# What was the future date recorded in the Tunguska region when the soil was radiocarbon dated by Italian scientists in the 1990s?

# What is radiocarbon dating or carbon-14 and how does it work?

Radiocarbon Dating All organic matter contains carbon, which is an element. But there are different types of carbon, called isotopes. The most common isotope is carbon-12 (or 12 C), which (according the article) makes up 98.89 percent of the naturally occurring carbon. There's carbon-13, or 13 C,… which is much rarer, accounting for only 1.11 percent, and then there's carbon-14, or 14 C, which makes up a ridiculously tiny fraction of existing carbon. (The periodic table of the elements also reflects the existence of isotopes by showing a weighted average for the atomic weight of each element, but I digress.) The first two isotopes, 12 C and 13 C, are stable, but 14 C is unstable; that is, it's radioactive! So far, so good. Nothing hard to get your brain around. Living organic matter will have steady and predictable concentrations of each isotope of carbon, pretty much the percentages mentioned above. But dead stuff won't. After something dies, the 14 C decays over time (because it is radioactive) and doesn't replenish as it would in a live specimen because the dead thing isn't eating and breathing or otherwise exchanging molecules with the outside world anymore). In other words, the amount of 14 C in dead organic matter will grow smaller. And since scientists know exactly how long an amount of 14 C takes to decay, they can compare the amount of 14 C in a specimen to the amount of 14 C a modern piece of organic matter and calculate the age of the specimen. Since it takes 5,568 years for an amount of 14 C to decay by 50 percent (half), if a specimen has one half the amount of 14 C as a modern piece of organic matter might have, we conclude it is about 5,568 years old. Here's an analogy: Imagine you have a gallon of water to which you add one ounce of blue dye. And say that every 5,568 years you add another gallon of water to the mixture. Doing that basically cuts the concentration of blue dye in half. You then take a gallon of that diluted mixture and add another gallon of pure water to it 5,568 years later. The concentration of blue dye is cut in half again. Now imagine repeating this process for quite some time. If you take a sample of the diluted water and measure the concentration of blue dye, you will be able to determine how many dilutions took place, and since you know the dilutions happen every 5,568 years, you can estimate how old the sample is. See link below for more information. Answer Carbon-14 builds up in living tissue at a constant rate and starts to break down when the tissue dies. Scientists can measure the amount of carbon-14 in a piece of old wood for instance, and say that because there is only a certain amount left, the tree died 1000 years ago. (MORE)

# How is radiocarbon dating used?

Basically carbon-14 is one isotope of Carbon that is naturally present in living things, but it unstable. So it emits a ball of two protons and two-neutrons to become carbon-12, which is a type of radioactive decay. But measuring how much carbon-12 is in a formerly living thing compared to carbon…-14 and doing some math with what is called a half-life you can date things to within a certain range. Unfortunately it is not precise enough to date some really old things with much certainty, and it can only be used to date stuff that was once alive. (MORE)

# Why can radiocarbon dating not be used on some artifacts?

Although radiocarbon dating provides a useful tool there are some things that may make an artifact unsuitable for this process. .
The artifact is made from the wrong type of material. Carbon dating relies on measurement of radioactive decay from carbon 14 isotopes, some materials naturally do …not contain enough carbon to date them. .
Radiocarbon dating is a destructive process . In order to conduct dating on an artifact you need a sample of it. Although this sample may only need to be very small, some artifacts are too precious to damage in this way. .
There may not be enough of it. Even if the sample is suitable in every other way, if you don't have enough of it then you cant do the test. Modern methods mean you may only need tiny amounts of carbon from the sample (0.1g) but depending on how much carbon is naturally in the material, this may translate to a fair amount of the original artifact. Carbon dates from small amounts of material also tend to be less accurate, and ideally you want to run several tests to be sure. .
The artifact may be too old . Radiocarbon dating is only effective back to a certain point. Beyond this there may not be enough radioactivity left in the sample to measure it. Also, radiocarbon dates need "correcting" on a calibration curve to correct the discrepancy between the age given in radiocarbon years and actual calendar years. Beyond around 45,000 years ago this curve is not so effective, and the remaining carbon-14 in the sample may be too small to measure. .
The artifact may be too young . Radiocarbon dating relies on the exchange of carbon through the carbon cycle. Recent human activity has affected the amounts of carbon in the atmosphere making carbon dating far less effective more recently than the early 1700. This is because processes such as the release old carbon into the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels and atmospheric nuclear weapons testing have led to dramatic peaks and dips in the amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere. .
The sample may be contaminated. Contamination may occur before or after sampling and cause errors in the date that is produced. For example, water can disolve and deposit organic material changing the isotope levels. However, in most cases this can be dealt with in the lab during the sample preperation process. Archaeologists also take steps when selecting and recovering samples to minimise this potential problem. (MORE)

# How does radiocarbon dating work?

Answer .
All living things absorb C14 carbon while they are alive on earth. When they die, they stop absorbing C14 and it begins to decay. Radiocarbon dating measures the amount of carbon-14 left in human or plant remains, and then scientists can estimate the amount of time the thing has been de…ad (MORE)

# What is radiocarbon dating?

Radiocarbon dating is an radioactive isotope dating technique used in dating materials which contain the unstable carbon-14 isotope. Radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of previously living organisms.

# Where do you find a scientist or company that does Radiocarbon dating?

There are around 100 laboratories worldwide that conduct radiocarbon dating tests. A website with list of them can be found in the related links section below.

# Can you date charcoal using radiocarbon dating?

Yes, because charcoal is the result of a fire ... burnt wood (which was a lining tree).

# Can scientists use radiocarbon dating to find the age of a very tall old redwood tree living in an old forest?

It would be possible to find the age of a tree using radiocarbon dating. This is because as a tree lays down each of its growth rings it is only the outer layers which continue to exchange carbon with the atmosphere. Therefore, by dating a sample of wood from the INNER ring of the tree you could fin…d out when it first began to grow. Unfortunately this process would be slightly pointless for two reasons, firstly you would have to kill the tree, and secondly dendrochronology, or tree ring dating remains the most accurate dating method available to archaeologists (where a suitable sample can be found) so it would make much more sense to just count the rings (if the tree was still living) or use dendrochronology to match up the rings and find a date (if the tree has been dead). (MORE)

# How do archaeologists determine the age of remains through radiocarbon dating?

It uses the amount of Carbon 14 available in living creatures as ameasuring stick. When an organism dies, the amount of C14 availablewithin it begins to decay and it takes 5730 years for 1/2 of theC14 available in the organism to decay.

# How is carbon-14 used in radiocarbon dating?

We can measure the rate of C-14 decay. Since the halflife of C-14 is about 6000 years, if half the C-14 in an object has decayed then the object is 6000 years old.

# Can radiocarbon dating be used to find the age of a tall tree?

Radiometric dating, specifically carbon dating, can be used to find the age of an old tree. In the past, cutting a tree down and counting rings was the method used to get to the innermost material of a tree. Then you could count the rings. Presently, the inner regions of old and valuable trees ar…e regularly sampled with a coring tool that extracts a small cylinder of material without killing the tree. One can count the rings with the core, and that is most common. (This is not unlike the idea behind ice cores.) Using the core for radiometric dating is more tedious, but may be needed if something about the growth pattern leaves ring counting undesirable. It is interesting to note that in the past, carbon dating was calibrated using data from tree rings but now the process is reversed. (MORE)

# How does dendrochronology assist radiocarbon dating?

Tree rings provided truly known-age material needed to check the accuracy of radiocarbon dating as a method. During the late 1950s, several scientists (notably the Dutchman Hessel de Vries) were able to confirm the discrepancy between radiocarbon ages and calendar ages through results gathered from …radiocarbon dating tree rings dated through dendrochronology. Today, tree rings are still used to calibrate radiocarbon determinations. Libraries of tree rings of different calendar ages are now available to provide records extending back over the last 11,000 years. Source: http://www.radiocarbon.eu/tree-ring-calibration.htm (MORE)

# What is the age limit for radiocarbon dating of fossils?

The age limits for radiocarbon dating anything is about 100-40,000 years. However, to date the early hominid fossils that have been found in Africa scientists have used Argon/Argon dating to date the volcanic lava and ash it was buried between. The age limits of Argon/Argon dating are 1,000 to the …oldest rocks on earth. Generally, you never really date the item of interest when figuring out the age. You will date items that it was used with, buried with, cooked with, etc. Many different dating methods are used to date the items and the age limits vary between each method. (MORE)

# What are problems with radiocarbon dating?

The following answer, which is factually inaccurate, was taken almost verbatim from http://contenderministries.org/evolution/carbon14.php. I will leave it here in it's entirety but add in notations to better the question asker's understanding of the subject. One problem is that it (Carbon-14 Dati…ng) may not be accurate because it relies on several assumptions (or guesses) that have not been proven (using the scientific method) to be true. 1. It assumes the rate of decay of carbon-14 has remained constant over billions of years. Radioactive decay rates do not change. Ever. 2. It assumes the rate of carbon-14 formation has remained constant over billions of years. False. See my notation after #3. 3. It assumes the concentrations of carbon-14 and carbon-12 have remained constant in the atmosphere over billions of years. This is false. When scientists perform carbon dating they use a calibration curve (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating#The_need_for_calibration) to compensate for varying levels of carbon 14 in the atmosphere caused by variations in the rate of carbon-14 formation. They do NOT assume the levels of carbon-14 have been constant forever. 4. It assumes the amount of carbon-14 being presently produced had equaled the amount of carbon-12, so that it had reached a "balance" that does not change. This is not only false but completely made up. 5. It assumes all plant and animal life utilize carbon-14 equally as they do carbon-12. It assumes no mechanism for straining out some or all of carbon-14 and using only carbon-12. This is because no one has ever show such a mechanism to exist. The reason long term carbon dating (such as for determining the age of the earth) is not accurate is that we have no idea what the carbon-14 levels were past a certain point. for the short term (less than 45,000 years) carbon dating is indeed accurate due to calibration curves allowing scientists to compensate for varying levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere. So its like a blind date its not gonna go well now is it da (MORE)

# Where can radiocarbon dating be done?

Radiocarbon dating can be done at a variety of research institutions including Woods Whole and UC Irvine. Radiocarbon dating is done in labs with equipment specific to carbon 14 analysis. Most radiocarbon dating labs have liquid scintillation counters for radiometric dating and accelerator mass s…pectrometers for AMS dating. (MORE)

# Are carbon dating and radiocarbon dating the same?

Yes, carbon dating and radiocarbon dating refer to the same test, which is the analysis of the carbon 14 isotope.

# The process involved in radiocarbon dating?

There are 3 principal radiocarbon dating techniques - gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Gas proportional counting counts the beta particles emitted by a given sample - a product of radiocarbon decay. Liquid scintillation counting de…pends on the interaction between the scintillator and the beta particles. AMS dating counts the number of carbon atoms in a sample relative to the carbon 12 and carbon 13 present. Details found here: http://www.radiocarbon.eu/about-carbon-dating.htm (MORE)

# How does radiocarbon dating or carbon-14 dating work?

Carbon is a naturally abundant element found in the atmosphere, in the earth, in the oceans, and in every living creature. C-12 is by far the most common isotope, while only about one in a trillion carbon atoms is C-14. C-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when nitrogen-14 (N-14) is altered thro…ugh the effects of cosmic radiation bombardment (a proton is displaced by a neutron effectively changing the nitrogen atom into a carbon isotope). The new isotope is called "radiocarbon" because it is radioactive, though it is not dangerous. It is naturally unstable and so it will spontaneously decay back into N-14 after a period of time. It takes about 5,730 years for half of a sample of radiocarbon to decay back into nitrogen. It takes another 5,730 for half of the remainder to decay, and then another 5,730 for half of what's left then to decay and so on. The period of time that it takes for half of a sample to decay is called a "half-life." Radiocarbon oxidizes (that is, it combines with oxygen) and enters the biosphere through natural processes like breathing and eating. Plants and animals naturally incorporate both the abundant C-12 isotope and the much rarer radiocarbon isotope into their tissues in about the same proportions as the two occur in the atmosphere during their lifetimes. When a creature dies, it ceases to consume more radiocarbon while the C-14 already in its body continues to decay back into nitrogen. So, if we find the remains of a dead creature whose C-12 to C-14 ratio is half of what it's supposed to be (that is, one C-14 atom for every two trillion C-12 atoms instead of one in every trillion) we can assume the creature has been dead for about 5,730 years (since half of the radiocarbon is missing, it takes about 5,730 years for half of it to decay back into nitrogen). If the ratio is a quarter of what it should be (one in every four trillion) we can assume the creature has been dead for 11,460 year (two half-lives). After about 10 half-lives, the amount of radiocarbon left becomes too miniscule to measure and so this technique isn't useful for dating specimens which died more than 60,000 years ago. Another limitation is that this technique can only be applied to organic material such as bone, flesh, or wood. It can't be used to date rocks directly. (MORE)

# Radiocarbon dating is only accurate for objects no more than?

Radiocarbon dating is effective for material of an age up to around 45,000 years before present.

# What is radiocarbon dating of fossils?

Carbon atoms are contained in most cells of all living things on Earth. Most carbon atoms (98.89 percent) are called carbon-12 because they have 6 neutrons and 6 protons in their nuclei. Most of the remaining atoms (1.11 percent) have 7 neutrons along with their 6 protons and are called carbon-13 at…oms, but a very small quantity (called a trace amount) of carbon atoms have 8 neutrons and 6 protons. These and are called carbon-14 atoms. Carbon-14 atoms are radioactive and are referred to as radiocarbon. They are unstable, and decay slowly by releasing electrons before evolving into nitrogen-14 atoms. A living organisms constantly absorbs carbon in its body systems by respiration and processing nutrients, and the amount of carbon-14 it contains remains fairly constant for as long as it lives. The carbon-14 decays without being replaced after the organism dies and half of the carbon-14 nuclei will disintegrate in about 5,730 years. The amount of carbon-14 that has disintegrated in a fossilized organism can be calculated and used for determining its age. (MORE)

# Are there other isotope dating techniques besides radiocarbon dating?

There are various isotopic dating methods other than radiocarbon dating, and even more in development. Some include: .
Uranium Series Dating .
Lead 210 Dating .
Potassium Argon Dating

# Can you use radiocarbon dating on shale containing leaf fossils?

No , fossils are just the impressions of an organis m engraved on geo logic material (rock, sediment, resin etc). Scientists use radiometric dating to date these types of materials.

# Whcih two substances do geologists use in radiocarbon dating?

There are two isotopes of carbon that are used to carbon date asubstance. This is because the half life of carbon is well known toscientists.

# Why do scientists use a 120 year range when radiocarbon dating an artifact?

Scientists do not always use a 120 year range when radiocarbon dating an artifact. Calibrated radiocarbon ages are often expressed as below 2670 (Â± 120) where 2670 refers to the age of the sample and the 120 after the symbol indicates that this age may be older or younger than the given age …by 120 years. This varying level of precision comes in because the calibration curves used to turn radiocarbon ages into calender dates are not perfectly smooth, and it may be that for some preiods a radiocarbon age may be equivilent to serveal calender dates. This margin of error varies depending on the age of the sample and for some periods will be significantly less (maybe only a decade or so) and for some periods will be significantly more (for example during the early Iron age, 800 - 400BC where radiocarbon dating can offer no greater precision than several hundered years. (MORE)

# How is radiocarbon dating used by scientists?

Radiocarbon dating is a tool for archaeologists to know the age of materials. The method can tell scientists when a living organism died but not how it died. Radiocarbon dating has an industrial application developed by the ASTM. The method, called ASTM D6866, quantifies the biomass fraction of m…aterials. The USDA BioPreferred Program, for example, requires ASTM D6866 to determine the biobased content of products. The US EPA also requires ASTM D6866 to determine the biogenic or renewable carbon fraction of carbon dioxide emissions from manufacturing plants that use a mix of coal and biomass as fuels. (MORE)

# What are the limitations of radiocarbon dating?

Not all materials can be radiocarbon dated. Most, if not all, organic compounds can be dated. Some inorganic matter, like a shell's aragonite fraction, can also be dated for as long as their formation involved assimilation of carbon 14 in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Radiocarbon dating does n…ot provide useful information on materials with no carbon 14 like coal. (MORE)

# Radiocarbon dating would be useful in dating the age of the earth?

Radiocarbon dating cannot be used to determine the age of fossils or "of the earth" because these materials no longer have radiocarbon or have negligible amount of radiocarbon.

# Is radiocarbon dating accurate?

Radiocarbon dating is incredibly accurate. However, on occasions it may not be particularly precise and the date given my include a range of several decades.

# How does radiocarbon dating help scientists understand how old a fossil is?

Paleontologists can radioactively date a fossil by determining the amount of carbon-14 isotopes remaining in the specimen. Elements decay by half-lives, meaning that after one half-life, half of the sample's radioactive particles are gone.

# What are the advantages of radiocarbon dating method in archeology?

It is one of the most accurate dating methods and it is completely natrual. .
It is used with C-14 which is an unstable element made from atmospheric nitrogen that has been boken down. it is then delivered down to earth through atmospheric activity, storms for instance..
Discovered by: Willard Lib…by and J. Arnold.. (MORE)

# What is meant by half life in radiocarbon dating?

Half-life in radiological terms is the length of time for one half of an isotope to undergo decay to something else. It is an inverse exponential function, in that after successive half-lives there will be 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, etc. of the original isotope remaining. The equation for half-life is ...… A T = A 0 2 (-T/H) ... where A 0 is the starting activity or mass, A T is the activity or mass at time T, and H is the half-live in units of T. The half-life of 6 C 14 is 5730 years. By measuring its ratio to 6 C 12 and 6 C 13 in a carbonaceous sample, such as plant life remains, scientists can estimate the age of the sample. It is a relatively straightforward process, except that the ratio changes over time due to variations in cosmic ray levels from the Sun as well as due to climate changes that disturb deep reservoirs of carbon, so scientists calibrate by comparing samples using other dating techniques to cross-check. (MORE)

# In living things what is the source of the carbon14 that is used in radiocarbon dating?

Carbon atoms are contained in most cells of all living things on Earth. Most carbon atoms (98.89 percent) are called carbon-12 because they have 6 neutrons and 6 protons in their nuclei. Most of the remaining atoms (1.11 percent) have 7 neutrons along with their 6 protons and are called carbon-13 at…oms, but a very small quantity (called a trace amount) of carbon atoms have 8 neutrons and 6 protons. These and are called carbon-14 atoms. Carbon-14 atoms are radioactive and are referred to as radiocarbon. They are unstable, and decay slowly by releasing electrons before evolving into nitrogen-14 atoms. A living organisms constantly absorbs carbon in its body systems by respiration and processing nutrients, and the amount of carbon-14 it contains remains fairly constant for as long as it lives. The carbon-14 decays without being replaced after the organism dies and half of the carbon-14 nuclei will disintegrate in about 5,730 years. The amount of carbon-14 that has disintegrated in a fossilized organism can be calculated and used for determining its age. (MORE)

# How long does radiocarbon dating take to get an answer?

It would depend on the lab (policies, administration, etc.), the sample (age and composition) and procedures required. At least a couple of days, possibly a couple of weeks.

# When was radiocarbon dating first used?

The radiocarbon method was developed by a team of scientists led by the late Professor Willard F. Libby of the University of Chicago after the end of World War 2. Libby later received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960 for the radiocarbon discovery. Libby made his first test before 1960.

# What does radiocarbon dating mean?

Carbon atoms are contained in every part of every cell of allliving things on Earth. Most carbon atoms (98.89%) are calledcarbon-12 because they have 6 neutrons and 6 protons in theirnuclei. Most of the remaining atoms (1.11%) have 7 neutrons alongwith their 6 protons and are called carbon-13 atoms,… but a verysmall quantity (called a trace amount) of carbon atoms have 8neutrons and 6 protons. These and are called carbon-14 atoms. Carbon-14 atoms are radioactive and are referred to as radiocarbon.They are unstable, and decay slowly by releasing electrons beforeevolving into nitrogen-14 atoms. A living organism constantlyabsorbs carbon in its body systems by respiration and processingnutrients, and the amount of carbon-14 it contains remains fairlyconstant for as long as it lives. The carbon-14 decays withoutbeing replaced after the organism dies and half of the carbon-14nuclei will disintegrate in about 5,730 years. The amount ofcarbon-14 that has disintegrated in a fossilized organism can becalculated and used for determining its age. (MORE)

# Why is radiocarbon dating only rarely applied in geological work?

Radiocarbon dating can only be used to determine the age of objects that were once alive, such as fossilized bones or plants. It is of no use in dating geological formations that do not contain some remains of formerly living substances. Carbon atoms are contained in most cells of all living things… on Earth. Most carbon atoms (98.89 percent) are called carbon-12 because they have 6 neutrons and 6 protons in their nuclei. Most of the remaining atoms (1.11 percent) have 7 neutrons along with their 6 protons and are called carbon-13 atoms, but a very small quantity (called a trace amount) of carbon atoms have 8 neutrons and 6 protons. These and are called carbon-14 atoms. Carbon-14 atoms are radioactive and are referred to as radiocarbon. They are unstable, and decay slowly by releasing electrons before evolving into nitrogen-14 atoms. A living organisms constantly absorbs carbon in its body systems by respiration and processing nutrients, and the amount of carbon-14 it contains remains fairly constant for as long as it lives. The carbon-14 decays without being replaced after the organism dies and half of the carbon-14 nuclei will disintegrate in about 5,730 years. The amount of carbon-14 that has disintegrated in a fossilized organism can be calculated and used for determining its age. (MORE)

# Can radiocarbon dating be used to determine the age of dinosaur fossils?

no , b/c the fossils are older than 50,000 years old & contain too little carbon-14 to be measurable

# Can radiocarbon dating be used to determine the age of pottery?

No. radio carbon dating is only efficient for the fossils of plants or animals. As pottery is an abiotic substance its age cannot be determined by carbon dating

# What is the oldest age for which radiocarbon dating is reliable?

It depends on the material and the processes involved but normally about 50,000 years, which is why radiocarbon dating is mostly used by archaeologists. Geologists mainly use isotopic dating.

# Why is now mass spectroscopy used instead of radiocarbon dating?

Mass spectrometry has not replaced radiocarbon dating, it is usedas a better way to measure the amount of carbon-14 in the samplethat permits smaller sample sizes and improved accuracy.

# Can scientists radiocarbon dating to find the age of a very tall old redwood tree living in an old forest?

No. Radiocarbon dating can only be used to date the age of biological objects that are dead.

# What is radiocarbon dating based on?

Radiocarbon dating is based on the fact that organisms contain approximately equal amounts of normal 12 C and 14 C (carbon-12 and carbon-14). Carbon 14 is radioactive, so it decays over time into other atoms. When an organism dies, it stops assimilating more carbon, so the 14 C is no longer being… replaced. Thus it decays until it is eventually gone. Within in about thirty-thousand years, however, the amount of 14 C that is left can be used to calculate about when the organism died based on the fact that all radioactive decay occurs with a given half life. The half-life of a radioactive material is the amount of time that is required for half of the substance to decay. Each material has a unique half life which remains constant until there is very little of the sample left. (MORE)

# What are radiocarbon dating limitations?

First, the size of the archaeological sample is important. Larger samples are better, because purification and distillation remove some matter. .
Second, great care must be taken in collecting and packing samples to avoid contamination by more recent carbon. .
Third, because the decay rate i…s logarithmic, radiocarbon dating has significant upper and lower limits. It is not very accurate for fairly recent deposits. In recent deposits so little decay has occurred that the error factor (the standard deviation) may be larger than the date obtained. The practical upper limit is about 50,000 years. .
Fourth, the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the atmosphere is not constant. Although it was originally thought that there has always been about the same ratio, radiocarbon samples taken and cross dated using other techniques like dendrochronology have shown that the ratio of C-14 to C-12 has varied significantly during the history of the Earth. To compensate for this variation, dates obtained from radiocarbon laboratories are now corrected using standard calibration tables developed in the past 15-20 years. (MORE)

# What is the history of radiocarbon dating?

The history of radiocarbon dating goes back to 1949, where it was introduced to the world by Willard Libby. Radiocarbon dating is technique that uses the decay of carbon-14 to estimate the age of organic material.

# What is geological radiocarbon dating?

14 carbon is radiative, natural form of Carbon Formed by cosmic ray interactions of N2 in the atmosphere.

# What are the release dates for Geheimakte Tunguska - 2006 - VG?

Geheimakte Tunguska - 2006 - VG was released on: Germany: 4 September 2006 (PC version) USA: 30 October 2006 (PC version)

# What are the release dates for The X Files - 1993 Tunguska 4-8?

The X Files - 1993 Tunguska 4-8 was released on: USA: 24 November 1996 Germany: 28 February 1997 (VHS release) Finland: 20 May 1997 Germany: 8 November 1997 Poland: 27 November 1997 Hungary: 28 January 2000

# What are the release dates for Back to the Future Part III - 1990?

Back to the Future Part III - 1990 was released on: Canada: 25 May 1990 USA: 25 May 1990 Australia: 28 June 1990 Argentina: 5 July 1990 Colombia: 5 July 1990 Japan: 7 July 1990 Sweden: 9 July 1990 Belgium: 11 July 1990 UK: 11 July 1990 Uruguay: 12 July 1990 West Germany: 12 Ju…ly 1990 Brazil: 13 July 1990 Denmark: 13 July 1990 Finland: 13 July 1990 Ireland: 13 July 1990 Netherlands: 13 July 1990 South Korea: 14 July 1990 France: 18 July 1990 Israel: 20 July 1990 Portugal: 6 August 1990 Hong Kong: 23 August 1990 Turkey: 24 August 1990 Italy: 20 September 1990 Spain: 30 November 1990 Hungary: 20 December 1990 Greece: 21 December 1990 Russia: 26 October 2010 (Blu-ray premiere) (MORE)

# What are the release dates for Geheimakte Tunguska - 2006 VG?

Geheimakte Tunguska - 2006 VG was released on: Germany: 4 September 2006 (PC version) USA: 30 October 2006 (PC version)

# What is measured in the a radiocarbon dating of organic materials?

All living organisms contain radioactive carbon 14. The the amountof carbon 14 in a sample is measured. Carbon 14 decays (goes away)at a steady rate over time. It's known how much was in everyorganism originally. This is compared with how much is left now totell how much time has passed since the or…ganism died. (MORE)