From a farming family, Virchow studied chemistry in Berlin at the Military Academy of Prussia on a scholarship. When he graduated in 1842 he went to serve as Robert Froriep… 's assistant. One of his major contributions to German medical education was to encourage the use of microscopes by medical students and was known for constantly urging his students to 'think microscopically'. The campus where this CharitÃ© hospital is located is named after him, the Campus Virchow Klinikum..
Virchow is credited with multiple important discoveries. Although he and Theodor Schwann are not mentioned together, his most widely known is indeed his cell theory. He is cited as the first to recognize leukemia cells. However, he is perhaps best known for his theory Omnis cellula e cellula ("every cell originates from another existing cell like it.") which he published in 1858. (The epigram was actually coined by FranÃ§ois-Vincent Raspail but popularized by Virchow).  It is a rejection of the concept of spontaneous generation, which held that organisms could arise from non-living matter. It was believed, for example, that maggots could spontaneously appear in decaying meat; Francesco Redi carried out experiments which disproved this. Redi's work gave rise to the maxim Omne vivum ex ovo ("every living thing comes from a living thing" [literally, "from an egg"]), Virchow (and his predecessors) extended this to state that the only source for a living cell was another living cell..
Another significant credit relates to the discovery, made approximately simultaneously by Virchow and Charles Emile Troisier , that an enlarged left supra-clavicular node is one of the earliest signs of gastrointestinal malignancy, commonly of the stomach, or less commonly, lung cancer. This has become known as Virchow's node and simultaneously Troisier's sign ..
Virchow is also famous for elucidating the mechanism of pulmonary thromboembolism , coining the term embolism . He noted that blood clots in the pulmonary artery originate first from venous thrombi, stating: "The detachment of larger or smaller fragments from the end of the softening thrombus which are carried along by the current of blood and driven into remote vessels. This gives rise to the very frequent process on which I have bestowed the name of Embolia." Related to this research, Virchow described the factors contributing to venous thrombosis, Virchow's triad ..
Furthermore, Virchow founded the medical disciplines of cellular pathology and comparative pathology (comparison of diseases common to humans and animals ). His very innovative work may be viewed as sitting between that of Morgagni whose work Virchow studied, and that of Paul Ehrlich , who studied at the CharitÃ© while Virchow was developing microscopic pathology there..
Rudolph Virchow, by Hugo Vogel.
In 1869 he founded the Society for anthropology, ethnology and prehistory (Gesellschaft fÃ¼r Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte) which was very influential in coordinating and intensifying German archaeological research. In 1885 he launched a study of craniometry , which gave surprising results according to contemporary scientific racist theories on the " Aryan race ", leading him to denounce the " Nordic mysticism" in the 1885 Anthropology Congress in Karlsruhe . Josef Kollmann , a collaborator of Virchow, stated in the same congress that the people of Europe, be them German, Italian, English or French, belonged to a "mixture of various races," furthermore declaring that the "results of craniology" led to "struggle against any theory concerning the superiority of this or that European race" on others .  .
In 1892 he was awarded the Copley Medal ..
He was a very prolific writer. Some of his works are:.
Mittheilungen Ã¼ber die in Oberschlesien herrschende Typhus-Epidemie , (1848) .
Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer BegrÃ¼ndung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre. , (1858), English translation, (1860) .
Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie , (1854-62) .
Vorlesungen Ã¼ber Pathologie , (1862-72) .
Die krankhaften GeschwÃ¼lste , (1863-67) .
Gegen den Antisemitismus , (1880) .
He also developed a standard method of autopsy procedure, named for him, that is still one of the two main techniques used today. More than a laboratory physician, Virchow was an impassioned advocate for social and political reform, stating that physicians should act as "attorneys for the poor." His views are evident in his "Report on the Typhus Outbreak of Upper Silesia (1848), "writing that the outbreak could not be solved by treating individual patients with drugs or with minor changes in food, housing, or clothing laws, but only through radical action to promote the advancement of an entire population.  He is widely regarded as a pioneer of social medicine .  and anthropology."  .
[ edit ] Hostility toward antiseptics .
Despite these many accomplishments in medicine, Virchow's reputation is blackened by his rejection of and hostility towards the theory that bacteria cause disease. His attacks on Ignaz Semmelweis 's advocacy of antisepsis delayed the use of antiseptics.  .
He died from a hip fracture that he sustained falling from a train. Virchow was buried in the St MatthÃ¤us Kirchhof Cemetery in SchÃ¶neberg , Berlin ..
[ edit ] Medical terms .
Virchow's angle - The angle between the nasobasilar line and the nasosubnasal line. .
Virchow's disease - leontiasis ossium. .
Virchow's line - a line from the root of the nose to the lambda. .
Virchow's method of autopsy - A method of autopsy where each organ is taken out one by one. Other methods are Letulle's method, where they are taken out en bloc , Rokitansky's method, where they are examined in situ , and Ghon's method where they are usually taken out in three separate blocks - a cervical block, a thoracic block and an abdominopelvic block. .
Virchow's cell - macrophage in Hansen's disease . .
Virchow's gland - Virchow's node . .
Virchow's psamomma - psamomma bodies in meningiomas . .
Virchow's metamorphosis - lipomatosis in the heart and salivary glands . .
Virchow's concept of pathology - comparison of diseases common to humans and animals. .
Virchow's cell theory - "omnis cellula e cellula" - every living cell comes from another living cell. .
Virchow's Law - during craniosynostosis , skull growth is restricted to a plane perpendicular to the affected, prematurely fused suture and is enhanced in a plane parallel to it. .
Virchow's node - the presence of metastatic cancer in a lymph-node in the supraclavicular fossa (root of the neck left of the midline). Also known as Troisier's sign . .
Virchow's triad - factors contributing toward venous thrombus formation. .
Source ;; Dorland's Medical Dictionary (1938) .
[ edit ] Political career .
Virchow also worked as a politician (member of the Berlin City Council, the Prussian parliament since 1861, German Reichstag 1880-1893) to improve the health care conditions for the Berlin citizens, namely working towards modern water and sewer systems. Virchow is also credited with the founding of " Social Medicine ", frequently focusing on the fact that disease is never purely biological, but often, socially derived. As a co-founder and member of the liberal party ( Deutschen Fortschrittspartei ) he was a leading political antagonist of Bismarck ..
It is said (though not confirmed) that Otto von Bismarck challenged Rudolf Virchow to a duel. Virchow, as the challenged party had the choice of weapons; he chose two sausages, one of which had been inoculated with cholera . Bismarck is said to have called off the duel at once.  .
One area where he co-operated with Bismarck was in the Kulturkampf , the anti-clerical campaign against the Catholic Church  claiming that the anti-clerical laws bore "the character of a great struggle in the interest of humanity".  It was during the discussion of Falk's May Laws (Maigesetze) that Virchow first used the term.  .
Virchow was respected in Masonic circles,  and according to one source  may have been a freemason, though no official record of this has been found..
The Society for Medical Anthropology gives an annual award in Virchow's name, Rudolph Virchow Award ..
[ edit ] References .
^ Tan SY, Brown J (July 2006). " Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902): "pope of pathology" " (PDF). Singapore Med J 47 (7): 567-8. PMID 16810425 . http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4707/4707ms1.pdf . .
^ Andrea Orsucci, " Ariani, indogermani, stirpi mediterranee: aspetti del dibattito sulle razze europee (1870-1914) , Cromohs , 1998 (Italian) .
^ http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/full/96/12/2102 .
^ http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/full/96/12/2104 .
^ Rx for Survival . Global Health Champions . Paul Farmer, MD, PhD | PBS at www.pbs.org .
^ HighBeam Encyclopedia http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1B1-382053.html .
^ Isaac Asimov , Treasury of Humor , page 202. .
^ "This anti-Catholic crusade was also taken up by the Progressives, especially Rudolf Virchow, though Richter himself was tepid in his occasional support." Authentic German Liberalism of the 19th Century by Ralph Raico .
^ "The term came into use in 1873, when the scientist and Prussian liberal statesman Rudolf Virchow declared that the battle with the Roman Catholics was assuming "the character of a great struggle in the interest of humanity."" from Kulturkampf . (2006). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 25, 2006, from EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica .
^ A leading German school teacher, Rudolf Virchow, characterized Bismarck's struggle with the Catholic Church as a Kulturkampf - a fight for culture - by which Virchow meant a fight for liberal, rational principles against the dead weight of medieval traditionalism, obscurantism, and authoritarianism." from The Triumph of Civilization by Norman D. Livergood and "Kulturkampf \Kul*tur"kampf`\, n. [G., fr. kultur, cultur, culture + kampf fight.] (Ger. Hist.) Lit., culture war; - a name, originating with Virchow (1821 - 1902), given to a struggle between the Roman Catholic Church and the German government" Kulturkampf in freedict.co.uk .
^ "Rizal's Berlin associates, or perhaps the word "patrons" would give their relation better, were men as esteemed in Masonry as they were eminent in the scientific world--Virchow, for example." in JOSE RIZAL AS A MASON by AUSTIN CRAIG, The Builder Magazine, August 1916 - Volume II - Number 8 .
^ "It was a heady atmosphere for the young Brother, and Masons in Germany, Dr. Rudolf Virchow and Dr. Feodor Jagor, were instrumental in his becoming a member of the Berlin Ethnological and Anthropological Societies." From Dimasalang: The Masonic Life Of Dr. Jose P. Rizal By Reynold S. Fajardo, 33Â° by Fred Lamar Pearson, Scottish Rite Journal, October 1998 .
[ edit ] Further reading .
Becher, Rudolf Virchow , Berlin, (1891) .
J. L. Pagel, Rudolf Virchow , Leipzig, (1906) .
Erwin H. Ackerknecht, Rudolf Virchow: Doctor, Statesman, Anthropologist , Madison, (1953) .
Virchow, RLK (1978) Cellular pathology. 1859 special ed., 204-207 John Churchill London, UK. .
The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes by TomÃÂ¡s de Comyn at Project Gutenberg , available at Project Gutenburg (co-authored by Virchow with TomÃ¡s Comyn, Fedor Jagor, and Chas Wilkes) .
[ edit ] External links .
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Rudolf Virchow Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rudolf Virchow .
Becher, Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes , available at Project Gutenburg (co-authored by Virchow with TomÃ¡s Comyn, Fedor Jagor, and Chas Wilkes) .
Short biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science .
Students and Publications of Virchow .
A biography of Virchow at Whonamedit.com , including phenomena named after him .
A biography of Virchow by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons that deals with his early work in Cerebrovascular Pathology .
An English translation of the complete 1848 Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia is available in the February 2006 edition of the journal Social Medicine .
Some places and memories related to Rudolf Virchow .
NAME Virchow, Rudolf ALTERNATIVE NAMES Virchow, Rudolf Ludwig Karl; "Father of Pathology" SHORT DESCRIPTION German doctor , anthropologist , public health activist , pathologist , prehistorian , biologist and politician DATE OF BIRTH October 13 , 1821 PLACE OF BIRTH Schivelbein ( Pomerania DATE OF DEATH September 5 , 1902 PLACE OF DEATH Berlin , Germany Retrieved from " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Virchow ". (MORE)