v., went (wĕnt), gone (gôn, gŏn), go·ing, goes (gōz). v.intr.
- To move or travel; proceed: We will go by bus. Solicitors went from door to door seeking donations. How fast can the boat go?
- To move away from a place; depart: Go before I cry.
- To pursue a certain course: messages that go through diplomatic channels to the ambassador.
- To resort to another, as for aid: went directly to the voters of her district. See synonyms at resort.
- To extend between two points or in a certain direction; run: curtains that go from the ceiling to the floor.
- To give entry; lead: a stairway that goes to the basement.
- To function properly: The car won't go.
- To have currency.
- To pass from one person to another; circulate: Wild rumors were going around the office.
- To pass as the result of a sale: The gold watch went to the highest bidder.
- Informal. Used as an intensifier when joined by and to a coordinate verb: She went and complained to Personnel.
- Used in the progressive tense with an infinitive to indicate future intent or expectation: I am going to learn how to dance.
- To continue to be in a certain condition or continue an activity: go barefoot.
- To come to be in a certain condition: go mad; hair that had gone gray.
- To continue to be in effect or operation: a lease with one year to go.
- To carry out an action to a certain point or extent: Your parents went to great expense to put you through college.
- To be called; be known: Our friend William often goes by Billy.
- To be customarily located; belong: The fork goes to the left of the plate. Where do the plates go?
- To be capable of entering or fitting: Will the suitcase go into the trunk of your car?
- To pass into someone's possession: All the jewelry went to her heirs.
- To be allotted: How much of your salary goes for rent?
- To be a contributing factor: It all goes to show us that the project can be completed on time.
- To have a particular form: as the saying goes.
- To be such, by and large: well behaved, as big dogs go.
- To extend in time: The story goes back to the Middle Ages.
- To pass by; elapse: The day went pleasantly enough until I received your call.
- To be used up or finished: My interest in such things has gone.
- To be discarded or abolished: All luxuries will have to go.
- To become weak; fail: His hearing has started to go.
- To give way; break up: The dam is about to go.
- To cease living; die.
- To happen or develop; fare: How are things going?
- To have a successful outcome: creativity that made the advertising campaign really go.
- To be suitable or appropriate as an accessory or accompaniment: a color that goes beautifully with your complexion.
- To have authority: Whatever I say goes.
- To be valid, acceptable, or adequate.
- Informal. To excrete waste from the bladder or bowels.
- Informal. To begin an act: Here goes!
- Obsolete. To walk.
- To proceed or move according to: I was free to go my own way.
- To traverse: Only two of the runners went the entire distance.
- To engage in: went skiing.
- To bet: go $20 on the black horse.
- To bid: I'll go $500 on the vase.
- To take on the responsibility or obligation for: go bail for a client.
- To participate to (a given extent): Will you go halves with me if we win the lottery?
- To amount to; weigh: a shark that went 400 pounds.
- Sports. To have as a record: went 3 for 4 against their best pitcher.
- Informal. To enjoy: I could go a cold beer right now.
- To say or utter. Used chiefly in verbal narration: First I go, "Thank you," then he goes, "What for?"
- The act or an instance of going.
- An attempt; an effort: had a go at acting.
- The time or period of an activity.
- Informal. Energy; vitality: had lots of go.
- The go-ahead.
- often Go The starting point: "And from Go there was something deliciously illicit about the whole affair" (Erica Abeel).
- Informal. A situation in which planned operations can be effectuated: The space mission is a go.
Informal. Functioning correctly and ready for action: All systems are go.
- To set about to do; undertake: Go about your chores in a responsible way.
- To cooperate: They get along by going along.
- To satisfy a demand or requirement: just enough food to go around.
- To go here and there; move from place to place.
- To have currency: rumors going around.
- To attack, especially with energy.
- To approach; undertake: He went at the job with a lot of energy.
- To elapse; pass: as time goes by.
- To pay a short visit: My parents were away when we went by last week.
- To drop below the horizon; set: The sun went down.
- To fall to the ground: The helicopter went down in a ball of fire.
- To sink: The torpedoed battleship went down.
- To experience defeat or ruin.
- To admit of easy swallowing: a cough syrup that goes down readily.
- To decrease in cost or value.
- Chiefly British. To leave a university.
- Slang. To occur; happen: "a collection of memorable pieces about the general craziness that was going down in those days" (James Atlas).
- To be accepted or tolerated: How will your ideas go down as far as corporate marketing is concerned?
- To come to be remembered in posterity: a debate that will go down as a turning point in the campaign.
- Vulgar Slang. To perform fellatio or cunnilingus.
- Informal. To have a special liking for: I really go for progressive jazz.
- To attack: an opponent who is known to go for the jugular in arguments.
- To pass for or serve as: a couch that also goes for a bed.
- To take part in a cooperative venture: went in with the others to buy a present.
- To make an approach, as before an attack: Troops went in at dawn.
- To discuss or investigate: The book goes into classical mythology.
- To undertake as a profession or course of study: She's going into medicine.
- To undergo detonation; explode.
- To make a noise; sound: The siren went off at noon.
- To leave: Don't go off mad.
- Informal. To adhere to the expected course of events or the expected plan: The project went off smoothly.
- To take place; happen: didn't know what was going on.
- To continue: Life must go on.
- To keep on doing (something): Don't go on talking.
- To proceed: She went on to become a senator.
- Informal. To talk volubly: My, you do go on.
- To become extinguished.
- To go outdoors; leave one's residence: He went out at seven.
- To take part in social life outside the home: goes out a lot.
- To become unfashionable: High boots went out last year.
- To undergo structural collapse: The bridge went out.
- To gain acceptance or approval: a new style that didn't go over.
- To examine or review: go over the test scores.
- To examine carefully: went through the students' papers.
- To experience: We went through hell while working on this project.
- To perform: I went through the sonata in 30 minutes.
- To suffer defeat or destruction; fail.
- To lose consciousness.
- To increase in price or value.
- To be in the process of construction: Office buildings went up all over town.
- Chiefly British. To go to a university.
- To date (someone) regularly.
- To select or choose: decided to go with the pink wallpaper.
from the word go
- From the very beginning.
- SlangTo have sexual intercourse. To have sexual intercourse.
- To fail to honor or keep: go back on a promise.
- To be in little or no demand: "Prestige or no prestige, directors' jobs at some companies have actually gone begging" (Bill Powell).
- To undergo total financial failure: "A record number of . . . banks went belly up" (New Republic).
- To undergo financial collapse: "Railroads were in the news mainly when they were going bust" (Christian Science Monitor).
- To be discarded or ignored: old dress codes that have now gone by the board.
- To provide strong support.
- To cease being an annoyance. Often used in the imperative.
- To commit or expend all of one's available resources toward achievement of a goal: "Why not go for broke and take on somebody who is quite young and see what he does?" (Roger L. Stevens).
- To expend all one's strength and resources toward achievement of an end or purpose.
- To have interest in: goes in for classical music.
- To take part in: goes in for water skiing.
- To join in or combine with: He'll go in with them on the plan.
- To undertake a project, trip, or responsibility without the presence or help of others.
- To behave hysterically or very recklessly.
- To surpass or outdo by one degree: He's gone me one better.
- To seek to become a participant in: go out for varsity soccer.
- To inconvenience oneself in doing something beyond what is required.
- To become insignificant or inoperative: "As soon as a third body is introduced to the Newtonian system, all lawful ordering of processes goes out the window" (Fusion).
- To be on the way to success: a young executive who is clearly going places.
- To date someone exclusively.
- To carry a course of action through to completion.
- To risk all of one's resources in the prospect of achieving great gains.
- To begin something right away.
- To make one dizzy or inebriated.
- To make one proud or conceited.
- To lose one's self-control.
- To suffer the loss of one's health.
- To fight or dispute until one side or another is victorious: The governor will go to the mat with the legislature over the controversial spending bill.
- To lose a conflict or be defeated; yield: Despite their efforts, the team went to the wall.
- To be forced into bankruptcy; fail.
- To make an all-out effort, especially in defending another.
- To work or perform efficiently and rapidly.
- To be highly successful.
- To be utterly destroyed.
- To be self-evident: It goes without saying that success is the product of hard work.
- Constantly busy or active.
- To be taken out, as restaurant food or drink: coffee and doughnuts to go.
[Middle English gon, from Old English gān.]
Our Living Language Go has long been used to describe the production of nonlinguistic noises, notably in conversation with children, as in The train went "toot." The cow goes "moo." In recent years, however, many speakers have begun to use go in informal conversation to report speech, as in Then he goes, "You think you're real smart, don't you?" This usage parallels the quotation introducers be all and be like. But unlike these other expressions, which can indicate thoughts or attitudes, the quotational use of go is largely restricted to dialogue related in the narrative present, especially when the narrator wishes to mimic the accent or intonation of the original speaker. See Note at all, like2.
A Japanese game for two, played with counters on a board that is ruled with 19 vertical and 19 horizontal lines.
[Japanese, from Middle Chinese gؖ.]
1. The noun has the plural form goes.
2. There are six uses of the verb that call for comment (these apply also to the current past form went, a form of the verb wend which replaced the cognate past forms of go from about 1500):
- it goes without saying. This is a naturalized Gallicism (see Gallicisms), from French cela va sans dire. Native English equivalents are needless to say, of course, and others, which some people prefer.
- go + bare infinitive. The construction go + infinitive without to was the primary construction until the 17th century, occurring many times in Shakespeare (e.g. He is walked up to the top of the hill. I'll go seek him—1 Henry IV ii.ii.10). Although this construction survives in American English (e.g. I'll go put your lovely flowers in water—John Updike, 1986), in British English it is now confined to a few fixed expressions such as let him go hang (for all I care). In British English the current constructions are go + and + infinitive or go + to-infinitive: Let's go and see that film at the local—K. Benton, 1976 / She...said she would go and turn the sprinkler off herself—New Yorker, 1986 / I went to buy some milk and a group began chanting my name while they banged some tins together—People, 2005.
- go + and. The combination go + and + infinitive often has special meanings, e.g. (1) 'to be so foolish, unreasonable, or unlucky as to': You herd cattle all day, you come to despise them, and pretty soon...you have gone and shot one—Garrison Keillor, 1990, and (2) as an instruction in the imperative: It's late, child...Go and get some sleep—J. M. Coetzee, South African English 1977.
- go = say. The use in question here is illustrated by the following example: Butch and I were discussing this problem, and Butch goes, 'But you promised you'd do it.' Then I go, 'Well, I changed my mind.'—Chicago Tribune, 1989. Go is always used in this way with past reference (though very often in the present tense, as here). It may be regarded as an extension of the meaning that refers to a thing making a sound, as in cows going moo and bells going dong, and a transitional stage between names of sounds and reported speech can be discerned in the evidence given by the Old English (up to 1150)D (Additions Series II, 1993): He was roused by a loud shouting of the post-boy on the leader. 'Yo-yo-yo-yo-yoe,' went the first boy. 'Yo-yo-yo-yoe,' went the second—Dickens, 1836 / She was a dear little dickey bird, 'Chip, chip, chip,' she went—Illustrated Victorian Songbook, 1895. The extended use in reported speech is especially common in school and youth language, and is also heard in conversational adult use.
- go for it. In 1987, the (American) cox of the Oxford boat in the University Boat Race wore a shirt with the slogan Go for it displayed on the back, thereby signalling the arrival in Britain of this popular American phrase of the 1980s: I told her about Scott [sc. a boyfriend]. Eileen said, 'Go for it, Andrea!'—New Yorker, 1986. It may be seen as an extension of the meaning of go illustrated by uses such as go for someone (or something) in a big way, i.e. 'be enthusiastic about, be enamoured of': He [Prometheus] had defied the established order, so people like Blake, Byron and Shelley went for him in a big way—Scotsman, 2005.
- don't go there is a forceful or even aggressive warning to the person addressed to avoid a subject. The idiom, first recorded in the 1990s, is vivid but highly informal: Don't talk about my childhood. Don't even go there. You know nothing!—fiction website, American English 2004 [Old English (up to 1150)C].
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(1) The title of an on-screen button that is clicked in order to start some action such as a search.
(2) A command used on a BBS or online service to switch the user to a particular forum or section. For example, typing go macintosh would switch you to a section specializing in Macintosh computers. Like any command language, you have to know what words to enter.
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- To move along a particular course: fare, journey, pass, proceed, push on, remove, travel, wend. Idioms: make one's way. See move/halt.
- To proceed in a specified direction: bear, head, make, set out, strike out. See approach/retreat.
- To move or proceed away from a place: depart, exit, get away, get off, go away, leave1, pull out, quit, retire, run (along), withdraw. Informal cut out, push off, shove off. Slang blow1, split, take off. Idioms: hit the road, take leave. See approach/retreat.
- To look to when in need: apply, refer, repair2, resort, run, turn. Idioms: fall backonupon, have recourse to. See used/unused.
- To proceed on a certain course or for a certain distance: carry, extend, lead, reach, run, stretch. See reach/unreachable.
- To change or fluctuate within limits: extend, range, run, vary. See change/persist.
- To perform a function effectively: function, operate, run, take, work. See thrive/fail/exist.
- To move toward a termination: go away, pass, pass away. See approach/retreat, increase/decrease, time.
- To have a proper or suitable place: belong, fit1. See order/disorder.
- To move past in time. elapse, lapse, pass. See time.
- To be depleted: consume, spend. Idioms: go down the drain. See increase/decrease.
- To fall in: buckle, cave in, collapse, crumple, give. Idioms: give way. See explosion/collapse.
- To cease living: decease, demise, depart, die, drop, expire, pass away, pass (on), perish, succumb. Informal pop off. Slang check out, croak, kick in, kick off. Idioms: bite the dust, breathe one's last, cash in, give up the ghost, go to one's grave, kick the bucket, meetone's endMaker, pass on to the Great Beyond, turn up one's toes. See live/die.
- To do or fare well: boom, flourish, prosper, thrive. Slang score. Idioms: getgosomewhere, go great guns, go strong. See thrive/fail/exist.
- To turn out well: come off, go over, pan out, succeed, work, work out. Slang click. See thrive/fail/exist.
- To put up with: abide, accept, bear, brook2, endure, stand (for), stomach, suffer, support, sustain, swallow, take, tolerate, withstand. Informal lump2. Idioms: take it, take it lying down. See accept/reject.
- To put up as a stake in a game or speculation: bet, gamble, lay1 (down), post2, put, risk, stake, venture, wager. See gambling.
- To make an offer of: bid, offer. See offer.
phrasal verb - go along
- To agree to cooperate or participate: Informal play along,, participate/abstain.
phrasal verb - go around
- To pass around but not through: bypass, circumnavigate, circumvent, detour, skirt. See seek/avoid.
- To become known far and wide: circulate, get around, spread, travel. Idioms: gomakethe rounds. See knowledge/ignorance.
phrasal verb - go at
- To set upon with violent force: aggress, assail, assault, attack, beset, fall on (or upon), have at, sail into, storm, strike. Informal light into, pitch into. See attack/defend.
- To start work on vigorously: attack, sail in, tackle, wade in (or into). Idioms: hop to it. See work/play.
phrasal verb - go away
- To move or proceed away from a place: depart, exit, get away, get off, go, leave1, pull out, quit, retire, run (along), withdraw. Informal cut out, push off, shove off. Slang blow1, split, take off. Idioms: hit the road, take leave. See approach/retreat.
- To move toward a termination: go, pass, pass away. See approach/retreat, increase/decrease, time.
phrasal verb - go back
phrasal verb - go down
- To come to the ground suddenly and involuntarily: drop, fall, nose-dive, pitch, plunge, spill, topple, tumble. Idioms: take afallheaderplungespilltumble. See rise/fall.
- To undergo capture, defeat, or ruin: collapse, fall, go under, surrender, topple. See resist/yield, win/lose/recovery.
phrasal verb - go far
- To gain success: arrive, get ahead, get on, rise, succeed. Idioms: go places, make good, make it,, thrive/fail/exist.
phrasal verb - go for
- To be favorably disposed toward: approve, countenance, favor, hold with. Idioms: take kindly to. See praise/blame.
- To receive pleasure from: enjoy, like1, relish, savor. Slang dig. See like/dislike.
- To require a specified price: cost, sell for. See transactions.
phrasal verb - go in
- To come or go into (a place): come in, enter, penetrate. Nautical put in. Idioms: gainentranceentry, set foot in,, enter/exit.
phrasal verb - go off
- To release or cause to release energy suddenly and violently, especially with a loud noise: blast, blow1 (up), burst, detonate, explode, fire, fulminate, touch off,, explosion/collapse.
phrasal verb - go on
- To be in existence or in a certain state for an indefinitely long time: abide, continue, endure, hold out, last2, persist, remain, stay1. See continue/stop/pause.
- To continue without halting despite difficulties or setbacks: carry on, hang on, keep on, persevere, persist. Idioms: hang in there, keep going, keep it up. See continue/stop/pause.
- To talk volubly, persistently, and usually inconsequentially: babble, blabber, chatter, chitchat, clack, jabber, palaver, prate, prattle, rattle (on), run on. Informal spiel. Slang gab, gas, jaw, yak. Idioms: run off at the mouth, shoot thebreezebull. See words.
phrasal verb - go out
phrasal verb - go over
- To turn out well: come off, go, pan out, succeed, work, work out. Slang click. See thrive/fail/exist.
- To look at carefully or critically: check (out), con, examine, inspect, peruse, scrutinize, study, survey, traverse, view. Informal case. Idioms: give a going-over. See investigate.
- To give a recapitulation of the salient facts of: abstract, epitomize, recapitulate, review, run down, run through, summarize, sum up, synopsize, wrap up. Informal recap. See thoughts.
phrasal verb - go through
- To participate in or partake of personally: experience, feel, have, know, meet1 (with), see, suffer, taste (of), undergo. Archaic prove. Idioms: run up against,, participate/abstain.
phrasal verb - go under
- To undergo capture, defeat, or ruin: collapse, fall, go down, surrender, topple. See resist/yield, win/lose/recovery.
- To undergo sudden financial failure: break, bust, collapse, crash, fail. Informal fold. Idioms: go belly up, go bust, go on the rocks, go to the wall. See money.
phrasal verb - go up
phrasal verb - go with
- A trying to do or make something: attempt, crack, effort, endeavor, essay, offer, stab, trial, try. Informal shot. Slang take. Archaic assay. See try.
- A brief trial: crack, stab, try. Informal fling, shot, whack, whirl. See try.
- A limited, often assigned period of activity, duty, or opportunity: bout, hitch, inning (often used in plural), shift, spell3, stint, stretch, time, tour, trick, turn, watch. See time.
- Capacity or power for work or vigorous activity: animation, energy, force, might, potency, power, puissance, sprightliness, steam, strength. Informal get-up-and-go, pep, peppiness, zip. See action/inaction.
- In a state of preparedness: ready, set1. Slang together. Idioms: all set, in working order. See prepared/unprepared.
Antonyms: lethargy, lifelessness
Definition: advance, proceed physically
Antonyms: remain, stay, stop
Definition: agree, harmonize
Antonyms: be incompatible, disagree, mismatch
Definition: die, collapse
Antonyms: be born, create
Definition: operate, function
sign description: The open hand begins at the forehead and closes as it moves away.
1: (all or quite) the go The height of fashion; all the rage. (1793 —) .
Sunday Mail Magazine (Brisbane): In Brisbane, Aroma's in Savoir Faire in Park Road is all the go, too. That one's a ton of fun, with a clientele to match (1988).
3: (it's) no go (it's) impossible, hopeless. (1825 —) .
P. G. Wodehouse 'Then say no more,' I said. 'It's a go' (1936).
5: (a) (fair) go
Advertiser (Adelaide): Stop whingeing and give a bloke a go, mates (1969).
6: to go on
N. Shute Jo says she wants to live in Tahiti, but I don't go much on that myself (1960).
7: to go through:
a: to search and rob; also, to search (a person). (1861 —) .
R. W. Service The girls were 'going through' a drunken sailor (1945).
B. Scott The first few times she went through on him nearly broke his heart (1977).
D. Ballantyne I could go a good feed of eels just now (1948).
9: to go down:
a: To be sent to prison. (1906 —) .
M. Allingham He went down for eighteen months and is now in Italy pulling his weight, I believe. He's a crook, but not a traitor (1945).
K. Millett I do not want her body. Do not want to see it, caress it, go down on it (1974).
It If everyone was aware of what went down in these organisations perhaps there would be enough response to keep them from petrifying and dying (1970).
Time I took off all my clothes but my drawers and—well—I had to go (1935).
11: to go off to have an orgasm. (1928 —) .
H. Miller Bango! I went off like a whale (1949). Cf. to come off at come
12: to go
A. Beattie Can I have a bagel and a coffee to go? (1980).
13: to go...on (someone): to adopt a particular mode of behaviour towards or affecting (someone). (1963 —) .
New Society (headline): Amis goes serious on us (1966).
M. Rosen So I go, 'Time for the cream, Eddie.' And he goes, 'No cream' (1983).
Time Beatniks, whose heavy black turtleneck sweaters had never looked particularly go with white tennis socks (1963).
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categories related to 'go'
|Look up go in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
The principal parts of go are go, went, gone. In other respects, the modern English verb conjugates regularly. The irregularity of the principal parts is due to their disparate origin in definitely two and possibly three distinct Indo-European roots.
Unlike every other English verb except be, the preterite (simple past tense) of go is not etymologically related to its infinitive. Instead, the preterite of go, went, descends from a variant of the preterite of wend, the descendant of Old English wendan and Middle English wenden. Old English wendan (modern wend) and gān (mod. go) shared semantic similarities. The similarities are evident in the sentence "I'm wending my way home", which is equivalent to "I'm going home".
Go descends from Middle English gon, goon, from Old English gān, from Proto-Germanic *gēnan, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰēh₁- 'to go, leave'. Cognates in the Germanic languages include West Frisian gean, Dutch gaan, Low German gahn, German gehen, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish gå, Crimean Gothic geen.
Origin of ēode
Old English ēode 'he went' (plural ēodon) is made up of a defective preterite base ēo- and the weak dental suffix -de common in most modern English past tense forms (cf. ache : ached). The base ēo- and its Gothic counterpart iddja (pl. iddjedum) show the following development:
- Proto-Indo-European perfect *i̯i-i̯óh₂-o (3rd person singular) → *ijō → *ejō (a-mutation) → *eō → ēo- + -de/don;
- PIE perfect *i̯é-i̯h₂-r̥ (3rd pers. plural) → *jejj- (Holtzmann's law) → *jijj- (i-mutation) → *ijj- → iddj- + -a/edum.
Both forms are derived from the PIE root *h₁i̯-éh₂ (late *i̯eh₂) based on close matches with past tense forms of Sanskrit yā́ti 'he goes, travels' (cf. imperfect áyāt, perfect yayáu, and aorist áyāsam). The root is regarded as an iterative-intensive derivative of the more common *h₁ei- 'go' (present *h₁éiti). One reflex of *h₁ei- is Latin īre 'to go' (present eō 'I go') which gave many English words such as ambition, exit, introit, issue, preterite, and so forth.
Development of a new preterite
In Middle English, ēode evolved into ȝede, yede, and yode. By the 15th century in southern England, wende (wend) had become synonymous with go, but its infinitive and present tense forms had ceased to be in frequent use. This was also true of the various ēode-derived preterites of go, thus a variant preterite of wend absorbed the function. After went became established as the preterite of go, wend took on a new preterite, wended. In Northern English and Scots, yede was gaed, regularly formed by suffixing -ed to a variant of go. Due to the influence of the region, southern English forms constitute the standard language of England, and so went is the standard English preterite. Spencer used yede to mean go with yode as its preterite form but as dialect.
Origin of went
Went, the modern past tense of go, was originally the strong past tense form of Middle English wenden 'to turn, direct; depart' (modern English wend), from Old English wendan (past wende, ġewend), itself from Proto-Germanic *wanđijanan 'to turn' (transitive). Cognates include West Frisian weine, Dutch, Low German, German wenden, Swedish vända, Danish, Norwegian vende, and Gothic wandjan. The original forms of the ME past tense were wende, wended (our modern form), and past participle wend, but variant wente developed from about 1200. By ca. 1500, wended had prevailed in the transitive senses, whereas wente, restricted to intransitive senses, rivalled and replaced go's older past tense, yede/yode.
Proto-Germanic *wanđijanan is a causative derivative of *wenđanan 'to wind, wrap', from which the modern English verb wind developed. Cognates include West Frisian wine, Dutch, Low German, German winden, Swedish vinda, Danish and Norwegian vinde, and Gothic -windan (in biwindan 'to wind around, wrap'). PGmc *wenđanan comes from Proto-Indo-European *u̯endʰ- 'to wind, twist', which also gave Umbrian preuenda 'turn!' (imperative), Tocharian A/B wänt/wänträ 'covers, envelops', Greek (Hesychius) áthras 'wagon', Armenian gind 'ring', and Sanskrit vandhúra 'carriage framework'.
Summary of the main Proto-Indo-European roots
Go is historically derived from at least three Proto-Indo-European roots: *ǵʰēh₁, the source of go and gone (← ME gon, ygon ← OE ġegān); *h₁ei, the source of ēode; and *u̯endʰ, the source of went as well as wend and wind. Only two roots are continually used in their modern English reflexes go/gone and went.
Suppletion in other Germanic languages
The Dutch, Low German, German, and Scandinavian verbs cognate to go, e.g. Dutch gaan, Low German gahn, German gehen, and Danish/Norwegian/Swedish gå, also have suppletive past forms, namely the preterite ging of Dutch and German, güng of Low Geman, gick (from the same source) of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and the past participle gegangen of German. These forms are relics from earlier, more widespread words that meant 'to walk, go' and which survive sporadically in Scots gang, East Frisian gunge, and Icelandic ganga. Some obsolete cognates include Middle Low German, Middle High German gangen, early modern Swedish gånga, and Gothic gaggan. These are reflexes of Proto-Germanic *ganganan, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰengʰ- 'to step', which also gave Lithuanian žeñgti 'to stride', Greek kochōnē 'perineum', Avestan zanga 'ankle', and Sanskrit jáṁhas 'step', jaṅghā 'shank'.
Therefore, the case of English go is not unique among the Germanic languages, and it would appear that most have in a like manner reproduced equivalent suppletive conjugations for their words for 'to go', suggesting a cyclical change patterned after the state of affairs in Proto-Germanic.
The verb go is used to form the going to future, in sentences like "I'm going to finish my work today."
In perfect forms of the verb (have gone, had gone, etc.) the past participle gone is often replaced by that of be, namely been. For example:
- I've been to the shops. (I went and came back)
- I've gone to the shops. (I'm there now)
For details of this usage, see have been.
- Marlies Philippa, Frans Debrabandere, Arend Quak, Tanneke Schoonheim, & Nicole van der Sijs, eds., Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands, A-Z, s.v. "gaan" (Amsterdam UP, 3 Dec. 2009): .
- Skeat, Walter W.. A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Forgotten Books. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-4400-5722-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=wRGhnkZq3HQC&pg=PA1933&q=eode.
- Jens Elmegård Rasmussen, "Germanic Verschärfung: Tying Up Loose Ends", Selected Papers on Indo-European Linguistics (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, 1999), 382.
- An alternate derivation has Gothic iddja ← *ejjō ← PIE *h₁eh₁i̯óh₂e; which means OE ēo- ← WGmc *eijō ← PGmc *ejjō, except ēo/eō does not neatly obtain from *eijō; see N. E. Collinge, "Holtzmann's Law", The Laws of Indo-European, (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, , c1985), 96, citing F.O. Lindeman, "Gotisch iddja und altenglisch ēode", Indogermanische Forschungen, 72 (1967), 275-286.
- J.P. Mallory & D.Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, s.v. "go" (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), 228.
- Robert K. Barnhart, Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, s.v. "wend" (Chambers Harrap, , c1988), 1228.
- C.T. Onions, Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, s.v. "wend" (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996), 1000.
- Icelandic dictionary online
- Carl W. Hart, The Ultimate Phrasal Verb Book, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1XixeA7xHrcC&pg=PA150
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- go about gribe an, gå omkring
- go across gå over
- go against gå imod
- go ahead gå i gang, gå i forvejen
- go all out anstrenge sig til det yderste
- go back gå tilbage
- go out with komme sammen med, gå i byen med
- go to gå til
- go to it gå til den, tage fat
- go to one's head stige en til hovedet
- go up stige
- go up to rejse til
- go with tage med, høre med
- on the go i fuld gang
n. - et japansk spil
(door-/weg-/ heen) gaan, (af)lopen, worden, luiden, verdwijnen, uitvallen, toestaan/ gebeuren, gezag hebben, bezwijken, stuk gaan, bederven, dienen, gangbaar zijn, gelden, bieden (kaartspel), reiken, zeggen, verstrijken, uitgegeven/ verkocht worden, Af! (start), het gaan, energie, poging, beurt, succes, drukte, voorval, rage, portie, bezieling, aanval, vooruitstrevend, in orde, stand van zaken
v. intr. - aller (faire qch), aller à/chez, partir, marcher, fonctionner, commencer, conduire, mener, remonter (loin), s'enfoncer (profondément), être placé, mettre, rentrer dans, ressembler, faire courir que, dire que, faire loi, aller sans dire, être sur le point de, se passer, être par rapport à la moyenne, être vendu (une maison), être disponible, vendre au plus offrant (aux enchères), servir à, donner (une récompense), passer (à) (un héritage, un titre), passer, dépenser (de l'argent), (gén) faire, sonner (l'alarme), avoir recours à, s'effondrer (un toit), se rompre, céder, griller (un fusible), aller jusqu'à (une somme d'argent), prendre son tour, aller avec, s'harmoniser, aller aux toilettes, (US) emporter (des plats à emporter)
v. tr. - voyager, parcourir, annoncer (au bridge), miser, parier
n. - essai, tour, dynamisme, (GB) attaque (d'une maladie)
adj. - dynamique, essayé
- all the go faire fureur
- go about (Naut) virer de bord, s'attaquer à (une tâche), vaquer à
- go against être défavorable, tourner au désavantage de, être contraire à (aux principes), aller à l'encontre de, (Pol) ne pas être dans la ligne du parti, s'opposer à, aller à l'inverse de
- go ahead partir devant, (fig) continuer, mettre en route (un projet), avoir lieu (une grève)
- go back retourner, rebrousser chemin, faire demi-tour, reprendre le travail, reprendre les cours, remonter (le temps), revenir (à)
- go out with sortir avec, avoir un(e) petit(e) ami(e)
- go to aller à, assister à
- go to it se lancer, fonce (excl)
- go up monter, monter (les prix), (Théât) se lever (le rideau), être construit, être affiché, sauter, exploser (un bâtiment), (GB, Univ) entrer à l'université, reprendre les cours, (Sport) passer en première division, continuer, aller jusqu'à, gravir (une montagne), (École) passer dans une classe supérieure
- go up to aller droit à, aller à/en, voyager, monter à, approcher
- go with être d'accord avec qn, aller avec, aller de pair avec, sortir avec, coucher avec (qn)
- have a go at s'en prendre à
- make a go of réussir (qch)
- on the go en chantier (un projet), en cours
- there you go again (fig) vous voilà qui recommencez (excl), vous voilà qui repassez
n. - jeu japonais à deux joueurs
v. - gehen, fahren, werden, sein, sterben, nachlassen, vergehen, verlaufen, losgehen, laufen, gehören, (ugs.) erlaubt sein
n. - Versuch, Anlauf, Energie, Tatkraft, Reihe, Erfolg
adj. - alles klar, alles in Ordnung
- all the go der letzte Schrei sein (ugs.), groß in Mode sein
- go about herumlaufen, umgehen, angehen, nachgehen
- go against zuwiderhandeln, widersetzen
- go ahead vorausgehen, weitermachen
- go back zurückgehen
- go out with gehen mit
- go to gehen zu, fahren zu, führen nach
- go to it es angehen
- go up nach oben gehen, ansteigen, aufgehen, in die Höhe gehen, in die Luft fliegen, aufsteigen, promovieren
- go up to zugehen auf
- go with Hand in Hand gehen mit, zusammengehen, gehen mit
- have a go at versuchen, etw. zu tun, sich an etw. versuchen, sich jmdn. vornehmen od. vorknöpfen (ugs.), über jmdn. herfallen
- make a go of mit etw. Erfolg haben, eine Sache zum Erfolg führen, das Beste aus etw. machen
- on the go in ständiger Bewegung, ständig am Arbeiten
- there you go again da, schon wieder!
n. - Versuch, Anlauf, Energie, Tatkraft, Reihe, Erfolg
v. - πάω, πηγαίνω, αναχωρώ, φεύγω, γίνομαι, αποβαίνω, προοδεύω, προχωρώ, ταιριάζω, πωλούμαι, (επί χρόνου) περνώ, ξοδεύομαι, (για κουδούνι) χτυπώ, χάνομαι, χωρώ, μπαίνω, (στη διαίρεση) χωρώ, λειτουργώ
n. - δραστηριότητα, κίνηση, απόπειρα, δυναμισμός, γκο (ιαπωνικό επιτραπέζιο παιχνίδι στρατηγικής)
- go about κυκλοφορώ, τριγυρίζω, διαδίδομαι, ασχολούμαι με, καταπιάνομαι με
- go across περνώ απέναντι
- go against αντιβαίνω σε, πάω κόντρα, αντιστρατεύομαι
- go ahead προχωρώ, πάω μπροστά, προοδεύω
- go all out βάζω τα δυνατά μου, σκίζομαι για
- go back επιστρέφω, επανέρχομαι, ξαναγυρίζω, αθετώ
- go out with βγαίνω με
- go to πηγαίνω σε, προσφεύγω σε
- go to it εμπρός λοιπόν!
- go to one's head (καθομ.) φουσκώνω τα μυαλά κάποιου
- go up ανεβαίνω, ανέρχομαι, ανατινάζομαι, υψώνομαι, αρχίζω να σπουδάζω σε πανεπιστήμιο
- go up to πλησιάζω
- go with πάω/πηγαίνω με, συνοδεύω, ταιριάζω με, συμβαδίζω με
- on the go στο πόδι, σε κίνηση
- anything goes non ne va bene una
- as things/bosses/people go come vanno le cose
- go about andare in giro, occuparsi di, circolare
- go after correre dietro, corteggiare
- go against opporsi
- go ahead proseguire
- go all out buttarsi
- go along procedere
- go along with accompagnare, andare avanti, essere d'accordo
- go around circolare
- go around with andare in giro con
- go at attaccare
- go away andarsene
- go back ritornare
- go back on mancare alla parola data, rimangiarsi
- go before precedere
- go by superare, passare
- go down scendere, tramontare
- go down as essere ricordato per
- go down with ammalarsi di
- go far andare lontano
- go for assalire
- go for it competere per
- go halves fare a metà
- go in entrare
- go in for occuparsi di
- go into addentrarsi
- go it mettercela
- go off andar via, uscire da, esplodere, scadere, scattare, suonare
- go off well riuscire bene
- go on proseguire, accadere, accendersi
- go on with seguitare
- go out uscire, perdere i sensi
- go out of one's way prendersi il disturbo di
- go out with uscire con
- go over esaminare
- go over to passare la linea a
- go round fare il giro di
- go round with frequentare
- go steady fidanzarsi
- go the extra mile strafare
- go through esaminare, subire, perquisire
- go through with andare fino in fondo con
- go to andare a
- go to it legarselo al dito
- go to law passare ai fatti
- go to one's head montarsi la testa
- go to pieces andare a pezzi
- go too far passare i limiti
- go towards andare incontro a
- go under soccombere
- go up risalire, saltare in aria
- go up to andare diritto a
- go with andar insieme
- go without far senza
- goes without saying non c'è da dirlo
- has gone and done l'ha fatta bella
- on the go molto occupato, in viaggio da un posto ad un altro
- as things/bosses/people go como costuma acontecer (com as pessoas/chefes), de acordo com as circunstâncias
- go back voltar, originar, mudar de opinião ou posição
- go out of one's way afastar-se, não poupar esforços para
- go out with sair com
- go to ir para
- go to it ir ao encontro do objetivo
- go to one's head subir à cabeça
- go up subir, aumentar (de preço, valor, etc.)
- go up to ir até
- go with sair com, combinar com, ser namorado de
- on the go em grande atividade
быть в движении или начинать движение, идти, ехать, лететь, приводиться в движение, приводить в движение, направляться, быть в обращении, быть в действии, проходить (о времени), кончаться, умирать, рушиться, терпеть крах, становиться кем-л., гласить
- as things\bosses\ people go что касается/делов/хо- зяевов/людей, сравнивая с другими
- go back возвращаться, быть переведенными назад (о часах), восходить (ко времени)
- go out of one's way изменять привычный маршрут, лезть из кожи вон
- go out with встречаться с кем-л. (ходить на свидания), идти с кем-л. (в театр, ресторан и т.п.)
- go to ну тебя!
- go to it за дело!
- go to one's head ударять в голову (об алкоголе, успехе)
- go up подниматься, расти, взрываться, сгорать, разоряться
- go up to подступаться к чему-л., поступать в университет, приезжать в большой город
- go with идти в комплекте с чем-л., сочетаться с чем-л., быть в близких отношениях с кем-л.
- on the go в процессе непрекращающегося движения или работы
v. intr. - hacerse, convertirse en, llegar a ser, meterse, ponerse, quedarse, resultar, volverse, morir, ir, irse, decir, rezar, marcharse, partir, funcionar, andar, marchar, pertenecer, pasar, usarse para, armonizar, consumirse, acudir a, fallar o romperse
v. tr. - ir, tolerar, arriesgar, asumir la responsabilidad de, desear
n. - intento, ensayo, esfuerzo, tentativa, energía, arrestos, turno, vez, acto de ir, acuerdo de negocios, logro, permiso para
adj. - pronto, que funciona bien
- all the go actividad frenética
- go about circular, correr, ir de un sitio para otro, hacer, ocuparse, recorrer, emprender
- go against ir en contra de, ser desfavorable
- go ahead proceder, seguir adelante, llevar la delantera
- go back volver, regresar, retroceder, remontarse a
- go out with salir con, mantener relaciones amorosas con, tener relaciones con
- go to ir a, irse a, dirigirse a, ser otorgado a
- go to it ¡manos a la obra!, ¡adelante!
- go up ser promovido, subir, promocionarse, elevarse, escalar, trepar, estallar, explotar, hacer explosión, subir las escaleras, ascender, ingresar a la universidad, levantar, estar en construcción
- go up to ir a, dirigirse a, hacer rumbo a, acercarse
- go with traer aparejado, ir acompañado de, llevar consigo, ir con, hacer juego con, armonizar con
- have a go at probar o intentar algo
- make a go of tener éxito
- on the go en actividad, en movimiento, trajinando, listo
- there you go again otra vez lo mismo
n. - juego japonés para dos personas
v. - resa, ge sig av, gå, leda, gå (om tid), utfalla, vara igång, starta, bli, försvinna, ha sin plats, gå till väga, rymmas, ljuda (betr. ljud o.d.), lyda (betr. ordalydelse), vara gångbar (om mynt), gälla, räcka till, övergå, hänvända sig, bidra
n. - gång, händelse, fart, go, för
- go about 着手做, 走动, 从事
- go across 走过
- go against 反对, 不利于, 违反
- go ahead 前进
- go all out 全力以赴
- go back 回去, 追溯
- go out with 跟某人来往
- go to 转向, 定位, 确定
- go to it 使出劲来, 加油地做
- go to one's head 带头, 领路, 陶醉
- go up 上升, 被兴建起来, 增长
- go up to 前往
- go with 伴随, 与...约会, 与...相配, 顺从...的趋势
- on the go 忙个不停
v. intr. - 去, 行走, 離去, 旅行
v. tr. - 拿...打賭, 忍耐
n. - 輪到的機會, 精力, 精神
adj. - 圍棋的
- go about 著手做, 走動, 從事
- go across 走過
- go against 反對, 不利於, 違反
- go ahead 前進
- go all out 全力以赴
- go back 回去, 追溯
- go out with 跟某人來往
- go to 轉向, 定位, 確定
- go to it 使出勁來, 加油地做
- go to one's head 帶頭, 領路, 陶醉
- go up 上升, 被興建起來, 增長
- go up to 前往
- go with 伴隨, 與...約會, 與...相配, 順從...的趨勢
- on the go 忙個不停
- go about 돌아다니다
- go across 거역하다, 횡단하다
- go against 불리하게 끝나다
- go ahead 진전시키다
- go all out 최선을 다하다
- go back 되돌아 가다
- go out with ~와 외출하다
- go to 좀 기다려!
- go to it 자아 어서!(재촉)
- go to one's head (취기가) 머리까지 오르다, 정신이 이상해지다
- go up 올라가다, 폭파되다
- go up to ~에 이르다
- go with 동행하다
n. - (일본의 게임의 일종) 고
v. - 行く, 進む, 動く, 出発する, 立ち去る, 鳴る, 至る, 届く, 作動する, ある, 過ぎ去る, 消え去る, なくなる, だめになる, 壊れる, 進行する, 置かれる, 入れられる, 売られる, 流布している, 通る, 崩れる, 折れる, 振る舞う, 我慢する
n. - 行くこと, 元気, 活気, 成功, 試み, 機会, 番
adj. - 準備ができて, 正常に機能して
- go about 歩き回る, 取りかかる, せっせとやる, 広まる
- go all out 全力を尽くす
- go at 攻撃する, 取りかかる
- go away 去る, 立ち去る, 持ち去る
- go by 通り過ぎる, 過ぎ去る, 基づいて判断する, 失われる
- go down 降りる, 負ける, 大学を去る, かかる, 下がる, 沈む, 弱まる, 空気が抜ける, 倒れる, 落ちる
- go down as 終わる, 病気にかかる, 刑務所に入る
- go down with 受け入れられる, 病気にかかる
- go for 取りに行く, …しに行く, …で売れる, 攻撃する, 得ようとする, 当てはまる
- go for it 目指す, 突き進む
- go in 入る, 参加する, 始まる
- go in for 参加する, する, 楽しむ
- go into 入る, 詳しく調べる, 状態になる, 従事する, 含まれる, 探る
- go it どしどしやる, 道楽をする
- go off 立ち去る, 去る, 爆発する, 大きな音を立てる, 悪くなる, 低下する, 運ぶ, 弱まる, 止まる
- go on 進む, 続ける, 切り換える, …し続ける, たつ
- go on with 10…になる, 進む, いう文句である
- go out 外に出る, 消える, 付き合う, 廃れる, 姿を消す, 潮が引く, 公表される, ストライキをする, 出かける
- go out with 付き合う
- go over 渡る, 視察する, 復習する
- go over to 変える
- go through 通り抜ける, 通る, 経験する, 使いきる, 調べる, 目を通す
- go through with 成し遂げる, やり通す
- go to …にたよる, 引き受ける, 訴える
- Go to hell! くたばれ
- go to it がんばってやる
- go up 上がる, 建つ, 大学に入る, 都会へ行く, 爆発する, 昇る, 増す
- go up to 進級する, 行く, 達する
- go with …といっしょに行く, 合う, 伴う, と付き合う
- go without …がない, …なしで済ます, …にしてやる, …らしくふるまう
- on the go 大忙しで, じっとしていないで
v. intr. - הלך, נסע, הגיע, נעשה, התהלך, הצליח, היה מקובל, נעלם, מת (מדוברת), עזב, נפסק, התקבל
v. tr. - השמיע קול, המשיך, נהג
n. - הליכה, מרץ, פעילות, מנה של ליקר, משקה וכו', התלהבות, חיות, הצלחה, התקף מחלה, ניסיון לעשות משהו, מצב עניינים, תור
adj. - מתפקד כהלכה
n. - משחק יפני בו יש לכבוש ולהחזיק בטריטוריה על לוח
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