time and ensures that you and others are able to read through your own notes more easily.Classification charts are used everywhere, from tax offices to science laboratories. People are classified into groups according to their taxpayer and voting statuses, and pets are classified according to certain characteristics that make them legal or illegal. The simple tool that makes these classifications quick and logical is the classification chart. (MORE)
Tornados are one of nature's deadliest natural occurrences. Some can be very mild and others can leave a terrible path of destruction. The question is how is one described dif…ferently than another? It is difficult to measure the inside speed of a twister because the damaging winds will destroy any sort of tool to do this before a reading can take place. With that said, how is a tornado classified?These natural disasters were first classified by a meteorologist named Dr.Theodore Fujita. Fujita developed methods to estimate the wind speeds. He did this by looking at the destruction left after a twister had passed through an area. Fujita was also the first to realize that there are multiple vertex tornadoes, down-bursts, and micro-bursts within the swirling masses. His system was called the F-Scale or Fujita System.Before 1971 there was no ranking system for tornadoes. Fujita's F-Scale was developed in 1971 and then started to be used worldwide. In 2006 the National Weather Service developed an enhanced version of the F-Scale. This scale added 28 more damage indicators including things like vegetation and smaller structures. The most recent classifications method is called the EF Scale.There are six different classifications of funnel clouds. The scale ranges from an F zero to an F five. The F zero is the mildest of all cyclones. The F five is the most damaging. Each number on the F scale has different types of damages to look for to determine what type of whirlwind has passed through.An F zero storm is the most mild of all. These have winds between 40 and 72 miles per hour. There is light damage noted after an F zero. Sometimes there will be chimney damage. Also tree damage can be found like limbs being broken off and dropping to the ground.The most damaging twister is classified as an F five. This type of severe weather creates storms that are comprised of the most violent form of damage. Inside these funnel clouds are winds that whip anywhere from 261 to 318 miles per hour. During a whirlwind of this kind homes are lifted off the ground and carried distances. Also cars can be thrown from parking spaces. There have been 59 of these types of disasters reported since 1950.Tornadoes are usually unexpected. Meteorologists can have an idea if weather is forming that could produce a twister, however, there is no set way of knowing when one will happen. These disasters happen so randomly and last such a short time, it is nearly impossible to measure the speed. The classification happens after seeing the path of destruction that is left behind.Tornados are one of nature's deadliest natural occurrences. Some can be very mild and others can leave a terrible path of destruction. The question is how is one described differently than another? (MORE)
Although cats are some of most common household pets, there is a lot about them that you may not know. If you are a cat lover who is interested in the animal kingdom, you may …want to learn about the scientific classification of cats. Cats are classified using the levels of taxonomy. There are seven major levels of cat classification for all domestic cats, which are listed below.Domestic cats belong to the kingdom Animalia. There are countless species of animals on earth. The animals within this category are made up of cells without cell walls. The cells in these animals form tissue, and this tissue forms organs. With all of this, they are complex creatures capable of independent movement and sexual reproduction. They do not produce their own food naturally. Unlike some members of this kingdom, cats have backbones.Animals in the phylum Chordata have a notochord that forms during some stage of early development to support the body. Cats also belong to the subphylum Vertebrata. The notochord of members of this subphylum develops into part of a spinal column in addition to a nerve cord capable of sending massages to the rest of the body. Vertebrates also have a fully formed skeleton and spinal column, which is segmented into discrete bones to allow flexibility.Cats are mammals, which means they have hair, three middle-ear bones, and mammary glands. Hair on all mammals is present at some point in their development and can functions as insulation and color patterning as well as aid in the sense of touch. The three middle ear bones are the malleus, incus, and stapes and are also referred to as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. They function in the transmission of vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. All female mammals produce milk from their mammary glands in order to nourish newborn offspring.Members of the order Carnivora have diverse food habits, although many, such as cats, are primarily carnivorous. They have large canine teeth, three pairs of incisors, and sharp carnassial teeth (where other mammals' premolars would be) to slice and tear through the meat they eat. Carnivores are also distinguished by their fixed jaw, which can only move up and down and not side to side as the jaws of many other mammals can.Felids are among the most specialized hunters of all carnivores. They are characterized by their short muzzles and the reflective membrane over their eyes, which gives them excellent vision. Combined with their agility, excellent balance, and partially or completely retractable claws, these characteristics make them excellent hunters.Because domestic cats are small in comparison to many of their wild cousins, they are placed in the genus Felis. Many of the smaller wild cats are also a part of this group. The most distinguishing feature of these cats, other than their size, is the fact that they cannot roar as larger cats can.Felis catus includes between 40 and 55 pure breeds and is constantly changing as new breeds are developed. These cats are primarily raised as pets, thus being domestic. Domestic cats mainly live in areas that were developed and are populated by humans.The cute and often regal cats that share our homes are in the same family as their wild feline counterparts. By reading the classification of cats above, you can see the characteristics that all cats share no matter what the breed. The further down you go, the more specific the list becomes. Breed and pedigree can vary greatly, but animals with all of these classifications are domestic cats.Even though domestic cats are all in the same family and genus, feral cats, or "domestic" cats that were born and raised in the wild, can be very dangerous. These Cats can have diseases and may become easily agitated when not taken care of or when coddled too aggressively. Be sure to handle all cats with care and respect. (MORE)
The taxonomic hierarchy of biological classification is a system of organizing all living things to categories that reflect their relationships to each other. This article exp…lains the rationale behind the organization and presents tips for remembering its structure. (MORE)
If you have been to a zoo or large aquarium, it is likely that you have seen jellyfish. These majestic animals are the oldest multi-organ animals. Fossils have been found that… date them back 700 million years. There are many different types of jellyfish. It can difficult to identify jellyfish. This guide on jellyfish classification will give you the information you need in order to classify them.This class of jellyfish is often called the true jellyfish. It has the typical jellyfish appearance. It has a rounded bowl shaped head and tentacles coming off. The Scyphozoa class has four-part symmetry. This means that you can divide them into four parts that are identical. This class has stingers on the tentacles. They use these to disable prey and allow them to be drawn into their mouths. This class contains 200 different species. It is thought that there are many undiscovered species as well. Some of the best known Scyphozoa species are the moon jelly and the Nomura's jellyfish.The Cubozoa class is named because its jellyfish have a box like appearance. The tentacles are attached around a cubic head. The Cubozoa are more commonly known as box jellyfish. This class is very poisonous. Most fatal human jellyfish stings come from the Cubozoa. These jellyfish are highly evolved. They have eye which provide rudimentary vision. Tests have also shown that they have the ability to learn. The Cubozoa class is a small one. There are only 37 different species. The best known of these is the sea wasp. This jellyfish is the largest among the Cubozoa and is the size of a baseball. This jellyfish is often the jellyfish responsible for fatal stings.The Hydrozoa are the largest class of jellyfish. They are unique in that they contain a medusa stage and a polyp stage. The polyp stage is generally a tube like structure that is anchored to a rock. They often form in connected colonies. The medusa stage is what is commonly thought of as a jellyfish. Hydrozoa take many different appearances, and it can be difficult to classify one by sight alone. If they have an irregular symmetry, it is likely that the jellyfish belongs to Hydrozoa. There are at least 1,500 species of Hydrozoa that have been classified. It is likely that there are many more. The most famous Hydrozoa is the hydra. Hydra possessed radial symmetry and are often found in slow moving fresh water.Staurozoa is a fairly easy group to classify. They are known as the stalked jellyfish. They appear similar to a Hydrozoa polyp that has been anchored to rock or algae. The polyp will then have several stalks that look like attached medusa form jellyfish. They are often found in colder water, and are normally found close to shore. There are about 50 species of Staurozoa. The most famous of these is Haliclystus antarticus. It is known for being found in the waters surrounding Antarctica.These are the four groups you need to know for jellyfish classification. With practice, you will be able to easily separate the groups. Jellyfish are fascinating animals. Next time you go to the zoo, try to classify the jellyfish that you see. Your newfound skills will no doubt impress.Jellyfish are considered a culinary delicacy in some parts of the world. It is typically served as dried jellyfish. This prevents it from spoiling. Japan also eats cured jellyfish that is normally served in vinegar. (MORE)
For all things, there is an order ? and essays are no different, hence the term classification essay. The word "classification" refers to a method of sorting objects, ideas, o…r even people into various categories based on the characteristics that they share. Classification essays identify and illustrate various types of sorting methods. They cover a wide range of topics from roommates and job types to study methods and ways to protect the environment. Regardless of what topic you choose, a few key ingredients must be included in any effective classification essay.Your topic must be stated clearly in your introduction paragraph. You should outline the group of objects or people that you will be classifying in your essay and identify any classification slant that you choose to take. For instance, you might specifically classify college students, as opposed to students in general, or bad drivers as opposed to drivers in general. Make your topic explicitly clear to your reader. Then, compile this information in a concise thesis statement.There is nothing more ineffective than an essay that is put down after the very first paragraph. In order to reach your audience, you must grab their attention from the start. Achieve this goal by including descriptions or specific details about the items or people that you are focusing on in your essay.The body of your classification essay will outline the exact way in which you classify your topic. Every paragraph should begin with a topic sentence. This sentence will tell your audience exactly what will be discussed in the sentences following. In a classification essay, the order of your body paragraphs does not matter too much. As the author, you can choose to write about the various categories in any order that makes sense to you. The most important component is that you discuss a single category of items or individuals per paragraph.Your conclusion must wrap up all of the information included in your essay. You may use the conclusion paragraph in order to summarize your classification of each subject or recommend one of the categories that you mentioned and state why it is superior to the others in the essay.A classification essay gives you, as an author, a lot of freedom. You can use this essay to voice your thoughts and opinions on a number of different topics, from sports teams to fast food. A well-written classification essay will let your reader know your thoughts on the topic and why you feel the way you do.An easy way to conclude a classification essay is to remind your reader of your purpose in categorizing the various components of your topic. You might want to help your reader choose between two brands of household tools or convince them why the third baseman is the most important person on the softball field.Whatever your purpose of writing, reiterate it at the closing of your essay. (MORE)
here's a useful mnemonic that I used in medical school: 1. Some - olfactory (sensory) 2. Say - optic (sensory) 3. Marry - oculomotor (motor) 4. Money - trochlear (motor) 5. B…ut - trigeminal (both) 6. My - abducens (motor) 7. Brother - facial (both) 8. Says - vestibulocholear (sensory) 9. Big - glossopharyngeal (both) 10. Boobs - vagus (both) 11. Matter - accessory (motor) 12. More - hypoglossal (motor) (MORE)
There are 12 cranial nerves, they are as followed; (I) Olfactory (II) Optic (III) Oculomotor (IV) Trochlear (V) Trigeminal (VI) Abducens (VII) Facial (VIII) Vestibulocochlear …(IX) Glossopharyngeal (X) Vagus (XI) Accessory (XII) Hypoglossal (MORE)