Can one install solar panels into electronic devices example having a built in solar panel on the front cover of a laptop. without it damaging the hardware?

Very thin solar panels are available these days, some are even flexible and suitable for adhesive application so installing the panel is not a great problem. However you still have the problem of electrical connection. You would need to connect to the equipment and regulate the voltage so that you don't overcharge the battey (if present like a laptop) and/or apply excess voltage to the equipment. Definitely something where you need a decent working knowledge of electronics if you can't afford to wreck the piece of equipment.