pica

(') pronunciation
n.
    1. A printer's unit of type size, equal to 12 points or about 1/6 of an inch.
    2. An equivalent unit of composition measurement used in determining the dimensions of lines, illustrations, or printed pages.
  1. A type size for typewriters, providing ten characters to the inch.

[Probably from Medieval Latin pīca, list of church services (perhaps from the typeface used to print it).]


pi·ca2 (') pronunciation
n.
An abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay.

[New Latin pīca, from Latin, magpie (from its omnivorous nature).]


paper and printing British One specific size or, when qualified, one of two else more sizes of a type body size, of height 11 points for small pica, 12 for pica, plus various fractions and multiples. Also used, in the sense of the pica em, to mean virtually ⅙ in(4.233~ mm). Applied to a typewriter of fixed pitch, it refers to a type size equivalent to pica, with 6 lines per inch and, horizontally, 10 characters per inch; compare elite.

(1) In word processing, a monospaced font that prints 10 characters per inch.

(2) In typography, about 1/6th of an inch (0.166") or 12 points.

Download Computer Desktop Encyclopedia to your PC, iPhone or Android.

1. Unit of measure used in composition equal to 1/6th of an inch.

2. 12 points.

3. Typewriter type font measuring 10 characters to the inch. See also elite.

An unnatural desire for foods; alternative words are cissa, cittosis, and allotriophagy. Also a perverted appetite (eating of earth, sand, clay, paper, etc.).

A craving for substances not normally considered to be nutrients. The curious behaviour of some pregnant women who crave for ice (pagophagia) or eat mouthfuls of clay (geophagia) may be caused by a real need for extra minerals, especially iron and zinc. If pica is due to a mineral deficiency, it clears up very quickly after the appropriate mineral supplement is taken.

Definition

Pica is the persistent craving and compulsive eating of non-food substances.

Description

The puzzling phenomenon of pica has been recognized and described since ancient times. Pica has been observed in ethnic groups worldwide, in both primitive and modernized cultures, in both sexes, and in all age groups. The word pica comes from the Latin name for magpie, a bird known for its unusual and indiscriminate eating habits. In addition to humans, pica has been observed in other animals, including the chimpanzee.

Demographics

True pica affects people of all ages, although it is more common in children. There are some regional variations concerning specific substances. For example, eating clay is more prevalent among women in the American southeast than in other areas of the country. Adolescents may chew ice due to peer pressure or because they are deficient in iron. Without a blood test for serum iron, there is no way to differentiate these causes.

Causes and Symptoms

Pica in humans has many different subgroups, defined by the substance that is ingested. Some of the most commonly described types of pica are eating earth, soil, or clay (geophagia); ice (pagophagia); and starch (amylophagia). However, pica involving dozens of other substances, including cigarette butts and ashes, hair, paint chips, and paper have also been reported.

Although pica can occur in individuals of any background, a higher incidence of pica is associated with:

  • pregnancy
  • developmental disabilities
  • mental retardation
  • psychiatric disease and autism
  • early childhood (under age three)
  • poor nutrition or low blood levels of iron and other minerals
  • certain cultural or religious traditions

When to Call the Doctor

A health care professional should be consulted whenever a child over the age of three repeatedly ingests non-food substances for a period over one month. The behavior might be merely habitual, but it can become a compulsion that needs treatment.

Diagnosis

In order for the diagnosis of pica to be made, there must be a history of persistent consumption of a non-food substance continuing for a minimum period of one month. Infants and toddlers are typically excluded from this diagnosis since mouthing objects is a normal developmental behavior at that age. Individuals with mental retardation who function at or below an approximate cognitive level of 18 months may also be exempt from this diagnosis.

Pica is most often diagnosed when a report of such behaviors can be provided by an individual or documented by another person. In other cases, pica is diagnosed after studies have been performed to assess the presenting symptoms. For example, imaging studies ordered to assess severe gastrointestinal complaints may reveal intestinal blockage with an opaque substance; such a finding is suggestive of pica. Biopsy of intestinal contents can also reveal findings, such as parasitic infection, consistent with pica. Pica may also be suspected if abnormal levels of certain minerals or chemicals are detected in the blood.

Treatment

Treatment of pica will often depend on the cause and type of pica. Conventional medical treatment may be appropriate in certain situations. For example, supplementation with iron-containing vitamins has been shown to cause the unusual cravings to subside in some iron-deficient people.

Medical complications and health threats, including high lead levels, bowel perforation or intestinal obstruction, will require additional medical management, beyond addressing the underlying issue of pica.

Because most cases of pica do not have an obvious medical cause, treatment with counseling, education, and nutritional management is often more successful and more appropriate than treatment with medication. Some therapists specializing in eating disorders may have expertise in treating pica.

Prognosis

The prognosis for individuals with pica varies greatly, according to the type and amount of substance ingested, the extent of presenting side effects, and the success of treatment. Many of the side effects and complications of pica can be reversed once the behavior is stopped, while other complications, including infection and bowel perforation, pose significant health threats and if not successfully treated may result in death.

When seen in children, pica behavior tends to lessen with age. However, individuals with a history of pica are more likely to experience it again. Counseling and nutritional education can reduce the risk of recurrence.

Prevention

There are no known methods of preventing pica. However, once pica is known or suspected, measures can be taken to reduce further ingestion of non-food substances. Removing the particular substance from readily accessible areas can be helpful. Close observation of the individual with pica may limit inappropriate eating behaviors.

Nutritional Concerns

Pica may be a symptom of an underlying nutritional deficiency. Correcting the deficiency usually stops the pica.

Parental Concerns

Parents should monitor the food and other substances that their children eat. Repeated ingestion of non-food substances may be cause for concern. An evaluation by a pediatrician is recommended in such circumstances. Parents should be especially careful of children who eat paint chips, because this can cause lead poisoning if the paint is from an older home in which lead paint was used.

Resources

Books

Heird, William C. "Food Insecurity, Hunger and Undernutrition." In Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 17th ed. Ed. by Richard E. Behrman, et al., Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003, 167-172.

Matthews, Dawn D. Eating Disorders SourceBook Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, Incorporated, 2001.

Walsh, B. Timothy. "Eating Disorders." In Harrison'sPrinciples of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. Ed. by Eugene Braunwald et al., New York, McGraw Hill, 2001, 486-90.

West, Delia S. "Eating Disorders." In Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Ed. by Lee Goldman, et al. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003, 1336–8.

Periodicals

Dreyer MJ, Chaushev PG, and Gledhill RF. "Biochemical investigations in geophagia." Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 97, no. 1 (2004): 48-53.

Kuhn DE and Matson JL. "Assessment of feeding and mealtime behavior problems in persons with mental retardation." Behavior Modification 28, no. 5 (2004): 638–48.

Lavoie PM and Bailey B. "Lead poisoning from "lead-free" paint." Canadian Medical Association Journal 170, no. 6 (2004): 956–8.

Moya J, Bearer CF, and Etzel RA. "Children's behavior and physiology and how it affects exposure to environmental contaminants." Pediatrics 113, no. 4 Supplement (2004): 996–1006.

Organizations

National Eating Disorders Organization (NEDO). 6655 South Yale Ave, Tulsa, OK 74136. (918) 481-4044. Hotline: (800) 931.2237. Web site: www.NationalEatingDisorders.org.

Other

"Children and Eating Disorders." Vanderbilt University. Available online at www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/childrenandED.html.

"Eating Disorder: Pica." eMedicine. Available online at www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1798.htm.

"Eating Disorders." Encyclopedia.Com. Available online at www.encyclopedia.com/html/e1/eatingdi.asp.

"Pica." Web MD Health. Available online at .

[Article by: L. Fleming Fallon, Jr., MD, DrPH]



Science Q&A:

What is pica?

Top

Pica refers to the craving for unnatural or non-nutritious substances. It is named after the magpie (Pica pica), which has a reputation for sticking its beak into all kinds of things to satisfy its hunger or curiosity. It can happen in both sexes, all races, and in all parts of the world, but is especially noted in pregnant women.

Previous question: How was Mr. Yuk, the symbol for dangerous or poisonous products, developed?
Next question: Who is generally regarded as the father of medicine?



The craving of non-food substances. Pica occurs occasionally during pregnancy and in infants.

(pī'kə)
n

A persistent, pathologic desire to eat nonfood items such as paper or dirt.

Random House Word Menu:

categories related to 'pica'

Top
Random House Word Menu by Stephen Glazier
For a list of words related to pica, see:
  • Afflictions and Conditions - pica: abnormal craving for unnatural foods due to nutritional deficiencies
  • Special Measures - pica: unit of measure in typography equal to one-sixth inch or 12 points
  • Printing and Typefaces - pica: letter size measuring ten characters per inch; unit of measure equal to twelve points or 1/6 of an inch


Top
Pica
Classification and external resources

Stomach contents of a psychiatric inpatient with pica
ICD-10 F50.8, F98.3
ICD-9 307.52
DiseasesDB 29704
eMedicine ped/1798
MeSH D010842

Pica (pron.: /ˈpkə/ PY-kə) is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as clay, chalk, dirt, or sand.[1] For these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. There are different variations of pica, as it can be from a cultural tradition, acquired taste or a neurological mechanism such as an iron deficiency, or chemical imbalance. It can lead to intoxication in children which can result in an impairment in both physical and mental development.[2] In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies and parasitosis.[2] Pica has been linked to mental disorders and they often have psychotic comorbidity. Stressors such as maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, poverty, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica.[citation needed]

Pica is more commonly seen in women and children,[3] where it affects people of all ages in these subgroups. Particularly it is seen in pregnant women, small children, and those with developmental disabilities such as autism. Children eating painted plaster containing lead may suffer brain damage from lead poisoning. There is a similar risk from eating dirt near roads that existed prior to the phaseout of tetraethyllead in petrol (in some countries) or prior to the cessation of the use of contaminated oil (either used or containing toxic PCBs or dioxin) to settle dust. In addition to poisoning, there is also a much greater risk of gastro-intestinal obstruction or tearing in the stomach.[4][unreliable medical source?] Another risk of dirt-eating is the ingestion of animal feces and accompanying parasites. Pica can also be found in other animals and is most commonly found in dogs.[citation needed]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Chalky stone composed of kaolinite with traces of quartz ingested by a person with pica.

Pica is the consumption of substances with no significant nutritive value such as earth or ice.[1] Subtypes are characterized by the substance eaten for example:

This pattern of eating should last at least one month to fit the diagnosis of pica.[7]

Complications

Complications may occur due to the substance consumed. For example lead poisoning may result from the ingestion of paint or paint-soaked plaster, hairballs may cause intestinal obstruction and Toxoplasma or Toxocara infections may follow ingestion of feces or dirt.[8]

Diagnosis

There is no single test that confirms pica. However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition (malnutrition), the health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc. Hemoglobin can also be checked to test for anemia. Lead levels should always be checked in children who may have eaten paint or objects covered in lead-paint dust. The health care provider should test for infection if the person has been eating contaminated soil or animal waste.[7]

DSM

  1. Persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month[9]
  2. Does not meet the criteria for either having autism, schizophrenia, or Kleine-Levin syndrome.[8]
  3. The eating behavior is not culturally sanctioned[9]
  4. If the eating behavior occurs exclusively during the course of another mental disorder (e.g., intellectual disability, pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia), it is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention.[9]

Differential diagnosis

In individuals with autism, schizophrenia, and certain physical disorders (such as Kleine-Levin syndrome), nonnutritive substances may be eaten. In such instances, Pica should not be noted as an additional diagnosis.[8]

Causes

The scant research that has been done on the causes of pica suggests that the disorder is a specific appetite caused by mineral deficiency in many cases, such as iron deficiency, which sometimes is a result of celiac disease[3] or hookworm infection.[10] Often the substance eaten by someone with pica contains the mineral in which that individual is deficient.[11] More recently, cases of pica have been tied to the obsessive–compulsive spectrum, and there is a move to consider OCD in the etiology of pica.[12] However, pica is currently recognized as a mental disorder by the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Sensory, physiological, cultural and psychosocial perspectives have also been used by some to explain the causation of pica.

It has been proposed that mental-health conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, can sometimes cause pica.[13]

However, pica can also be a cultural practice not associated with a deficiency or disorder. Ingestion of kaolin (white dirt) among African-American women in the US state of Georgia shows the practice there to be a DSM-IV "culture-bound syndrome" and "not selectively associated with other psychopathology".[14] Similar kaolin ingestion is also widespread in parts of Africa.[15] Such practices may stem from health benefits such as the ability of clay to absorb plant toxins and protect against toxic alkaloids and tannic acids.[16]

Treatment

Treatment for pica may vary by patient and suspected cause (e.g., child, developmentally disabled, pregnant or psychotic) and may emphasize psychosocial, environmental and family-guidance approaches, (iron deficiency) may be treatable though iron supplement through dietary changes. An initial approach often involves screening for and, if necessary, treating any mineral deficiencies or other comorbid conditions.[3] For pica that appears to be of psychotic etiology, therapy and medication such as SSRIs have been used successfully.[17] However, previous reports have cautioned against the use of medication until all non-psychotic etiologies have been ruled out.[18]

Looking back at the different causes of Pica related to assessment, the clinician will try to develop a treatment. First, there is Pica as a result of social attention. A strategy might be used of ignoring the person’s behavior or giving them the least possible attention. If their Pica is a result of obtaining a favorite item, a strategy may be used where the person is able to receive the item or activity without eating inedible items. The individual’s communication skills should increase so that they can relate what they want to another person without engaging in this behavior. If Pica is a way for a person to escape an activity or situation, the reason why the person wants to escape the activity should be examined and the person should be moved to a new situation. If Pica is motivated by sensory feedback, an alternative method of feeling that sensation should be provided. Other non-medication techniques might include other ways for oral stimulation such as gum. Foods such as popcorn have also been found helpful. These things can be placed in a “Pica Box” which should be easily accessible to the individual when they feel like engaging in Pica.[2]

Behavior-based treatment options can be useful for developmentally disabled and mentally ill individuals with pica. These may involve using positive reinforcement normal behavior. Many use aversion therapy, where the patient learns through positive reinforcement which foods are good and which ones they should not eat. Often treatment is similar to the treatment of obsessive compulsive or addictive disorders (such as exposure therapy). In some cases treatment is as simple as addressing the fact they have this disorder and why they may have it. A recent study classified nine such classes of behavioral intervention: Success with treatment is generally high and generally fades with age, but it varies depending on the cause of the disorder. Developmental causes tend to have a lower success rate. Pregnancy craving causes tend to have higher success rates.[19]

Treatment techniques include:[2]

  • Presentation of attention, food or toys, not contingent on pica being attempted
  • Differential reinforcement, with positive reinforcement if pica is not attempted and consequences if pica is attempted
  • Discrimination training between edible and inedible items, with negative consequences if pica is attempted
  • Visual screening, with eyes covered for a short time after pica is attempted
  • Aversive presentation, contingent on pica being attempted:
  1. oral taste (e.g., lemon)
  2. smell sensation (e.g., ammonia)
  3. physical sensation (e.g., water mist in face)
  • Physical restraint:
  1. self-protection devices that prohibit placement of objects in the mouth
  2. brief restraint contingent on pica being attempted
  3. Time-out contingent on pica being attempted
  4. Overcorrection, with attempted pica resulting in required washing of self, disposal of nonedible objects and chore-based punishment
  5. Negative practice (non-edible object held against patient's mouth without allowing ingestion)

Epidemiology

The prevalence of pica is difficult to establish because of differences in definition and the reluctance of patients to admit to abnormal cravings and ingestion.[2] Thusly leading to the prevalence recordings of pica being in the range of 8% and 65% depending on the study.[1] A study published in 1994 found that 8.1% of pregnant African-American women in the United States self-reported pagophagia, the ingestion of large quantities of ice and freezer frost.[20] A study conducted in 1991 found a prevalence of pica in 8.8% of pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.[21] Rates of pica among pregnant women in developing countries, however, can be much higher, with estimates of 63.7%[22] and 74.0%[23] reported for two different African populations. This is due to different cultural norms as well as greater levels of malnutrition. Two studies of mentally retarded adults living in institutions found that 21.8%[24] and 25.8%[25] of these groups suffered from pica. Prevalence rates for children with and without developmental disabilities are unknown.

History

The term pica originates from the Latin word for magpie, a bird that is reputed because of their unusual eating behaviors where they are known to eat almost anything.[26] In 13th century Latin work, pica was referenced by the Greeks and Romans; however, it was not addressed in medical texts until 1563.[3] In the southern United States in the 1800s, geophagia was a common practice among the slave population.[3] Geophagia is a form of pica in which the person consumes earthly substances such as clay, and is particularly prevalent to augment a mineral-deficient diet.[27] Research on eating disorders in the 16th century to the 20th century suggests that during that time in history, pica was regarded more as a symptom of other disorders rather than its own specific disorder. Even today, what can be classified as pica behavior is a normative practice in some cultures as part of magical beliefs, healing methods, or religious ceremonies.[3]

In other animals

Unlike in humans, pica in dogs or cats may be a sign of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, especially when it involves eating substances such as tile grout, concrete dust and sand. Dogs exhibiting this form of pica should be tested for anemia with a CBC or at least hematocrit levels.[28][29] However since it may be an evolved natural mechanism to increase micronutrient levels this type of geophagia may not be accurately described as pica since it is not actually a diseased behaviour.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c López, LB; Ortega Soler, CR, de Portela, ML (2004 Mar). "Pica during pregnancy: a frequently underestimated problem". Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion 54 (1): 17–24. PMID 15332352.
  2. ^ a b c d e Blinder, Barton, J.; Salama, C. (may 2008). "An update on Pica: prevelance, contributing causes, and treatment". Psychiatric Times 25 (6).
  3. ^ a b c d e f Rose, E. A., Porcerelli, J. H., & Neale, A. V. (2000). "Pica: Common but commonly missed". The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 13 (5): 353–8. PMID 11001006.
  4. ^ Karl, Peter (11 April 2011). "Comfort food: The woman who suffers from a rare disorder that means she cannot stop herself from eating... sofas". London: Daily Mail Online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1375586/Comfort-food-The-woman-stop-eating-sofas.html. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  5. ^ Somalwar, Ashutosh; Keyur Kishor Dave (March 2011). "Lithophagia: Pebbles in and Pebbles out". Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 59: 170. http://japi.org/march_2011/article_07.pdf. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  6. ^ Why Kenyan women crave stones BBC News
  7. ^ a b Pica New York Times Health Guide
  8. ^ a b c [Spitzer, Robert L. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: (DSM III). Cambridge: Univ. of Cambridge, 1986. Print.]
  9. ^ a b c Susic MA licensed psychologist, Paul. "Pica Sympotms and DSV-IV Overview". psychtreatment.com. http://www.psychtreatment.com/mental_health_pica.htm. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  10. ^ William Hepburn Russell Lumsden, ed. (1979). Advances in parasitology, Volume 17. Academic Press. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-12-031717-2. http://books.google.com/?id=ZIxHuhf_MEcC&pg=PA337&dq=pica+hookworm#v=onepage&q=pica%20hookworm&f=false.
  11. ^ Sayetta RB: Pica: an overview. Am Fam Physician 1986;7:174-5.
  12. ^ Hergüner, S., Ozyildirim, I., & Tanidir, C. (2008). "Is Pica an eating disorder or an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder?". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 32 (8): 2010–1. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.09.011. PMID 18848964.
  13. ^ Gull WW: Anorexia nervosa (apepsia hysterica, anorexia hysterica). Tras.Clin.Soc.Lond.1874;7:22
  14. ^ R. Kevin Grigsby, et al. "Chalk Eating in Middle Georgia: a Culture-Bound Syndrome of Pica?" Southern Medical Journal. 92.2 (February 1999). pp.190-192.
  15. ^ Franklin Kamtche. "Balengou : autour des mines." (Balengou : around the mines) Le Jour. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010. (French)
  16. ^ Marc Lallanilla. "Eating Dirt: It Might Be Good for You." ABC News. 3 October 2005. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  17. ^ Bhatia, M. S., & Gupta, R. (2007-05-11). "Pica responding to SSRI: An OCD spectrum disorder?". The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. Online publication ahead of print. PMID 17853279
  18. ^ Fotoulaki, M., Panagopoulou, P., Efstratiou, I., & Nousia-Arvanitakis, S. (2007). "Pitfalls in the approach to pica". European Journal of Pediatrics 166 (6): 623–4. doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0282-1. PMID 17008997.
  19. ^ McAdam, D.B., Sherman, J.A., Sheldon, J.B., & Napolitano, D.A. (2004). "Behavioral interventions to reduce the pica of persons with developmental disabilities". Behavior Modification 28 (1): 45–72. doi:10.1177/0145445503259219. PMID 14710707.
  20. ^ Edwards, C. H., Johnson, A. A., Knight, E. M., Oyemade, U. J. et al. (1994). "Pica in an urban environment". The Journal of Nutrition 124 (6 Suppl): 954S–962S. PMID 8201446.
  21. ^ al-Kanhal, M. A., & Bani, I. A. (1995). "Food habits during pregnancy among Saudi women". International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 65 (3): 206–10. PMID 8830001.
  22. ^ Nyaruhucha, C.N. (2009). "Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania". Tanzania Journal of Health Research 11 (1): 29–34. PMID 19445102.
  23. ^ Ngozi, P.O. (2008). "Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya". East African Medical Journal 85 (2): 72–9. PMID 18557250.
  24. ^ Ashworth, M., Hirdes, J.P., & Martin, L. (2009). "The social and recreational characteristics of adults with intellectual disability and pica living in institutions". Research in Developmental Disabilities 30 (3): 512–20. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2008.07.010. PMID 18789647.
  25. ^ Danford, D.E., & Huber, A.M. (1982). "Pica among mentally retarded adults". American Journal of Mental Deficiency 87 (2): 141–6. PMID 7124824.
  26. ^ Thyer, Bruce A.; Wodarski, John S (2007). Social work in mental health: an evidence-based approach. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 133. ISBN 0-471-69304-9, ISBN 978-0-471-69304-8.
  27. ^ "geophagy". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/geophagy?show=0&t=1320448115. Retrieved 11/4/11.
  28. ^ Plunkett, Signe J. (2000). Emergency Procedures for the Small Animal Veterinarian. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 11. ISBN 0-7020-2487-2.
  29. ^ Feldman, Bernard F.; Joseph G. Zinkl, Nemi Chand Jain, Oscar William Schalm (2000). Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 506. ISBN 0-683-30692-8.

External links


Top

Dansk (Danish)
1.
n. - måleenhed for skrifttypestørrelse og linjelængde

2.
n. - pica

Nederlands (Dutch)
pica (typografische eenheid), cicero (drukletter), drang om oneetbare substanties te eten

Français (French)
1.
n. - (Imprim) cicéro

2.
n. - (Méd) pica

Deutsch (German)
1.
n. - Pica (Schriftgrad)

2.
n. - Pika (unnatürliches Eßgelüst)

Ελληνική (Greek)
n. - (τυπογρ.) στοιχείο των 12 στιγμών, "δωδεκάρι"

Italiano (Italian)
corpo tipografico, corpo 12

Português (Portuguese)
n. - paica (f), pica (f) (Med.)

Русский (Russian)
цицеро

Español (Spanish)
1.
n. - pica, císero

2.
n. - pica, malacia

Svenska (Swedish)
n. - 12 punkt stilrad, typstorlek (boktr.)

中文(简体)(Chinese (Simplified))
1. 12磅因的活字, 打字机之字体

2. 异食癖

中文(繁體)(Chinese (Traditional))
1.
n. - 12磅因的活字, 打字機之字體

2.
n. - 異食癖

한국어 (Korean)
1.
n. - 파이카(12 포인트 활자, 타이프에 씀), 예식 규칙집

2.
n. - 이식증

日本語 (Japanese)
n. - パイカ

العربيه (Arabic)
‏(الاسم) حرف مطبعي من حجم إثنى عشر بنطا‏

עברית (Hebrew)
n. - ‮יחידת-מידה לאות דפוס (5.4 מ"מ), 01 אותיות לאינטש בהקלדה, תיאבון מעוות (לדברים לא אכילים)‬
n. - ‮תיאבון מעוות (לדברים לא אכילים)‬


Post a question - any question - to the WikiAnswers community:

Copyrights: