How are convection currents responsible for wind?
It is responsible for the wind because when the atoms have direct contact, the heat gets transfered. So, that causes wind.
The combination of the movement of huge convection currents and the spinning of earth causes regional wind patterns?
Convection currents are responsible for the movement of heat (and mass) within a fluid system. Heat wants to go from where it is to where it isn't. When atoms and or molecules of a fluid (a gas or liquid, for example) are hotter then their companion particles, they are less dense and rise in the fluid. Cooler, more dense groups of atoms or molecules take their place. Convection currents are thus set up, and heat…
What is called a band of very fast wind that is formed by the different temperatures between huge convection currents?
What do these tornadoes with there currents create around the earth to protect it from the suns solar wind?
Temperature. The sun heats different parts of the planet at different rates, and as a result of thermal expansion of gasses convection currents are created in the atmosphere. When combined with the counter-clockwise (eastward) rotation of the earth, these convection currents are responsible for wind patterns on Earth. Keep in mind that if the warm air rises due to thermal expansion, something must take it's place - and cooler air is what rushes in to…
The majority of wind and ocean currents are formed by the uneven heating and cooling of the medium in question. The convection currents which result from this heating and cooling drive the atmospheric patterns of the atmosphere. Specific currents are shaped by the terrain, and many other factors, including the earths rotation.
Surface currents are caused by wind, and affected by the rotation of the Earth and the gravity of the moon (tides). When the oceans are deep, convection within the layers can also affect the flow of currents. * While wind currents are greatly affected by uneven heating of the Earth's surface, there is no corresponding heating of the ocean bottom by the Sun. So currents do not form spontaneously at depth.