What are some similarities and differences between the methods adopted by Otto van Bismark in the unification of Germany and by Sardar Patel in the unification of India?
Similarities & Differences between the methods adopted by Otto Van Bismark in Unification of Germany & Sardar Patel in Unification of India. Otto Van Bi…smark achieved Unification of Germany Mainly through WAR & little Diplomacy. He first raided Denmark on the issue of succession of duchies of Schleswig & Holstein & defeated it. Then he pressurised Austria to agree to Geastein Convention, although originally, it was proposed that the Diet of the German Confederation should determine the fate of the duchies. When in 1866, Austria reneged on the prior agreement by demanding that the Diet determine the Schleswig-Holstein issue. Bismarck used this as an excuse to start a war against Austria, charging that the Austrians had violated the Convention of Gastein. Austria elong with its allies was defeated, German Confederation was dissolved & Prussia and several other North German states joined the http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/North_German_Confederation in 1867; King Wilhelm I served as its President, and Bismarck as its Chancellor. http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Prussia's victory over Austria increased tensions with France. Bismarck can avoid war with France, but he did not, because he believed that if the German states perceived France as the aggressor, they would unite behind the King of Prussia. To achieve this goal he rather provoked alrady agitated France (on the issue of Spanish thorne) by publishing the http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Ems_Dispatch, a carefully edited version of a conversation between King Wilhelm and the French ambassador to Prussia, Count Benedetti in Paris. Things happened as expected by him, France declared war on http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/July_19. Prussian army defeated France. France was seen as the aggressor and All the Southern German states united behined Prussia & thus the goal of unification of Germany achieved. In his later years Bismarck claimed that Prussia's wars against Austria and France had come about through his manipulation of surrounding states according to his "master plan". However some historians such as Briton http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/A.J.P._Taylor claimed Bismarck to be a "flawed leader with little control of events." Bismarck's greatest talent as a statesman, was the skill with which he merely reacted to events as they unfolded and turned them to his advantage. Sardar Patel with the help of V.P. Menon United India mainly through diplomatic means & judicious use of force when needed. On http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/May_6 http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/1947, Sardar Patel and http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/V._P._Menon, the chief secretary of the States Ministry, began lobbying the princes, attempting to make them receptive towards dialogue with the future Government and trying to forestall potential conflicts. Patel used social meetings and unofficial surroundings to engage most monarchs, inviting them to lunch and tea at his home in http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Delhi. At these meetings, Patel stated that there was no inherent conflict between the Congress and the princely order. Nonetheless, he stressed that the princes would need to accede to India in good faith by http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/August_15 http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/1947. Patel invoked the patriotism of India's monarchs, asking them to join in the freedom of their nation and act as responsible rulers who cared about the future of their people. He persuaded the princes of 565 states of the impossibility of independence from the Indian republic, especially in the presence of growing opposition from their subjects. He proposed favourable terms for the merger, including creation of http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Privy_Purse_in_India for the descendants of the rulers. While encouraging the rulers to act with patriotism, Patel did not rule out use of force, setting a deadline of http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/August_15 http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/1947 for them to sign the instrument of accession document. All but three of the states (http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Jammu_and_Kashmir, http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Junagadh, and http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Hyderabad_state) willingly merged into the Indian union. The states of Junagadh & Hyderabad was resolved with the help of miltary action combined with diplomacy. Maharaja Harisingh of Kashmir asking for military assistance & offering an http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Instrument_of_Accession_(Jammu_and_Kashmir) when phttp://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Pathan tribesmen from the http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/North-West_Frontier_Province of Pakistan crossed the border and entered Kashmir in 1957. Finally, the Government of India through a combination of http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Diplomatic and http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/Military means acquired http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/De_facto and http://wiki.answers.com/wiki/De_jure control over the remaining colonial enclaves, which too were integrated into India. (MORE)