Note: Anthropology from Greek anthrÅpos, "human"; logia) is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, and the humanities. Ethnogr…aphy is both one of its primary methods and the text that is written as a result of the practice of anthropology and its elements..
Means a division (type) in the study of humans, their culture and agricultural means. In regards to agriculture it can means a 'division of clear cutting a forest' to a division of the human species by races. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropologists used a typological model to divide people from different ethnic regions into races (negroid, Caucasoid, mongoloid which was part of the racial system defined by Carleton S. Coon.) This approach focused on traits that are readily observable from a distance such as head shape, skin color, hair form, body build and stature. The typological model was built on the assumption that humans can be assigned to a race based on similar physical traits. Author Dennis O'Neil has stated that typological model in anthropology is now thoroughly discredited. Current mainstream thinking is that the morphological traits are due to simple variations in specific regions and are the effect of climatic selective evidence. This theory is still under debate..
Poloynology deals with the study of pollen grains. The word 'polynology' was named by Hyde and Williams in 1845. The pollen grain represents first cell of male gametophytic generation. The pollen denser cytoplasm with haploid nucleus spore coat called 'sporoderm.'.
Estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year by year reference sequences in the region to reflect year to year climatic variations. Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves..
The data is useful for the dating of historical wooden artifacts (furniture, church beams, musical instruments etc.) by finding a best fit of the artifacts growth ring thicknesses with that of the built up "standard" ring series. (MORE)