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Why don't oceans freeze over in the Winter?

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The oceans are saline or salt water. This affects the temperature at which they freeze. Plain water freezes at about 0°C at sea level, but saline, at the concentrations normally found in the ocean, freezes at close to -2°C. Pressure also affect freezing temperature. The deep ocean is at great pressure, so even though it can be at temperatures of -3°C it does not freeze.

The temperature of the surface of the ocean varies from about -2°C to about 34°C depending on currents and latitude.

Much of the surface of the Arctic ocean is frozen all year round, but the extent varies during summer and winter. An area of the sea around Antarctica also forms sea ice in winter each year, but much less area is permanently frozen than in the Arctic.
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