The first Roman emperor was Augustus. The title of Roman Emperor , although in some ways a modernconcept, effectively summarises the position held by thoseindividuals who wie…lded power in the Roman Empire. The Roman Empiredeveloped from the Roman Republic after its ascent to the dominantpower in Europe, and is characterised by the concentration of powerin one individual, rather than the "Senate and People of Rome".However, Augustus, universally accepted to have been the firstemperor, was careful to maintain the facade of republic rule, andtook no specific title to mark his rule (which began in 27 BC).Instead, he simply concentrated the pre-existing powers of Romanmagistrates upon his own person, taking the existing honorific of'Princeps Senatus' (the 'first' man of the senate). This styleof government, which lasted for nearly 300 years, is thus calledthe 'Principate'. The modern word 'emperor' derives from the title'Imperator', which was granted by an army to a successful general;as such, during the initial phase of the Roman Empire, it still hadto be earned by the 'Princeps'. The term 'emperor', though modern,is used when describing rulers of the Roman Empire, since it a)emphasises the strong links between the ruler and the army (onwhose support the ruler's power depended), and b) does notdiscriminate between the style of rule in different phases of theEmpire. In the late 3rd century AD, after the Crisis of the Third Century,Diocletian formalised and embellished the recent manner of imperialrule, establishing the so-called 'Dominate' period of the RomanEmpire. This was characterised by the explicit investment ofauthority in the person of the Emperor, and the use of the style'Dominus Noster' ('Our Lord'). From Diocletian onwards, there wereoften multiple simultaneous emperors, dividing the rule of the vastterritories between them. After 395 AD, and the death of TheodosiusI, the Empire became more firmly split into an Western and Easternhalves They were not legally separate however, and the Emperorof the more stable Eastern Empire often imposed his authority overthe Western half. The Western Empire was heavily troubled after 395AD, and collapsed completely after 455 AD, the last Western Emperordying in 480 AD; after which the Eastern Empire maintained claim tothe territories in the west. The Eastern Empire would continueuntil 1453, and the capture of Constantinople by the OttomanTurks. The Eastern Emperors, nowadays generally known as theByzantine Emperors, continued unbroken succession of RomanEmperors. The listing of the earlier Byzantine Emperors in thisarticle ends with Justin II, last of the Justinian dynasty. Forfurther Eastern/Byzantine Emperors, see: List of ByzantineEmperors. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed tohave been 'legitimate' emperors (e.g. not usurpers, etc.). However,since the emperorship was rather vaguely defined legally, whichpersons were 'legitimate' is not easy to define; many of the'legitimate' emperors accessed to the position by usurption, andmany 'illegitemate' claimants had a legitimate claim to theposition. The following criteria can be used to derive the list: .
Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, atsome point , must, in point of fact, be a 'legitimateemperor'(1). .
Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperorby a legitimate emperor (1), and who succeeded to rule in theirown right , is a legitimate emperor (2). .
Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimateheirs; the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is thelegitimate emperor (3), at least during the Principate. So for instance, Aurelian, though acceeding to the throne byusurption, was the sole and undisputed between 274-275 AD, and thuswas a legitimate emperor. Gallienus, though not in control of thewhole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimateheir of (the legitimate emperor) Valerian. Claudius Gothicus,though acceeding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire,was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for hisreign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of theFour Emperors, all claimants, though not undisputed, were at somepoint accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely,during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger orClodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus notincluded. There are a few examples where individuals were madeco-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right (typicallythe child of an emperor); these are legitimate, but are listedtogether with the 'senior' emperor. The above formula holds until 395, when the Western and Easternhalves of the Empire split. After that, it continues to hold, withthe caveat that a legitimate emperor had undisputed control overone half of the Empire. Towards the end of the Western Empire(after 455), the emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and therewas sometimes actually no claimant. For the sake of historicalcompleteness, all Western Emperors after that point are included,even though Romulus Augustus, traditionally the "last RomanEmperor" was technically a usurper.For a more exhaustive list ofall claimants, including usurpers, see Concise list of RomanEmperors Contents[hide] .
1 Principate .
1.1 Julio-Claudian dynasty .
1.2 Year of the Four Emperors & Flavian Dynasty .
1.3 Nervan-Antonian dynasty .
1.4 Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty .
1.5 Emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century .
2 Dominate .
2.1 Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty .
2.2 Valentinian dynasty .
2.3 Theodosian dynasty .
2.4 The last emperors of the Western Empire .
3 The Emperors of the Eastern Empire .
3.1 Leonid Dynasty .
3.2 Justinian Dynasty .
4 References .
5 See also .
6 External links  Principate Mainarticle: Principate Julio-Claudian dynasty Main article: Julio-Claudiandynasty NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Augustus CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS 23 September 63 BC, Nola, Italia16 January 27 BC - 19 August AD 14 Became de facto emperoras a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the RomanSenate. 19 August AD 14 Probably old age, possibly assassinated. Tiberius TIBERIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS 16 November 42 BC, Rome 19 August14 AD - 16 March 37 AD Son of Augustus's wife Livia by a previousmarriage; adopted son of Augustus. 16 March 37 AD Probably old age, possibly assassinated. Caligula GAIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS 31 August 12 AD, Antium,Italia 18 March 37 AD - 24 January 41 AD Son of Tiberius's nephewGermanicus. 24 January 41 AD Assassinated in a conspiracy involving senators and PraetorianGuards. Claudius TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS CAESAR AUGUSTUS GERMANICVS 1 August 10 BC,Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis 24 January 41 AD - 13 October 54 ADNephew of Tiberius, brother of Germanicus and uncle of Caligula;proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard. 13 October 54 AD Probably poisoned by his wife Agrippina the Younger, in favour ofher son Nero. Nero NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS 15 December 37 AD,Antium, Italia 13 October 54 AD - 11 June 68 AD Grandson ofGermanicus, step-, and adopted son of Claudius. 11 June 68 AD Committed suicide after being declared a public enemy by theSenate. Year of the Four Emperors & Flavian Dynasty Mainarticles: Year of the Four Emperors and Flavian Dynasty !width="180" | NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Galba SERVIVS GALBA IMPERATOR CAESAR AVGVSTVS 24 December 3 BC,Near Terracina, Italia 8 June 68 AD - 15 January 69 AD Seized powerafter Nero's suicide, with support of the Spanish legions 15January 69 AD Murdered by Praetorian Guard Otho MARCVS OTHO CAESAR AVGVSTVS 25 April 32 AD, Ferentinum,Etruria, Italia 15 January 69 AD - 16 April 69 AD Appointed byPraetorian Guard 16 April 69 AD Committed suicide after losing Battle of Bedriacum to Vitellius Vitellius AVLVS VITELLIVS GERMANICVS AVGVSTVS 24 September 15 AD, Rome17 April 69 AD - 20 December 69 AD Seized power with support ofGerman Legions (in opposition to Galba/Otho) 20 December 69 AD Murdered by Vespasian's troops Vespasian TITVS FLAVIUS CAESAR VESPASIANUS AVGVSTVS 17 November 9 AD,Falacrine, Italia 1 July 69 AD - 24 June 79 AD Seized power withthe support of the eastern Legions (in opposition to Vitellius) 24June 79 AD "Natural Causes" Titus TITVS FLAVIUS CAESAR VESPASIANUS AVGVSTVS 30 December 39 AD,Rome 24 June 79 AD - 13 September 81 AD Son of Vespasian 13September 81 AD Natural Causes Domitian TITVS FLAVIUS CAESAR DOMITIANUS AVGVSTVS 24 October 51 AD,Rome 14 September 81 AD - 18 September 96 AD Son of Vespasian 18September 96 AD Assassinated by court officials  Nervan-Antoniandynasty Main article: Nervan-Antoniandynasty Main article: Five Good Emperors ! width="180" |NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Nerva MARCVS COCCIEVS NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS, 8 November 30 AD,Narni, Italia 18 September 96 AD - 27 January 98 AD Appointed bythe Senate 27 January 98 AD Natural Causes Trajan CAESAR MARCVS VLPIVS NERVA TRAIANVS AVGVSTVS September 18 53AD, Italica, Hispania Baetica 28 January 98 AD - 7 August 117 ADAdopted son and heir of Nerva 7 August 117 AD Natural Causes Hadrian CAESAR PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS 24 January76 AD, Italica, Hispania Baetica (or Rome) 11 August 117 AD - 10July 138 AD Adopted son and heir of Trajan 10 July 138 AD Natural Causes Antoninus Pius CAESAR TITVS AELIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS 19September 86 AD, Near Lanuvium, Italia 10 July 138 AD - 7 March 161AD Adopted son and heir of Hadrian 7 March 161 AD Natural Causes Marcus Aurelius CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS 26 April 121 AD,Rome 7 March 161 AD - 17 March 180 AD Adopted son and heir ofAntoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Lucius Verus until 169 AD 17 March180 AD Natural Causes Lucius Verus CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS VERVS AVGVSTVS 15 December 130AD, Rome 7 March 161 AD - ? March 169 AD Adopted son and heir ofAntoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until death March169 AD Natural Causes Commodus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS 31 August161 AD, Lanuvium, Italia 177 AD - 31 December 192 AD Natural son ofMarcus Aurelius; joint emperor from 177 AD 31 December 192 AD Assassinated in palace coup Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty Mainarticles: Year of the Five Emperors and Severan dynasty familytree ! width="180" |NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Pertinax CAESAR PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS 1 August 126, Alba,Italia 1 January 193 AD - 28 March 193 AD Proclaimed emperor byPraetorian Guard 28 March 193 AD Murdered by Praetorian Guard Didius Julianus CAESAR MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS 133 or137 AD, Milan, Italia 28 March 193 AD - 1 June 193 AD Won auctionheld by Praetorian Guard for position of emperor 1 June 193 AD Executed on orders of the Senate Septimius Severus CAESAR LVCIVS SEPTIMVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS 11 April 145 AD,Leptis Magna, Africa 9 April 193 AD - 4 February 211 AD Seizedpower with support of Pannonian legionsa 4 February 211 AD Natural Causes Caracalla CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ANTONINVS PIVSAVGVSTVS 4 April 188 AD, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis 198 AD - 8April 217 AD Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus from198 AD; with Severus and Geta from 209 AD until February 211 AD;co-emperor with Geta until December 211 AD 8 April 217 AD Murdered by a soldier; probably as part of a conspiracy involvingMacrinus Geta CAESAR PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTUS 7 March 189 AD, Rome 209 AD- 26 December 211 AD Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor withSeverus and Caracalla from 209 AD until February 211 AD; co-emperorwith Caracalla until December 211 AD 26 December 211 AD Murdered on the orders of Caracalla Macrinus MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS FELIX with Diadumenian c.165 AD, Iol Caesarea, Mauretania 11 April 217AD - 8 June 218 AD Praetorian Prefect to Caracalla, probablyconspired to have Caracalla murdered and proclaimed himself emperorafter Caracalla's death; appointed his son Diadumenian junioremperor in May 217 8 June 218 AD Both executed in favour of Elagabalus Elagabalus MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS c.203 AD, Emesa, Syria 8 June218 AD - 11 March 222 AD Grandson of Septimius Severus'ssister-in-law, alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla; proclaimedemperor by Syrian legions 11 March 218 AD Murdered by Praetorian Guard Alexander Severus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ALEXANDER AVGVSTVS 1 October208 AD, Arca Caesarea, Iudaea 13 March 222 AD - 18 March 235 ADGrandson of Septimius Severus's sister-in-law, cousin and adoptiveheir of Elagabalus 18 March 218 AD Murdered by the army Notes aThe other claimants for thethrone in the Year of the Five Emperors were Pescennius Niger andClodius Albinus, supported by the Syrian and British legionsrespectively. Although not completely defeated until 197 AD, theywere not formally accepted by the senate and were therefore nottechnically reigning emperors; Emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century Mainarticle: Crisis of the Third Century Main article: RomanEmperor (Crisis of the Third Century) ! width="180" |NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Maximinus Thrax CAESAR GAIVS JVLIVS VERVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS c.173 AD,Thrace or Moesia 20 March 235 AD - April 238 AD Proclaimed emperorby German legions after the murder of Alexander Severus April 238AD Assassinated by Praetorian Guard Gordian I CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS AFRICANVSAVGVSTVS c.159 AD, Phyrgia? 22 March 238 AD - 12 April 238 ADProclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revoltagainst Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and inopposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectivelylegitimised by the accession of Gordian III April 238 AD Commited suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II. Gordian II CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVSAFRICANVS AVGVSTVS c.192 AD, ? 22 March 238 AD - 12 April 238 ADProclaimed emperor, alongside father Gordian I, in opposition toMaximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimisedby the accession of Gordian III April 238 AD Killed during the Battle of Carthage, fighting a pro-Maximinus army Pupienus Maximus CAESAR MARCVS CLODIVS PVPIENVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS c.178 AD, ?22 April 238 AD - 29 July 238 AD Proclaimed joint emperor withBalbinus by the the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; laterco-emperor with Balbinus and Gordian III 29 July 238 AD Assassinated by Praetorian Guard Balbinus CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS ? 22 April238 AD - 29 July 238 AD Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus bythe Senate after death of Gordian I & II, in opposition toMaximinus; later co-emperor with Pupienus and Gordian III 29 July238 AD Assassinated by Praetorian Guard Gordian III CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS 20 January 225 AD,Rome 22 April 238 AD - 11 February 244 AD Proclaimed emperor bysupporters of Gordian I & II, then by the Senate; joint-emperorwith Pupienus and Balbinus until July 238 AD. 11 February 244 AD Unknown; possibly murdered Philip the Arab CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS PHILLIPVS AVGVSTVS c.204 AD, Shahba,Syria February 244 AD - September/ October 249 AD PraetorianPrefect to Gordian III, took power after his death September/October 249 AD Killed in battle against Decius, near Verona Decius CAESAR GAIVS MESSIVS QVINTVS TRAIANVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS with Herennius Etruscus c.201 AD, Budalia, LowerPannonia September/ October 249 AD249 AD - June 251 AD Governorunder Philip the Arab; proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions anddefeated Philip in battle; made his son Herennius Etruscusco-emperor in early 251 AD June 251 AD Both killed in the Battle of Abrittus fighting against the Goths Hostilian CAESAR CAIVS VALENS HOSTILIANVS MESSIVS QVINTVS AVGVSTVS ?June 251 AD - late 251 AD Son of Decius, accepted as heir by theSenate September/October 249 AD Natural causes Trebonianus Gallus CAESAR GAIVS VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS with Volusianus 206 AD, Italia June 251 AD - August 253 ADGovernor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legionsafter Decius's death (and in opposition to Hostilian); made his sonVolusianus co-emperor in late 251 AD. August 253 AD Assassinated by their own troops, in favour of Aemilianus Aemilianus CAESAR MARCVS AEMILIVS AEMILIANVS AVGVSTVS c.207 AD AfricaAugust 253 AD - October 253 AD Governor of Moesia Superior,proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after defeating the Goths;accepted as emperor after death of Gallus September/October 249 AD Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Valerian Valerian CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS AVGVSTVS c.200 AD October253 AD - 260 AD Governor of Noricum and Raetia, proclaimed emperorby Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor afterdeath of Aemilianus After 260 AD Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity Gallienus CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS AVGVSTVS ?October 253 AD - September 268 AD Son of Valerian, made co-emperorin 253 AD September 268 AD Murdered in unclear circumstances Claudius Gothicus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS 10 May 213 AD/214 AD,Sirmium September 268 AD - January 270 AD Victorius general atBattle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death January 270AD Natural Causes Quintillus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS AVGVSTVS ? , SirmiumJanuary 270 AD - 270 AD Brother of Claudius Gothicus, seized powerafter his death 270 AD Unclear; possibly suicide or murder Aurelian CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS 9 September 214 AD/215AD , Sirmium September(?) 270 AD - September 270 AD Proclaimedemperor by Danubian legions after Claudius Gothicus's death, inopposition to Quintillus September 275 AD Assassinated by Praetorian Guard Tacitus CAESAR MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS AVGVSTVS ?, Interamna September 25275 AD - June 276 AD Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian,after a short interregnum June 276 AD Natural Causes Florianus CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVGVSTVS ? June 276 AD - September?276 AD Possibly half-brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in thewest to to replace him September? 276 AD Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Probus Probus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS AVGVSTVS 232 AD, Sirmium September?276 AD - September/ October 282 AD Governor of the easternprovinces, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions in opposition toFlorianus 100px September/ October 282 AD Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus Carus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS c. 230 AD, Narbo September/October 282 AD - late July/ early August 283 AD Praetorian Prefectto Probus; seized power either before or after Probus was murderedLate July/early August 283 AD Natural causes? Carinus CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS ? Late July/ early August283 AD - 285 AD Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with hisbrother Numerian 285 AD Died in battle against Diocletian? Numerian CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS AVGVSTVS ? Late July/early August 283 AD - 284 AD? Son of Carus, succeeded him jointlywith his brother Carinus 284 AD Unclear; possibly assassinated Dominate Main article: Dominate Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty Main article:Tetrarchy Main article: Constantinian dynasty !width="180" |NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Diocletian CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS c.22December 244 AD, Dioclea, Dalmatia 20 November 284 AD - 1 May 305AD Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and inopposition to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286AD 3 Decemeber 311 AD Abdicated; died of natural causes Maximian CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS c.250 AD,near Sirmium, Pannonia 1 April 286 AD - 1 May 305 AD Adopted assenior co-emperor ('Augustus') in the west by Diocletian in 286 AD310 AD Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, andthen from Maxentius; captured by Constantine I and commited suicideat his behest Constantius I Chlorus CAESAR GAIVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS 31 Marchc.250 AD, Dardania, Moesia 1 May 305 AD - 25 July 306 AD Adopted asjunior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Maximian in 293 AD 310 AD Natural causes Galerius CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS c.260 AD, FelixRomuliana, Moesia Superior 1 May 305 AD - May 311 AD Adopted asjunior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Diocletian in 293 AD 311AD Natural causes Severus FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS ? Summer 306 AD - March/April 307 AD Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir byConstantius Chlorus in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus in 306;opposed by Maxentius and Constantine I 16 September 307 AD Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered) Constantine I CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS VALERIVS AVGVSTVS 27 Februaryc.272 AD, Naissus, Moesia Superior 25 July 306 AD - 22 May 337 ADSon of Constantius Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father'stroops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306 AD; promotedto Augustus (west) in 307 AD by Maximian after death of Severus;refused relegation to Caesar in 309 AD 22 May 337 AD Natural Causes Maxentius MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS c.278 AD, ? 28October 306 AD - 28 October 312 AD Son of Maximian, seized power in306 after death of Constantius Chlorus, in opposition to Severusand Constantine I; made Caesar (west) by Maximian in 307 AD afterthe death of Severus 28 October 312 AD Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine I Maximinus Daia CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS 20 Novemberc.270 AD, Dacia Aureliana 1 May 311 AD - July/August 313 AD Nephewof Galerius, Adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305 AD; succeeded asAugustus (shared with Licinius) in 311 AD July/August 313 AD Defeated in civil war against Licinius; probably commited suicidethereafter Licinius CAESAR GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS with Valerius Valens Martinianus c.250 AD, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior 11November 308 AD - 18 September 324 AD Appointed Augustus in thewest by Galerius in 308 BC, in opposition to Maxentius; BecameAugustus in the east in 311 AD after the death of Galerius (sharedwith Maximinus); Defeated Maximinus in civil war to become soleeastern Augustus in 313 BC; Appointed Valerius Valens in 317 AD,and Martinianus in 324 AD as western Augustus, in opposition toConstantine, both nominally ruled for a few months before beingexecuted 325 AD Defeated in civil war against Constantine I in 324 AD and captured;executed on the orders of Constantine the next year ConstantineII CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS 316 AD, Arles22 May 337 AD - 340 AD Son of Constantine I; appointed Caesar in317 BC, succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers ConstantiusII and Constans 340 AD Died in battle against Constans Constantius II CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS 7 August 317 AD,Sirmium, Pannonia 22 May 337 AD - 3 November 361 AD Son ofConstantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothersConstantine II and Constans; sole emperor from 350 AD 340 AD Natural Causes Constans CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS 320 AD, ? 22 May 337AD - 350 AD Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus withhis brothers Constantine II and Constantius II 350 AD Assassinated on the orders of the usurper Magnentius Julian CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS 331 AD/332 AD,Constantinople, Thracia February 360 AD - 26 June 363 AD Cousin ofConstantius II; made Caesar of the west in 355 AD; ProclaimedAugustus by his troops in 360; Sole emperor after the death ofConstantius 26 June 363 AD Mortally wounded in battle Jovian CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS 331 AD, Singidunum, Moesia26 June 363 AD - 17 February 364 AD General of Julian's army;proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian's death 17 February 364AD Natural causes  Valentiniandynasty Main article: Valentinian dynasty !width="180" | NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied ValentinianI FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS 321 AD, Cibalae, Pannonia 26February 364 AD - 17 November 375 AD Elected to replace Jovian bythe army 17 November 375 AD Natural causes Valens FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS AVGVSTVS 328 AD, Cibalae, Pannonia 28March 364 AD - 9 August 378 AD Brother of Valentinian I, appointedco-Augustus (for the east) by him 9 August 378 AD Killed in Battle of Adrianople against the Goths Gratian FLAVIVS GRATIANVS AVGVSTVS April 18/May 23 359 AD, Sirmium,Pannonia 4 August 367 AD - 25 August 383 AD Son of Valentinian I,appointed 'junior' Augustus by him in 367, became 'senior' Augustus(for the west) after Valentinian's death. 25 August 383 AD Murdered by rebellious army faction Valentinian II FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS JVNIOR AVGVSTVS 371 AD, Milan, Italia17 November 375 AD - 15 May392 AD Son of Valentinian I, proclaimedemperor by Pannonian army after Valentinian's death; accepted asco-Augustus for the west by Gratian 15 May392 AD Unclear; possibly murdered or commited suicide  Theodosiandynasty Main article: Theodosian dynasty !width="180" | NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied TheodosiusI FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS 11 January 347 AD, Cauca,Hispania 1 January 379 AD - 17 January 395 AD Appointed as Augustusfor the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole'senior' Augustus after death of Valentinian II 17 January 395 AD Natural causes Arcadius FLAVIVS ARCADIVS AVGVSTVS EAST c. 377 AD, Hispania January 383 AD - 1 May 408 AD Sonof Theodosius I; Appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east byTheodosius in 383 (after the death of Gratian); became 'senior'Augustus for the east after his father's death 1 May 408 AD Natural causes Honorius FLAVIVS HONORIVS AVGVSTVS WEST 9 September 384 AD, ? 23 January 393 AD - 15 August 423AD Son of Theodosius I; Appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the westby Theodosius in 393 (after the death of Valentinian II); became'senior' Augustus for the west after his father's death 15 August423 AD Natural causes Theodosius II FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS EAST 10 April 401 AD, Constantinople? 1 May 408 AD - 28 July450 AD Son of Arcadius, succeeded to the throne after his father'sdeath 28 July 450 AD Natural causes Constantius III FLAVIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS WEST ?, Naissus, Moesia Superior 8 February 421 AD - 2September 421 AD Married to Theodosius I's daughter Galla Placidia,elevated to co-Augustus for the west by Honorius 2 September 421 AD Natural causes Joannes WEST ? 27 August 423 AD - May 425 AD A senior civil servantunder Honorius, proclaimed emperor by Castinus; initiallyundisputed 2 September 421 AD Deafeated in battle by Theodosius II and Valentinian III, capturedand executed Valentinian III FLAVIVS PLACIDIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS WEST 2 July 419 AD, Ravenna, Italia 23 October 424 AD - 16March 455 AD Son of Constantius III, appointed Caesar for the westby Theodosius II after the death of Honorius, in opposition to theJoannes; became Augustus for the west after the defeat of Joannes16 March 455 AD Assassinated, possibly at the behest of Petronius Maximus Marcian FLAVIVS MARCIANIUS AVGVSTVS EAST 396, Thrace or Illyria Summer 450 AD - January 457 ADNominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, sister ofTheodosius II January 457 AD Natural causes  Thelast emperors of the Western Empire Main article:Western Roman Empire ! width="180" |NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Petronius Maximus FLAVIVS ANICIVS PETRONIVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS c.396 AD, ? 17 March 455AD - 31 May 455 AD Proclaimed himself emperor with the support ofthe army, after the death of Valentinian III 31 May 455 AD Murdered, probably stoned to death by the Roman mob Avitus EPARCHIVS AVITVS AVGVSTVS c.385 AD, ? 9 July 455 AD - 17 October456 AD Magister militum under Petronius Maximus, proclaimedemperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic after Petronius's deathafter 17 October 456 AD Deposed by his Magister militum , Ricimer; became bishop ofPlacentia; murdered at some point afterwards Majorian IVLIVS VALERIVS MAIORIANVS AVGVSTVS November 420 AD, ? April 457 AD- 2 August 461 AD Appointed emperor by Ricimer 7 August 461 AD Deposed by his troops (probably at the behest of Ricimer); diedshortly afterwards in unclear circumstances Libius Severus LIBIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS ?, Lucania, Italia November 461 AD - August465 AD Appointed emperor by Ricimer August 465 AD Probably assassinated by Ricimer Anthemius PROCOPIVS ANTHEMIVS AVGVSTVS c. 420 AD 12 April 467 AD - 11 July472 AD Appointed emperor by Ricimer, with the backing of theeastern emperor Leo I 11 July 472 AD Executed by Ricimer Olybrius FLAVIVS ANICIVS OLYBRIVS AVGVSTVS c. 420 AD 11 July 472 AD] - 2November 472 AD Son-in-law of Valentinian III; appointed emperor byRicimer 2 November 472 AD Natural causes Glycerius ? March 473 AD - June 474 ADAppointed emperor by Gundobad (Ricimer's successor) after 480 AD Deposed by Julius Nepos, became Bishop of Salona, time and mannerof death unknown Julius Nepos c. 430 AD, ? June 474 AD - 28August 475 AD (in Italy); - Spring 480 AD (in Gaul and Dalmatia)Nephew-in-law of the eastern emperor Leo I, appointed emperor inopposition to Glycerius 480 AD Deposed in Italy by Flavius Orestes, ruled in exile untilassassination in 480 Romulus Augustus or Romulus Augustulus? 31 October 475 AD - 4 September 476 AD (in Italy) Appointed byhis father, Flavius Orestes after 480 AD Deposed by Odoacer, who then ruled in the name of Julius Neposuntil the latter's death, which formally ended the western empire;fate unknown  TheEmperors of the Eastern Empire Main articles: EasternRoman Empire and List of Byzantine Emperors  Leonid DynastyNameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied Leo I FLAVIVS VALERIVS LEO AVGVSTVS 401 AD, ? 7 February 457 AD - 18January 474 AD Proclaimed emperor by the Magister militum Asparafter Marcian's death 18 January 474 AD Natural causes Leo II FLAVIVS LEO IVNIOR AVGVSTVS 467 AD, Constantinople? 18 January 474AD - 17 November 474 AD Grandson of Leo I by his daughter Ariadne(empress) 17 November 474 AD Unclear, possibly assassinated Zeno FLAVIVS ZENO PERPETUUS AVGVSTVS 425 AD, Isauria 9 February 474 AD -9 January 475 AD & August 476 AD - 9 April 491 AD Father of Leo II 9 April 491 AD Natural causes Basiliscus FLAVIVS BASILISCVS AVGVSTVS ? 9 January 475 AD - August 476 ADBrother-in-law of Leo I, seized power during a plot against Zeno byVerina (Leo I's widow and Basiliscus's sister) August 476 AD Defeated, captured and executed by Zeno Anastius I FLAVIVS ANASTASIVS AVGVSTVS c 430 AD, Dyrrachium 9 April 491 AD - 9July 518 AD Selected by Ariadne as successor to Zeno (as bothemperor and husband) 9 July 518 Natural causes  JustinianDynasty NameBornReignedSuccessionPortraitDied JustinI FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS c. 450 AD, Naissus 9 July 518 AD - 1August 527 AD Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius I);elected as emperor with support of army 1 August 527 AD Natural causes Justinian I FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS c. 482 AD, Tauresium,Dardania 1 August 527 AD - 13/14 November 565 AD Nephew andnominated heir of Justin I 13/14 November 565 AD Natural causes Justin II FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS c. 520 AD, ? 13/14 November 565AD - 578 AD Nephew of Justinian I 578 AD Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent fromDecember 574 and became emperor on Justin's death in 578 (MORE)