What does mcmlxxxiii stand for in roman numerals?
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89i - 1x - 10l - 5050+10+10+10+(10-1)= 89
19 because x is 10 and I is 1 and if a smaller number is in front of a larger number then you subtract the smaller number from the bigger number so it would be 10-1 which is 9… so it is 19 (MORE)
If you were a student living in ancient Rome, and were given a homework assignment involving math, it probably wouldn't be all that difficult. While the system of Roman numera…l letters may at first glance appear to be cumbersome, it really isn't. It takes less effort to write C instead of 100, or M instead of 1,000. The Romans did not have to worry about calculus since it hadn't been invented yet. Their mathematics primarily consisted of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and they had the abacus, an ancient version of the pocket calculator to help them out.The Roman numerals are based upon counting. The letter I, meaning 1, could be a notch on the stick. The other letters V, X, L, C, and M, are essentially shorthand. It would be hard to read a string of 33 I's without making a mistake. XXXIII is much easier to read and much faster to write. The largest number represented by a letter is 1,000. That letter is an M. The Romans didn't need numbers that represented billions or trillions. They didn't have to count that many things, and could do a lot with the letters they had to represent larger numbers. The year 1989 for example would be written MCMLXXXIX. M is 1,000, CM is 900, LXXX is 80, and IX is 9. The letters V, X, L, and C stand for 5, 10, 50, and 100, respectively.If you wish to add two numbers expressed as Roman numerals, you do three things. First you convert numbers using prefixes, such as IX which means 9, to the same number expressed with suffixes. In this case 9 would be written as VIIII. You then concatenate the numbers, which means placing one against the other. If you want to add 9 or IX to 23, which is XXIII, you change IX to VIIII and add it to XXIII, giving you VIIIIXXIII. Unless you are a Roman, that doesn't mean anything. You next have to group like letters together. That gives you XXVIIIIIII. XX is 20, and VIIIIII is 5 plus 7, which equals 12. The shorter designation for 12 is XII. Your answer becomes XXXII which is 32.Subtraction is no more difficult. To subtract 19, or XIX, from 124, or CXXIV, you first remove the prefixes and change them to suffixes, changing 19 to XVIIII and 124 to CXXIIII. Now you write 124 ? 19 as CXXIIII ? XVIIII. You need to eliminate common terms as you would in an algebraic equation, so you'll need a 'V' on each side. Change CXXIIII to CXVVIIII because 5 plus 5, or V plus V, equals 10, or X. Now you have CXVVIIII ? XVIIII. Eliminating the like terms, which in this case are X, V, and IIII, leaves you with CV or 105. It gets easier with practice.Here you place one number in a left-hand column and the number it is to be multiplied to in a right hand column. The numbers are of course in Roman numeral notation. Divide the number in the left-hand column by 2 and discard the remainder. Multiply the number in the right hand column by 2. Repeat the process, always throwing out any remainder in the left-hand column, which if present will be a 1. When you are done, you will end up with a 1 in the left hand column and a large number in the right hand column. Now take both columns and strike out the rows where the left-side numbers are even numbers. Add together the numbers in the remaining right-hand column rows and the result is your answer. What you have essentially done is used a binary system to arrive at your answer, much as a computer does.To do division with Roman numerals you have to work the problem as a computer would. That is to say you would have to do a series of subtractions. There is no one method that seems to be better than any other method. It is somewhat of a brute force calculation in which an abacus could come in very handy. About the only shortcut you could employ would be to divide both numbers by two until you get the lowest possible two numbers. In other words, use a factoring process. You can only do that of course if both numbers are even numbers to start with. Roman schoolboys probably hated division.The Romans did not have a symbol for zero. That does not create a problem if you are counting or adding. If you are subtracting and end up at zero, in the Roman way of thinking you simply end up with nothing. Insofar as fractions are concerned, they were not expressed as numerical notations but as words. The Roman would write "one third" instead of some variation of III. They did make use of what is called an uncia, which means 1/12 of anything. One-half for example would consist of 6 uncias. There was not any standard system in place to deal with either fractions or decimals.If you stop to think about it, the Roman system might make more sense when it comes to counting than the Arabic numbering system in use today. A III has more to say than does a 3 to the uninitiated. While multiplication requires a bit of skill, and division requires quite a bit more, most Romans did not have to worry themselves with arithmetic. Most of the mathematical answers they required in their day-to-day living could be arrived at by counting, even if it meant cutting notches on a stick, where some believe the system got its start.The Roman numerals are based upon counting. The letter I, meaning 1, could be a notch on the stick. The other letters V, X, L, C, and M are essentially shorthand. It would be hard to read a string of 33 I's without making a mistake. XXXIII is much easier to read and faster to write. (MORE)
Whether you're in elementary school, high school, or college, letters always appear in your math lessons. One way that this happens is through the ancient Roman numeric system… known as Roman numerals. Roman numerals can be fun, but for some students, they can be difficult and overly complex. In this article, you'll find all of the important questions about Roman numerals answered simply and efficiently, so that you can know everything about this method of expressing numbers through letters.The Roman numbers that are used today are as follows: * The number 1 is represented by the letter I. * The number 5 is represented by the letter V. * The number 10 is represented by the letter X. * The number 50 is represented by the letter L. * The number 100 is represented by the letter C. * The number 500 is represented by the letter D. * The number 1,000 is represented by the letter M.The Roman numeral I is the most complicated Roman numeral of them all (so far as the smaller numbers are concerned), as it is the numeral used to subtract from V and X. Only three I numerals can be used consecutively. This means that you cannot create the number four using nothing but the letter I. Instead, you must follow the second rule for Roman numeral I. This rule states that if an I or a sequence of them follows a different Roman numeral, each Roman numeral I is subtracted from the initial value of the number that it (or they) followed. For example, the number four is created by placing Roman numeral V (for 5) behind a single Roman numeral I (for 1). This will translate as 5 minus 1, which results in the number 4. Hence, you would create the number 9 by writing the Roman numeral X (for 10) following a single Roman numeral I. A slightly more complex number is fourteen, which would play out as follows: XIV, meaning 10 plus 5 minus 1. Now that you understand the rules for I, you can apply them to larger numbers. These rules also work for the letters X (10) and C (100). However, X only subtracts from L (50) and C, and C only subtracts from M (1,000) and D (500). Apart from that difference, the same rules of subtraction that apply to the letter I apply to the letters X and C.As you create larger numbers, Roman numerals can become more complex. Sequences of thousands and numbers that subtract singular numbers repeatedly can be incredibly complicated and can occasionally take quite some time to decipher. Here are some examples: * MMMMCMXCIX is the Roman numeral for 4,999. The M's (1000) translate as 4,000, and the CM (1000 minus 100) represents 900. The next numbers are XCIX, meaning 90 and then 9, resulting in 4,999. * MCMXCIV is the Roman number for 1994. Translating from left to right, here is how this equation is figured: 1,000 (M) plus (1,000 minus 100 equals 900) (CM) plus (100 minus 10 equals 90) (XC) plus (5 minus 1 equals 4) (IV), which equals 1,000 plus 900 plus 90 plus 4. When you add these together, the total is 1994.There are several theories as to where Roman numerals came from. One of the more prominent theories is that Roman numerals were derived from original tally marks. The reason for this theory is that Roman numerals are derived from letters that can all easily be created using the same straight lines. Even C can be created using merely two straight lines that were used to create tally sticks. This not only made it very easy to carve into stone later on, but it made it quite easy to communicate. Clearly, the actual notches made from the original tally marks differ slightly from Roman numerals, but the resemblance is obvious, and the rules are similar. However, Roman numerals are far more efficient than the tallies.Roman numerals can be tough to master. However, once you do master them, you'll be able to read and understand them quite easily. While the rules of subtraction may seem difficult and complicated, memorizing which letter corresponds with which number is the part that is the most difficult. Memorize the symbols and letters, and everything else about Roman numerals should be easy to understand.Alfred Hooper has another theory about the origins of Roman numerals. He believes that they were derived explicitly from or for hand signal usage. (MORE)
In the 7th century BC, Rome began its adventure in writing. Although the skill of reading and writing was restricted to the wealthy, it was a crucial element to the developmen…t of the Romans in order to record thoughts and ideas. It was even used as a form of entertainment during Rome's time. The Romans had quite a variety of tools to write with, both expensive and inexpensive, and in fact some of their methods are quite similar to the ones we use today. Many of the methods and the alphabet itself is very similar to that which is seen today.The Romans adopted the Latin alphabet, which was introduced to them by the Greeks. They expanded this alphabet to better suit their own needs. Within the first century BC, this alphabet was refined by the Romans to consist of a total of 21 letters, and it was soon expanded to contain the letters K, Y, and Z. This Latin alphabet was very similar to our own, and it should not be surprising as much of our alphabet was inspired by this alphabet. Writing was an art of refinement for the Romans. They experimented with the art and have eventually settled on writing with a left to right method, similar to that of English methods today.The Romans often chiseled their alphabet into pillars, buildings, and other stone structures. These 'writings' had no form of punctuation to speak of and typically look to be an uninterrupted paragraph of text. They wrote using ink and papyrus, a form of paper made from the papyrus plant. They also used wax tablets, into which they could carve their letters. These wax tablets could be erased and were far less expensive than more permanent methods of writing, and thus were used frequently as a tool for instruction.The Romans did not spread the wealth of knowledge when it came to reading or writing. Typically only the children of wealthy parents were taught how to read and write. These children typically started their tutoring at the age of six. These children practiced using what was called a 'stylus', which was a stick used to write letters onto wax tablets during that era. This allowed the children to easily rub out letters as needed to better refine their writing abilities. Wax tablets, due to their cost effectiveness, made tutoring a bit more accessible to the wealthy.Rome's writing was diverse in nature. It was a tool used to communicate ideas between those who had the necessary schooling to read and write. It was also a method to express oneself through the writing of poetry or other arts of entertainment. While reading and writing was a tool of the privileged, it was nonetheless a valuable tool for recording thoughts and ideas so that they may be referred to at a future date. Unfortunately many of these writings did not survive the test of time, though the chiseled letters of stone remain to inform researchers as to how the Romans developed and used this alphabet.The alphabet they took in and refined is very similar to that we have today. Writing may have been an art restricted to the wealthy in the Roman era, but they took great pride in it as can be seen by the wondrous works carved into their structures that still stand to this day. Even their methods have carried on for a very long time. It would be false to give Rome all the credit for today's writing, but they've certainly had a hand in its development.The Latin alphabet had a high impact in English literature today, but the numbers used today stem from Arabic culture. Roman numerals are vastly different to what we use today, and they typically consisted of a combination of Latin letters to represent the thought of a number. (MORE)
Chinese numerals have gone through several evolutions throughout the course of history. In ancient China, mathematics was considered an art form, and those with a high ability… for doing calculations were considered masters of the arts. Numerals have many important meanings in China, from simple counting through the highly metaphysical numerology system. This list presents an overview of five of the ways the Chinese number system has changed over time.In 1899, Chinese archaeologists found bones inscribed with ancient Chinese script. Included with these bones were examples of the number system. This was found to be very different from the number symbols used in standard script today. Much numerical information was found on these bones; it included the numbers of men lost to war, populations of the times, and even identified that ancient Chinese math was based on a decimal system, much like the one that is used throughout the world today.The bamboo rod method of calculating mathematics was created around 2,000 BC. It used bamboo rods placed in groups and lines, allowing for higher calculation than was previously seen. Only the numbers from one to nine were represented in this form of mathematics; zero did not have a place due to the hands-on approach of laying the rods. Rods could be arranged in specific columns and rows to represent extremely high numbers.Around 220 BC, the book, "Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art" was written. It was during this time that the Chinese mathematical system was standardized. This book is still referred to by many math teachers and math masters in China, even today.Around 263 AD, Chinese mathematician Liu Hui produced a long commentary on the "Nine Chapters of the Mathematical Art." This influence caused a further evolution of the number system and included a better way to solve for pi. In fact, Liu Hui was the first math master to correctly solve pi to 3.14 in China.The belief that numbers were directly associated with the metaphysical also had an impact on the symbols used within Chinese numerals. It is believed that the ancient mythical Chinese leader Hu created the idea of numerology during his time as emperor. To this day, some numbers are considered more important to Chinese people than others.Chinese numerals continue to go through many evolutions. Today, math masters in China work the same jobs found in America. They often become teachers, physicists, scientists, and researchers. Many math masters also become computer programmers or web developers. This is likely because there is a common link between math and coding; most code is based on mathematical calculations at its base.Math is considered one of the most important subjects to learn within Chinese schools, and the level which students are encouraged to attain is much higher than what is found in American culture. Often, Chinese students are practicing calculus by the time they reach the equivalent of junior high. (MORE)
The Roman Amphitheater played a central role in everyday life, as well as hosting spectacular events for the Roman people. Gladiator fights would be held there on a regular ba…sis, and these were one of the most popular events that could be witnessed in an amphitheater. As the Christian Roman era was established, these theaters were instead used as venues for criminal prosecution and execution. Today, many amphitheaters remain in Europe, acting as glorious historical structures that can be visited.In a modern context, gladiator fights would be considered to be cruel. To the Romans, they were a central part of entertainment that could be enjoyed by people of all social classes. It is believed that the first gladiator fight took place in 234 BC when slaves were made to fight to the death following the passing of Brutus. After the success of this fight, gladiator events became a regular feature of Roman culture. The majority of gladiators were slaves who would be trained, fed well, and prepared for life as professional Roman fighters. In some cases, men would volunteer to become gladiators, but it was more common for slaves to be used. Gladiators would fight to the death, competing on the behalf of their masters.Initially, amphitheaters were built in a way that is very different from the ones that can still be seen today across Europe. Multiple wooden structures were erected to host small gladiator games. It wasn't until the Imperial Roman era that the amphitheaters were built for holding tens of thousands of bloodthirsty gladiator spectators. Around 27 BC, the Romans began to build theaters that could hold up to 70,000 people. This signified a point when gladiator fights became a popular part of Roman culture.The use of amphitheaters began to decline during the third century. It is believed that this is because Christian influences led to a philosophical disapproval of the use of human battles for the purpose of entertainment. In addition to this, the Romans were suffering from an economic decline, which meant that they could no longer indulge in holding expensive gladiator battles. Temporarily, amphitheaters were used to host fights between animals. Eventually, even fighting between animals did not appeal to the increasing number of Christians living in the Roman Empire. At the end of the amphitheater building period they were used for public executions and criminal trials.Over 230 Roman amphitheaters still exist across Europe and North Africa. While some of these are crumbling remains, others continue to stand as a testimony to the foreboding structures that hosted the gladiator games during the Roman imperialist period. The most famous amphitheater in the world is the Colosseum in Rome. It is the largest amphitheater to have been built by the Romans, and was capable of seating up to 50,000 spectators. Over the course of its history, the Colosseum has been used as a temporary castle for the Frangipani family, the home of a religious order in the 14th century, and even an arena where prostitutes arrested in 16th century Rome could produce cotton. These buildings across Europe continue to be maintained by heritage charities and organisations, including UNESCO, which means that those who love Roman history can visit them.The amphitheaters of the Roman period were some of the Romans most impressive architectural achievements. Over the course of hundreds of years, they played host to some of the bloodiest battles to have taken place between gladiators. As they gradually declined, they became home to battles between animals, executions, and several obscure purposes. Today, these amphitheaters stand across Europe and North Africa in various states of decline. Heritage movements are consistently making an effort to ensure that they remain open to the public. As a result, it is possible to explore this aspect of Roman culture, and witness the place where gladiator fights were once held.The Colosseum has continued to stand in Rome despite several natural events that have threatened to damage it. In the 13th century, an earthquake caused significant damage. In the 18th and 19th centuries, vegetation began to creep between the cracks of the Colosseum, threatening to cause further damage. Restoration projects have prevented the building from declining altogether. (MORE)
Ancient and Medieval Rome were male-dominated societies; however, social class and political significance of a person's family certainly played a role in the lives of women as… much as it did in those of men. As such, the life of the Roman empress was ruled by social and political customs. These included the specific role the empress herself was designated to play in the political and social structure of the Roman Republic, and later, the Roman Empire. Many of the Roman empresses had little lasting influence on history, though the same can be said for many of the Roman emperors. However, there are a number of the empresses, who did make a significant mark.Rome was first a monarchy, then a 500-year republic, followed by a long period of imperial conquest, during which the Roman Empire reigned. In the monarchical period there were queens rather than empresses, and Roman mythology notes Hersilia, wife of god-king Romulus, as the first queen of Rome. During the age of the Roman Republic, the city and its territories were ruled by a senate and there were therefore no queens or empresses during this time. In 27 BCE, Augustus assumed power as the first official emperor, and his wife, Livia, became the first Roman empress.While women were not afforded official political positions of power in ancient Rome, this did not stop many, like Livia, from possessing power by virtue of their class and station in society. Throughout her marriage, Livia enjoyed a relatively influential position as counselor to her husband. Their unique relationship, which appears to have been one of mutual respect and admiration, afforded Livia more influence as Roman empress than most of her successors ever enjoyed. She was even allowed control over her own money, an unprecedented role for a woman of her time, even one of the noble classes and advanced political and social standing.The Roman Empire existed in the west from 27 BCE to 479 ACE, survived in the east, as the Byzntine Empire, even after disintegrating in the west, remaining a viable empire up through 1453, when the capital city of Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks. Even prior to the collapse of the western center of government however, it was common practice for there to be more than one emperor at a time in different parts of the realm. For this reason, there were at times more than one Roman empress as well. If one counts the empresses of the Eastern and Western Empires, including those of the Byzantine period, as well as the various "empresses" who were the consorts and mistresses of the emperors of Roman, as many were also afforded the title of empress, then there were more than 130 other Roman empresses in the years that followed Livia's reign.Livia is one of the most famous, simply by virtue of being the first Empress of Rome. Vibia Sabina, empress to Hadrian, had a strong hand in court politics, which was unusual in Rome. Helena Lekapene, who was the wife of Emperor Constantius I, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, is famous for her role in establishing Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, and for her canonization as Saint Helena. Of all the Roman empresses however, Theodora I, often referred to as co-regent of Justinian I, is by far the most famous.Theodora I, who reigned with Emperor Justinian I, in the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, from 527 to 548 ACE, is an interesting historical figure as well as an influential empress. She was, in her youth, a dancer and actress, and became a wool spinner by trade before marrying Justinian. As empress, she was instrumental in maintaining Constantinople during the Nika Riots, and was very involved in matters of law and state throughout her reign. Most notably, she played a central role in passing laws extending the rights of women, including edicts against forced prostitution, making death the penalty for rapists, allowing divorced women to keep a portion of the possessions and monies from their marriage, and preventing women accused of adultery from being executed.In the west, the last emperor, Julius Nepos, was deposed and exiled from Rome in 475 ACE, though his formal reign continued until 479, or by some accounts 480 ACE. The name of his empress has been lost to history. Remaining texts note her as simply the niece of the Byzantine Emperor Leo I. The last empress of the Byzantine, or Eastern Roman, Empire was Maria Megale Konene, who was the third wife of emperor John Palaiologos VII.There were more than 130 women who held the title of Roman empress throughout the more than 1,500 years of the combined reign of the Roman Empire in the west and the east. Many of these women, like their spouses, left little of true historic merit from their time in power. There are some however, such as Livia, Vibia Sabina, Helena, and Theodora, who left an indelible mark on history. Of these women, Helena is commonly viewed as the most influential western Roman empress, while Theodora is the most notable of the eastern empresses.Nine of the Roman empresses from the western and eastern empires were executed. The first was Milonia Caesonia, wife of Caligula, who was assassinated just hours after her husband. Two of the empresses killed while reagent were associated with Nero: his mother, Agrippina the Younger, and his wife, Claudia Octavia. Fausta, empress to Contantine I, was quite likely executed for adultery. A former empress, and sister of the Emperor Commodus, Lucilla's execution was ordered by her brother the emperor, following the discovery of her involvement in an assassination plot designed to return her to the role of Roman empress. (MORE)
LVI is 50+5+1 = 56 XL is 50-10 =40 so... XLVI is 40+5+1 = 46. I = 1 V = 5 X = 10 L = 50 C = 100 D = 500 M = 1000 Improved answer: XLVI = 46
MCM stands for 1900. M is 1000. C is 100. Because a smaller lies before a bigger roman numeral you must substract. So 1000 + (1000-100) = 1900 or MCM.