Quarks and gluons are made of quanta. A quantum is just a discrete temporal transition, or step of time. The mathematics of such quanta is causal set theory , where the quant

…a are called "causal links." Causal links combine to form frequency ratios, which serve physics as energy ratios in accord with Planck's E=hf. As the primitive constituent of space-time and its particle-like sequences, the causal link is the sole preon required for construction of the physical world. See the Discussion Tab of Wikipedia's articles on "causal sets" or "preons" for more detail, and for a link to the quantum schematics of electrons, neutrinos, and the nucleons. The straightforward solution to physics has been stymied by the assumption that instantaneous spatial relations have some useful role to play in physics. The lesson of Special Relativity has not yet been taken seriously, despite the best efforts of Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead. (MORE)