Yes, for instance, try growing a plant under a green light. it will die, as the plant's leaves will reflect all the light, and there will very little energy gained.
Additionally on the ROYGBIV spectrum of light "BIV" has more energy than "ROY" this is why plants are usually colored green-to avoid overheating while still getting the majority of the light. Solar Panels tend to be dark, as black absorbs all light, while white reflects it.
There are 4 pigments in a plant's chlorophyll-2 green and lesser important red and orange. This allows for the plant to get an optimal amount of energy. However, colors of lights still has a great effect-grow lights are just a different spectrum of lights over the plants for optimal growth (mostly purple and blue).