How can seismic tomography help scientists find oil deposits?
It helps because seismic tomography is a technique used to look beneath Earth's crust so, they can technically "see" where oil deposits are located.
How can seismic waves be used to help scientists know what type of material each layer of earth is made of?
Scientists cannot warn people yet with an very accurate statement. Scientists are currently studying seismic activity. The best estimate would be to study seismic gaps, foreshocks, changes in rocks, and more. It might give them a possible location and time of the future earthquake. They hope to soon find ways to warn people, but for now they just have to try their best.
A seismograph is used to sense seismic waves in the earth. The seismic waves are sent down by scientist and how fast and how straight the line is when the seismograph reads them is how they tell which mineral or if its a liquid or solid. Which is how they know about the inner and outter core, and the mantel.
New deposits of oil are becoming more difficult to find. Geologists and geophysicists work together to identify where oil is most likely to be found. If an exploration well is successful, this increases the chances that other fields in the same area may contain oil. The science of discovering new deposits of oil often relies on sophisticated analysis of seismic signals.
Only one segment of inner earth is theorized to be liquid. This segment is known as the outer core. Scientists suspect that the outer core is liquid because of its interaction with seismic waves. A type of seismic wave known as an "S" wave or Shear wave moves side-to-side in a shearing motion and does not propagate through liquid only through solid.
I have included an excellent link. The geologist identifies the areas where hydrocarbons should exist from their understanding of regional trends. Existing wells provide vital information. The geophysicist uses sound waves (seismic studies) to find the structures that likely contain hydrocarbons. You may find more information in the internet on the use of seismic technology in the exploration of oil deposits. It is a critical technology today to find new deposits. The five necessary elements…
Scientists can often find clues about past eruptions by studying the deposits left behind. Areas affected by lava flows, debris flows, tephra, or pyroclastic flows can be mapped, making disaster planning more effective. In addition to this type of long-range forecasting, scientists are becoming more and more skilled at spotting the warning signs of an eruption.