Where did all heavy elements of the universe come from?
Mostly heavy elements are created inside stars and then spread when they go supernova and recondense into new stars and planets.
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Nucleosynthesis is the name given for the manufacture of newelements from existing ones, providing there is sufficient energyavailable and for sufficient time. These conditions usually requirea supernova, where conditions exist to make elements heavier thaniron. Our Sun with its fusion process can …only make elements up toabout the mass of iron. [Lithium is produced and consumed at about equal rates in anordinary fusion star, such as our sun, and maybe most of theLithium was produced in the Big Bang, which can be considered forthese purposes as a real big supernova.] (MORE)
It came from an explosion, commonly known as the Big Bang, although it probably made more of a hissing sound. Something exploded and now there is the universe. No-one is quite sure what happened before this. It does not go back that far. . God created it in six days- having a rest on the seventh. …He created everything there is and everything there ever was. It all came from Him. . The universe was once the size of a beach ball. It then expanded very rapidly and is still expanding to this day, but thousands of times slower. It will keep expanded for years, until one day when it will stop expanding and shrink, making time go backwards.. I know the last one doesn't make much sense, but it is scientifically proven. I don't understand it much, my Religion teacher told me about it. (MORE)
the answer is: unknown Scientists estimate that the universe is about 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 tonnes, or about 1.0Ã10^49 and growing.
Dark Energy as Aether There has been a lot of discussion about dark energy and dark matter as concepts to explain certain anomalies in physics such as between mass and gravity. Some scientists are starting to see dark energy as a new reference to the concept of the aether. One such article was pu…blished in Physics Letters B this year. As the abstract states, "In the generalized Einstein-aether theories by taking a special form of the Lagrangian density of aether field, the possibility of Einstein-aether theory as an alternative to dark energy model is discussed in detail, that is, taking a special aether field as a dark energy candidate." Earlier, New Scientist (www.newscientist.com) reported on research by a team at the University of Oxford seeking to link dark energy and the aether to resolve a problem with gravity and mass.. Starkman and colleagues Tom Zlosnik and Pedro Ferreira of the University of Oxford are now reincarnating the ether in a new form to solve the puzzle of dark matter, the mysterious substance that was proposed to explain why galaxies seem to contain much more mass than can be accounted for by visible matter. They posit an ether that is a field, rather than a substance, and which pervades space-time. . This is not the first time that physicists have suggested modifying gravity to do away with this unseen dark matter. The idea was originally proposed by Mordehai Milgrom while at Princeton University in the 1980s. He suggested that the inverse-square law of gravity only applies where the acceleration caused by the field is above a certain threshold, say a0. Below that value, the field dissipates more slowly, explaining the observed extra gravity. "It wasn't really a theory, it was a guess," says cosmologist Sean Carroll at the University of Chicago in Illinois. . Then in 2004 this idea of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) was reconciled with general relativity by Jacob Bekenstein at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel (New Scientist, 22 January 2005, p 10), making MOND a genuine contender in the eyes of some physicists.... Now Starkman's team has reproduced Bekenstein's results using just one field - the new ether. Even more tantalisingly, the calculations reveal a close relationship between the threshold acceleration a0 - which depends on the ether - and the rate at which the universe's expansion is accelerating. Astronomers have attributed this acceleration to something called dark energy, so in a sense the ether is related to this entity. That they have found this connection is a truly profound thing, says Bekenstein. The team is now investigating how the ether might cause the universe's expansion to speed up. . Andreas Albrecht, a cosmologist at the University of Calfornia, Davis, believes that this ether model is worth investigating further. "We've hit some really profound problems with cosmology Ã with dark matter and dark energy," he says. "That tells us we have to rethink fundamental physics and try something new." . (MORE)
Everything on and within the Earth, including the molecules that make up you, me, and everyone we have ever heard about and that will ever be, came from the heart of ancient stars, which more than 5 billion years ago exploded in interstellar space. That matter eventually coalesced into our Solar Sys…tem. Some of it became our sun, some of it wanders our solar system as asteroids, and some of it formed a planet that would be called Earth. We are star dust. (MORE)
Heavy water is also known as deuterium oxide. It is a form of waterthat contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotopedeuterium. Heavy water contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen,as well as uranium.
Light elements are made in light weight stars via stellar nucleosynthesis. Elements as heavy as iron form in the cores of massive stars. Anything heavier than iron requires a supernova--the collapse and explosion of a super massive star.
thse answeesrs suk ad i du nut nu hw tu spel . i hate people who do that ^ its plasma clouds
There are many musical versions of the song, but the words are usually directly quoted from Matthew 11:28.
Jupiter contains the fewest heavy elements. Unlike other planets,Jupiter is a gas planet, and contains mostly light elements.
\nYou need to be more specific. I can name a couple of hundred. but I'm not going to.
Depends on what you mean by this. Cakes are heavy because they're supposed to be big.. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. When making a cake it is important to follow the recipe EXACTLY - make sure that the recipe you are using is OK by f…ollowing one from a book (sometimes hand me down recipes have mistakes in them). If you do this and your cakes are still heavy then check the temperature of your oven (get an oven thermometer). (MORE)
The planet Jupiter has the fewest heavy elements on it (it's allgas). Earth is another planet that has fewer heavy elements.
I do not know if my answer is correct or not, but I believe that it would be antimatter.
Hydrogen, some helium and less lithium are the result of the big bang. All the other elements are made inside the cores of stars, except for elements heavier than iron. All elements heavier than iron are created during supernova explosions.
black sabbath Advenged Sevenfold lead guitarist and Barack Obama It definitely started in the United Kingdom, with bands such as Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath
Stellar nucleosynthesis. Elements up to iron are made in the cores of very massive stars; elements heavier than iron are produced in supernova explosions.
It is stellar nucleosynthesis that forms elements inside stars. Most stars are giant nuclear fusion machines. They make heavy elements by fusing ligher elements together. This creates all elements up through iron.. Elements heavier than iron cannot form in stellar nucleosynthesis. That's because …more energy is required to fuse heavier elements together to create the really heavy elements than is liberated in that kind of fusion. The only way these heavier elements can form is when a star dies in a super nova. It is this massive "last gasp" that allows the crushing pressures (and high temperatues) needed to make the trans-iron elements. So all elements heavier than iron were made in super novae.. (MORE)
it all happened in 1968 in Birmingham, England, when a guy called tony iommi got the ends of his fingers on his right hand chopped off my a metal-bending-chopping machine in a factory. this accident happened on the day he was going to leave the factory and begin a career with a band called earth. si…nce he was left handed, he couldn't play guitar anymore, and he couldn't switch to right hand either. so, he melted some plastic on his fingers and covered them with leather, and decided that he could tune down and play with his finger. the sound was a lot more thicker and heavier, which later became the core of the band's sound. then, after that, the band's satanic bassist geezer butler received a satanic book from their singer (the almighty) Ozzy osbourne. the same night, the book disappeared and geezer saw an evil figure standing next to his bed, so Ozzy came up with the lyrics to "black sabbath", and the first heavy metal song was created. plus the band changed their name to black sabbath. and that's how heavy metal began. (MORE)
Formula of heavy water is D 2 O.. O is oxygen, D is deuterium - a hydrogen isotope having 1 proton and 1 neutron.
Hydrogen, a little helium and less lithium were created in the big bang. The universe is about 95% hydrogen. Clouds of hydrogen gas and dust are compressed by gravity into stars, which, by the process of nuclear fusion, change a one-proton hydrogen nucleus into a two-proton helium nucleus. When the …star's core runs out of hydrogen, the nuclear reaction pauses, and gravity compresses the star, heating it up enough to fuse helium. If the star is big enough, it can eventually create all the elements in the periodic table up to iron...a star can't fuse iron: the reaction uses up more energy than it releases. At that point, a giant star explodes as a supernova, which releases enough energy to make all the elements heavier than iron. (MORE)
At later stages in the life of a star, when it has exhausted its hydrogen fuel, it may fuse other nuclear fuels. This only possible in large massive stars. The ignition of these fuels requires very high temperatures. Helium fusion occurs at temperatures above 100,000,000 Kelvin, and carbon fusion do…es not begin until the temperature exceeds 600,000,000 Kelvin. At temperatures above 600,000,000 K, carbon fuses rapidly in a complex network of reactions illustrated in the above diagram, where each arrow represents a different nuclear reaction. The process is complicated because nuclei can react by adding a proton, a neutron, or a helium nucleus or by combning directly with other nuclei. Unstable nuclei can decay by ejecting a proton, a neutron, or a helium nucleus or by splitting into fragments. Reactions at still higher temeperature scan convert magnesium, aluminium and silicon into yet heavier atoms. (MORE)
Where did the core in all subgenres of heavy music come from ie metalCORE hard core grindCORE deathCORE?
It all comes from hardcore. Punk split off into a few different genres after its inception in the mid-late 70s. One of these was hardcore, seen as being more pure and loyal to the core aesthetics of the movement - hence the name hardcore. Over the years, metal bands from many different metal subgenr…es took on hardcore influences, hence sludgecore, deathcore, grindcore, metalcore... although applecore is really only Lawnmower Deth taking the p's (MORE)
All the elemental gases except for the noble gases come inmolecules that are unstable. The noble gases are all stable, theyhave the maximum number of valence electrons that their outer shellcan hold.
It's the shedding of the blood lining your uterus. It's not quite clotted, but is not as liquid as the blood in your veins.
wikipedia.org has the entire classification ladder defined for most plants animals and living creatures in general. Try looking there.
Big stars manufacture elements up to iron by atomic weight. Elements heavier than iron require a supernovae--the explosion of a massive star (10x the size of our sun).
The only thing that can fuse lighter elements into something heavier than iron is the explosion of a super-nova star. The problem is something called the "packing fraction". If you fuse light elements like hydrogen into heavier elements like helium, it generates energy; this is how a star works. …When the star gets old, it collapses a little, heats up a LOT, and begins to fuse helium into carbon. This releases energy too, but not as much. As you fuse heavier and heavier elements, you get less and less energy out - until you get to iron. From the standpoint of nuclear reactions, iron is as "dense" as things get. Fuse elements together into something heavier than iron, and you must put energy IN to drive the reaction. So in a dying star, getting hotter and hotter and fusing heavier and heavier stuff, at some point it starts fusing iron - and this sucks energy OUT OF the star. Instead of the core of the star feeding energy out to the rest of the star, the core starts sucking energy from the rest of the star into the core, as iron becomes heavier elements like gold, lead, uranium, and even heavier exotic elements. So the middle levels of the star explode in two directions in the supernova - IN, to feed energy to the core to continue the generation of heavy elements, and OUT, to blow the remainder of the star into space. Some of the core elements collapse into a neutron star or a black hole, while the remainder of the core material is blown out into space. Millions or billions of years later, that gold dust or lead dust or uranium dust will fall into another planetary nebula, and form planets - planets like Earth. Every atom of ANYTHING heavier than helium has been through a star - and every atom heavier than iron has escaped from the core of a supernova explosion! (MORE)
The heaviest elements come mainly from supernovae. Iron is the heaviest element that can be produced by fusion. Heavier elements are produced by neutron capture. An individual free-floating neutron collides with a nucleus and merges with it. That doesn't produce a higher element on the periodic tabl…e, because the atomic number depends on the number of protons. However, nuclei with too many neutrons are unstable, and will eventually "decay". A neutron will decay into a proton and an electron. Free neutrons don't exist in great numbers in normal stars, so neutron capture doesn't happen significantly in them. Elements from carbon to iron can be formed by fusion in large stars. (MORE)
God or higher being. If evolutionists can prove something different they win the debate with the creationists.
This is a Quotation of Jesus Christ from the Bible: Mathew 11:28. It shows Christ's love for us. Like what St Augustine said "Wrestless lies the Heart, unless it rests in You Christ" Truely, only when we rest in the Lord Jesus are we truly satisfied.
there is not going to be a heavy rain for psp. it is only for playstation 3.
The universe is not only infinite but also constantly expanding. If Eric is the universe, he is so large that neither mankind nor alienkind can possibly measure his weight. However, he can be classified according to the following weight scale, known as "The Five Levels of Fat": big, healthy, husky, …fluffy, DAYUM, and AW HELL NO. Given that Eric the Universe is too large to be measured, we can safely assume that he fits into the AW HELL NO category. And there is no way in hell we can know how heavy that really is. (MORE)
they were formed by God, the creator of the universe and everything in it and outside it.
All visible matter in the universe is believed to be made up of elements, but the nature of "dark matter" is unknown.
An excellent question, but I'm not sure that it makes any sense. In a very real sense, there was no "before" before the big bang, no space, no matter, no energy, no "place", and no time. And if that is true, there could be no "big bang". This leaves only intelligent design, which would beg a similar… question, and result in a similar answer. A paradox that has mystified people from day 1. ______________ That the scientific explanations of universal origins are not complete or universally accepted is NOT evidence that 'intelligent design' is the only alternative; this is a serious flaw in basic logic that Wedge strategists are hoping we are too ignorant to see . The illogical implication is that because we have so little information now, this means that there can never ever, for the rest of time, be more information or more complete information. This of course is nonsense; scientific knowledge is increasing over the long term. Intelligent design, a Wedge code term for the more religiously charged word creation , is as always a matter of faith and not scientific theory. Simply not knowing something is never, never sufficient to be supporting evidence that philosophical theories or religious beliefs MUST be absolutely true. Evidence is information , not the lack of information. Imagine that someone shows you a brilliant card trick; you have seen many. The effect is spectacular, and try as you might, you and your friends are incapable of explaining it. Further, you and your friends conclude that you can never figure out the 'trick'. You also take the dangerous step of concluding that since you don't have any other explanation that involves the magician's skill with cards, then there simply isn't such an explanation . Are you then justified in concluding that the effect is miraculous , that it can never ever have a simpler explanation than that? Current theory is suggesting that just prior to the big bang, quite a lot was going on. The expansion or beginning of the universe did not come from 'nothing' as is taught in bible school. There was an immense amount of energy (in effect the total energy that one would calculate based on all the matter in the entire universe) located in one place, and this place was an actual non-zero volume area. This does seem counter-intuitive, as are many scientific ideas, but this space did NOT contain any matter; there was far too much energy and therefore heat to sustain any matter at all. Even the basic forces, including gravity, are thought to have been united at this time. The expansion started out of this area of intense energy. (MORE)
Hydrogen and some helium were there from the Big Bang. Heavier elements were made from hydrogen and helium in the center of stars.
We do not know. It is hypothesized that there could be a cyclic Big Bang system - one in which a universe expands, halts, contracts to a black hole density, and then goes through a Big Bang expansion again. It is also suggested that the physics conditions, and perhaps even the maths, are so dif…ferent in a black hole; that we have no tools to consider the problem. Pascal, when asked "how do I become a mathematician?" he answered "Find an insoluble problem and work on it." [of course that may be apocryphal. ] (MORE)
How were the heavy elements formed and distributed into the universe according to classical Big Bang hypothesis?
Most likely while everything was being blown away, materials, mostly hydrogen, were pushed into each other because of gravity and the force of the big bang, exchanged protons, neutrons, and electrons, forming new elements.
U235 is the last entry on the Periodic Table, of atoms that are ~stable. There are many elements more massive than this, but they are all radioactively unstable. Some consider there may be "an island of Stability" further up the atomic number chart, but we don't know yet. As to a specific heavier… element, Americium 95 is one that has found application in ionization smoke detectors. (MORE)
Stars are giant nuclear fusion reactors; with their intense heat and pressure from their immense gravity, they smash hydrogen atoms into helium -- this is called fusion. Helium atoms fuse together to become heavier elements; this is how all of the elements past hydrogen and helium were created (hydr…ogen was created by the creation of the universe, and it is believed some helium may have been created then, too, but every element past helium owes its existence to the nuclear fusion in stars). This fusion process generates energy for the star (some of the particles making up the atoms that are smashed together are converted into energy during the fusion process), which is why stars continue to burn for so long -- the fusion of atoms generates energy that fuses more atoms together. As atoms get heavier, however, they are more resistant to fusion and it takes more energy to smash the atoms together. Past iron, atoms require more energy to fuse together than the energy that comes out of the fusion process. The fusion process continues, however, because not all of a star fuses to the same element at the same time (100% of the hydrogen doesn't fuse immediately into helium ... by the time iron atoms are created, there is still plenty of hydrogen still fusing). Because stars are fluid-like plasma, heavier atoms readily sink through to the star's core. It is not a steady process, however ... heavier atoms can sometimes trap lighter ones beneath them. Gradually, though, more and more iron concentrates in the core ... but while fusion is still going on from lighter elements, the iron atoms continue fusing to heavier elements. Eventually, however, there are too many heavy atoms in a star's core and the fusion fire seizes. The iron atoms collapse and a huge explosion is generated -- depending on the star's size, this can be a nova or supernova (plural novae or supernovae). The energy of this explosion blasts away the dead star's material, including the iron and heavier elements. The heavier elements will tend to form dust and other debris, that may eventually join with clouds of hydrogen to form part of a new solar system. This is how the elements present in our solar system, and right here on Earth, came to be -- from carbon which makes up most life down to the ultra-heavy atoms like uranium, all of it was created in the fusion of stars and blasted away by novae and supernovae. (MORE)
Of course. They had to come from somewhere, and that somewhere was probably the supernova that gave our molecular cloud that "little" nudge, that was required for the Solar System to start forming.
The Big Bang created over 99.9% of the atoms in the current universe, but these are limited to Hydrogen and a little bit of Helium . . Stellar fusion created most of the Helium and the elements from Lithium through Nickel and Iron . . Supernova explosions created all the rest of the elem…ents, including quite a few transuranic elements . (MORE)
There's really no way of knowing, because we don't know exactly how much gold that is still underneath the ground (or exactly where it is, or we'd go get it)!
This is related to the huge temperatures achieved in a supernova explosion. This makes it possible to create heavy elements, which requires a lot of energy.
The Periodic Table lists all the KNOWN Elements in the Universe. . (We don't know it all, as yet.)
Matthew 11:28 New International Version (NIV) . 28 "Come to me, all you who areweary and burdened, and I will give you rest. .
It takes lots energy and I guess normal nova does not produce toomuch. Other sources such as collision don't contributesignificantly. Massive stars (at least 8 times the mass of the Sun) shouldeventually explode as supernovas. In this process heavy elementsare created and scattered through space. B…efore they explode they become "supergiant stars". These havecores hot enough to make elements as heavy as iron and nickel. Even heavier elements are created during the explosion. (MORE)
Water is H 2 O; two hydrogen atoms plus one oxygen atom. Normal hydrogen has one proton, one electron, and NO neutrons. "Heavy water" is water with one hydrogen atom, one deuterium atom, and one oxygen atom. Deuterium is heavy hydrogen, with one proton, one electron and one neutron, so "heavy wat…er" is heavier by the mass of one neutron. It occurs naturally, with about 1.1% of all hydrogen atoms being "heavy" with an extra neutron. (MORE)
Why are the more massive stars the only important contributors in enriching the universe with heavy elements?
To "enrich the Universe", the heavy elements would need to get back out of the star - and into outer space, where it can eventually become part of new star systems. This "getting out" happens mainly in supernova explosions - i.e., in the case of very massive stars. Also, stars with very low mass ma…inly convert hydrogen into helium - they didn't have time yet, given the current age of the Universe, to advance to a later stage, where they convert helium into heavier elements - and the stars with the very lowest masses never will, since they won't get hot enough. (MORE)