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The phases of OR are 1 Observe the problem environment 2 Analyse and define the problem 3 Develop a model 4 Selection of data input 5 solution and testing 6 Implementati…on of the solution In detail Step I. Observe the Problem Environment The first step of OR study is the observation of the environment in which the problem exists. The activities that constitute this step are visits, conferences, observations, research etc. with the help of such activities, the OR analyst gets sufficient information and support to proceed and is better prepared to formulate the problem. Step II. Analyse and Define the Problem In this step not only the problem is defined but also uses, objectives and limitations of the study that are stressed in the light of the problem. The end results of this step are clear grasp of need for a solution and understanding of its nature. Step III. Develop a Model The next step is to develop model, which is representation of same real or abstract situation. OR models are basically mathematical models representing systems, process or environment in form of equations, relationships or formulae. The activities in this step is to defining interrelationships among variables, formulating equations, using known OR models or searching suitable alternate models. The proposed model may be field tested and modified in order to work under stated environmental constraints. A model may also be modified if the management is not satisfied with the answer that it gives. Step IV. Selection of Data Input It is a established fact that without authentic and appropriate data the results of the OR models cannot be trusted. Hence, taping right kind of data is a vital step in OR process. Important activities in this step are analysing internal-external data and facts, collecting opinions and using computer data banks. The purpose of this step is to have sufficient input to operate and test the model. Step V. Solution and Testing In this step the solution of the problems is obtained with the help of model and data input. Such a solution is not implemented immediately and this solution is used to test the model and to find its limitations if any. If the solution is not reasonable or if the model is not behaving properly, updating and modification of the model is considered at this stage. The end result of this step is solution that is desirable and supports current organisational objectives. Step VI. Implementation of the Solution This is the last phase of the OR study. In OR the decision-making is scientific but implementation of decision involves many behavioural issues. Therefore, implementation authority has to resolve the behavioural issues, involving the workers and supervisors to avoid further conflicts. The gap between management and OR scientist may offer some resistance but must be eliminated before solution is accepted in totality. Both the parties should play positive role, since the implementation will help the organisation as a whole. A properly implemented solution obtained through OR techniques results in improved working conditions and wins management support (MORE)

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simulation simply means it helps in designing the system and help in solving the problems of the organisation

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Operational research will help managers determine best practiceswithin their industry. Many businesses use operations research tochange their position in their industry.

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• Finance problems are an excellent application area for researchers • Research techniques are used to value financial instruments, identify market imperfec…tions, design securities, regulate markets, evaluate and control risks, model strategic problems, and understand the functioning of financial markets. • Practice and procedure of budget control system. • Inventory costing methods and practices. • Depreciation method and their impact on earnings. • Transfer pricing methods and their impact on earnings. • Individual investment behavior.• Finance problems are an excellent application area for researchers • Research techniques are used to value financial instruments, identify market imperfections, design securities, regulate markets, evaluate and control risks, model strategic problems, and understand the functioning of financial markets. • Practice and procedure of budget control system. • Inventory costing methods and practices. • Depreciation method and their impact on earnings. • Transfer pricing methods and their impact on earnings. • Individual investment behavior. by Akshay Deosarkar (MORE)

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operations research means research on topics related to operations while operational research means research in on operating mode. The former is a term representing a subj…ect of research, the later is showing the status of research. (MORE)

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Operational research will help businesses improve their business operations. Researching efficient business operations will improve the business's performance within the i…ndustry. (MORE)

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Limitations OF OPERATION RESEARCH: · Dependence on an Electronic Computer: O.R. techniques try to find out an optimal solution taking into account all the factors. In the mo…dern society, these factors are enormous and expressing them in quantity and establishing relationships among these require voluminous calculations that can only be handled by computers. · Non-Quantifiable Factors: O.R. techniques provide a solution only when all the elements related to a problem can be quantified. All relevant variables do not lend themselves to quantification. Factors that cannot be quantified find no place in O.R. models. · Distance between Manager and Operations Researcher: O.R. being specialist's job requires a mathematician or a statistician, who might not be aware of the business problems. Similarly, a manager fails to understand the complex working of O.R. Thus, there is a gap between the two. · Money and Time Costs: When the basic data are subjected to frequent changes, incorporating them into the O.R. models is a costly affair. Moreover, a fairly good solution at present may be more desirable than a perfect O.R. solution available after sometime. · Implementation: Implementation of decisions is a delicate task. It must take into account the complexities of human relations and behaviour. (MORE)

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the 5s because it has better service but it dosent have diffrent colrs just silver gold and black

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Costly : Operations Research (OR) is very costly. This is because OR makes mathematical models for taking decisions and solving problems. The company has to make various model…s for solving different problems. All this increments the cost.Not Realistic : OR experts make very complex models for solving problems. These models may not be realistic. Hence, they may not be useful for real-life situations.Complex : OR is very complex concept. It is very difficult for an average manager to understand it. Therefore, most managers do not use OR techniques. (MORE)

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20c + 5 = 5c + 65 Divide through by 5: 4c + 1 = c + 13 Subtract c from both sides: 3c + 1 = 13 Subtract 1 from both sides: 3c = 12 Divide both sides by 3: c = 4