Are stars the closest to earth?
Those that are closest are the closest stars to earth. The champion closest star ...
the closest of all of them ... is the sun. Coming in at a distant second place, the next
closest star is 278 thousand times farther from earth than the sun is.
The moon is the closest of these to the earth. It is 400 times closer to the earth than the sun, the second closest thing to the earth from your list. The third would be other stars besides our sun. The next nearest star (Proxima Centauri) is about 272 thousand times as far from earth as our sun is. Those stars may or may not be arranged in constellations, which are simply configurations of stars…
Our own Sun is the closest, of course. Beyond that, the next closest star is the red dwarf Proxima Centauri, which is too dim to see with the naked eye, at 4.2 light years. Next closest are the two stars in the Alpha Centauri system, at 4.5 LY. See the link below for the list of nearer stars. The closest really bright star is Sirius A.
The closest galaxy has to be the one we call the "Milky Way", since the sun is one of the stars in it, and we and our whole solar system are inside it. The next closest is the one we call the "Andromeda Galaxy" because we see it among the stars of the "Andromeda" constellation. It's something like 2.5 million light years distant from us.
Yes, stars are relatively much more bigger than our earth. Sun, is the closest star to the earth. Sun's diameter is around 109 times that of the earth. Sun is one of the medium sized stars. We cannot imagine the size of the red giants like Aldebaran , Betelgeuse , etc. They are much more larger and massive than the sun also.
The Sun is technically "the nearest star to earth." Proxima Centauri, at about 4 light-years from our solar system, is otherwise the closest star. Alpha Centauri is a triple star system that is closest to Earth. The closest star of the three is a red dwarf called Proxima Centauri. The other two stars form a binary system about 3% farther away.
That's the result of Earth moving around the Sun, in its orbit. The distance Earth moves (a total of about 300 million kilometers) is rather puny compared to the distance to the stars, so the corresponding apparent movement (known as "parallax") of even the closest star will be less than one arc-second, i.e., less than 1/3600 of a degree.