\nIn Chemistry, hydrolysis is the addition of one or more water molecules to another molecule, usually to create two different compounds. The opposite of hydrolysis (the remov…al of one water molecule usually from two different compounds to form one single compound) is known as condensation. \n.
\nIn Biology, hydrolysis (and condensation) have the same meaning as in Chemistry. Hydrolysis is usually and most commonly (at least as far as my knowledge concerns) used for the breakdown of ester links in lipids, glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides and peptide bonds in polypeptide molecules. Condensation reactions occur for the opposite outcome. (MORE)
Condensation: Condensation is a chemical process by which 2 molecules are joined together to make a larger, more complex, molecule, with the loss of water. Hydrolysis: … Hydrolysis is the opposite to condensation. A large molecule is split into smaller sections by breaking a bond, adding -H to one section and -OH to the other. (MORE)
Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is thehydrolysis of amides or esters . Their hydrolysis occurs when the nucleophile (a nucleus-seeking agent, …e.g., wateror hydroxyl ion) attacks the carbon of the carbonyl group of the ester or amide . In an aqueous base, hydroxyl ions are betternucleophiles than polar molecules such as water. In acids, thecarbonyl group becomes protonated, and this leads to a much easiernucleophilic attack. The products for both hydrolyses are compoundswith carboxylic acid groups. Perhaps the oldest commercially practiced example of esterhydrolysis is saponification (formation of soap). It is thehydrolysis of a triglyceride (fat) with an aqueous base such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). During the process, glycerol is formed, and the fatty acids react with the base, converting them tosalts. These salts are called soaps, commonly used inhouseholds. In addition, in living systems, most biochemical reactions(including ATP hydrolysis) take place during the catalysis of enzymes . The catalytic action of enzymes allows thehydrolysis of proteins , fats, oils, and carbohydrates . As an example, one mayconsider proteases (enzymes that aid digestion by causing hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins ). They catalyse the hydrolysis of interiorpeptide bonds in peptide chains, as opposed to exopeptidases (another class of enzymes, thatcatalyse the hydrolysis of terminal peptide bonds, liberating onefree amino acid at a time). However, proteases do not catalyse the hydrolysis of all kinds ofproteins. Their action is stereo-selective: Only proteins with acertain tertiary structure are targeted as some kind of orientingforce is needed to place the amide group in the proper position forcatalysis. The necessary contacts between an enzyme and itssubstrates (proteins) are created because the enzyme folds in sucha way as to form a crevice into which the substrate fits; thecrevice also contains the catalytic groups. Therefore, proteinsthat do not fit into the crevice will not undergo hydrolysis. Thisspecificity preserves the integrity of other proteins such as hormones , and therefore the biological systemcontinues to function normally. Upon hydrolysis, an amide converts into a carboxylic acid and an amine or ammonia . The carboxylic acid has a hydroxyl groupderived from a water molecule and the amine (or ammonia) gains thehydrogen ion. The hydrolysis of peptides gives amino acids . .
Many polyamide polymers such as nylon 6,6 hydrolyse in the presence of strongacids. The process leads to depolymerization . For this reason nylonproducts fail by fracturing when exposed to small amounts of acidicwater. Polyesters are also susceptible to similar polymer degradation reactions. Theproblem is known as stress corrosion cracking . (MORE)
Water becomes part of the chemical structure..
Resulting mineral is weaker, and easier to physically weather thanstarting rock..
Opposed to Hydration which is physical expan…sion. Most commonly promoted by acid.
KAlSi3O8 + H2O > Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + K+ + H4SiO4.(MORE)