Betalains are a group of 24 substances including .
Betacyanins , red, blue, or purple pigments found in beets, chard, red or purple cabbage, and apples. .
Betaxanthins , y…ellow and orange pigments found in beets, amaranth, prickly pears, and chard. .
Terpenes are a group of substances that occur in nearly every plant, protecting them from the same reactive oxygen species that attack human cells. They include: .
Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including bergamot, carrots, coriander, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose, blueberries, blackberries, oranges, lemons, tangerines, grapefruits, and other citrus fruits and their peels, mint, lavender, cherries, spearmint, sage, celery seeds, thyme, ajwain, and horsemint. .
Carotenoids are largely responsible for the red, yellow, and orange color of fruits and vegetables, and are also found in many dark green vegetables, including carotenes, found in sweet potatoes, carrots, kale, spinach, turnip greens, winter squash, collard greens, cilantro, fresh thyme, cantaloupe, romaine lettuce, broccoli, tomatoes, green beans, cilantro, chard, apples, avocadoes and cantaloupe; lycopene, found in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, watermelon, guava, persimmon and apricots; xanthophylls, found in raw and lightly steamed kale, spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, zucchini, corn, garden peas, squash, pumpkin, Brussels sprouts, microalgae and yeast, red bell peppers, papaya, cilantro, oranges, corn, watermelon, serrano pepper, avocadoes, grapefruit, chanterelle mushrooms, green algae, and paprika. .
Saponins , found in red wine, peas, beans, lentils, peanuts, soybeans, alfalfa, ginseng, fenugreek, wild yam, soapwort, paprika, oats, spinach, garlic, leeks, onions, chives, tea, sugar beet, quinoa, licorice, capsicum peppers, eggplant, tomato seeds, asparagus, and bean sprouts. .
Polyphenols , numbering over 4,000, include: .
Cannabidiol , found in hemp seed. .
Curcumin , found in turmeric. .
Lignans found in flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, cruciferous vegetables, cucumbers, and olives. .
Phenolic acids found in blackberries, cranberries, pecans, pomegranates, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts, wolfberries, grapes, peaches, hot chile peppers, apricots, asparagus, blackberries, broccoli, cabbage, chocolate, grapefruits, grapes, green tea, lemons, limes, melons, oranges, peas, pineapples, spinach, wine, celery, parsley, rosemary, oregano, sage, lemon balm, marjoram, perilla, wild mint, hyssop, comfrey, thyme, wild oregano, and dill weed. .
Hydroxycinnamic acids , found mainly in coffee, but also in apples, artichokes, basil, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, oregano, pears, radishes, thyme, turnips, apples, pears, and tea. .
Ferulic acid , in apples, asparagus, coffee, oranges, pineapples, and whole grains. .
Hydroxybenzoic acids , found in blackberries, blueberries, cantaloupes, dates, raisins, kiwi fruits, guavas, apricots, green pepper, olives, tomatoes, radish, mushrooms, chicory, almonds, water chestnuts, peanuts, raspberries, pomegranate, rooibos and white tea, and grape seeds. .
Hydroxytyrosol , found in olives. .
Stilbenoids , found in grape skins, red wine, peanuts, blueberries, cranberries, and grapes. .
Flavonoids , found in bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry and raspeberry, apples, pears, peaches and plums, black beans, cowpeas, eggplant, red grapes, black rice, chokeberries, strawberries, cherries, black bananas, black currants, cowpeas, onions, tea, red wine, broccoli, grapefruit, cabbage kale, leeks, ginkgo bilboa, St. John's Wort, beans, walnuts, dark chocolate, Saskatoon berries, seabuckthorn, almonds, chives, dill weed fennel leaves, red onion, turnip greens, green tea, apricots, nectarines, broad beans, barley, raisins, rhubarb, persimmon, pomegranate, carob flour, black tea, oolong tea, endive, tomato, Brussels sprouts, buckwheat, prunes, rose hips, citrus rind, green peppers and their core, lemons, oranges, yellow peppers, whole grains, tangerines, peppermint, soy, chickpeas, kudzu, and red clover. .
Indoles are found in crushed or chopped garlic, chopped watercress, mustard greens, Brussels sprouts, horseradish, kale, turnip, cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, bok choy, cauliflower, broccoli sprouts, and cauliflower sprouts. .
Other organic acids that act as antioxidants include: .
Inositol (phytic acid), found in bran from corn, oats, rice, rye and wheat, nuts, soybeans and soy products (tofu, soy milk, edamame, etc). .
Oxalic acid , found in tea, buckwheat, star fruit, black pepper, parsley, poppy seed, rhubarb, chives, purslane, cassava, amaranth, spinach, chard, beet leaves, cocoa, chocolate, most nuts, carrot, radish, collards, snap beans, Brussels sprouts, garlic, lettuce, watercress, sweet potato, chicory, turnip, broccoli, celery, eggplant, cauliflower, asparagus, endive, cabbage, okra, onion, peas, potatoes, tomatoes, turnip greens, pepper, parsnip, rutabaga, cucumbers, kale, squash, coriander, sweet corn, most berries, and beans. (MORE)